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高一 定语从句 讲解


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

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高一 课时:2 小时

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教学目标

1. 复习定量单词,增加词汇量 2. 掌握英语中定语从句的定义和用法 3. 掌握单项选择题的做题方法 单项选择题的解题技巧 家长确认签字

难点重点 作 业

教学内容: 单词复习巩固、单词和短语辨析、定语从句的运用。

一、语法——定语从句 (一)定义及相关术语 1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之 后。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系 词 有 关 系 代 词 和关系副词。关系代 词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等; 关系副 词 when, where, why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。 如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the man, “who”是引导定语从句的关系词,代替先行词 the man,在定语 从句中作主语。 (二)关系代词引导的定语从句 1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博物馆 的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的班长。 3.Which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 4.That 既可以指人也可指物。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观这 座城市的人数达一百万。 Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿? 5.Whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。可翻译出【的】 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. (三)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 注意:1. 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如: look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. 这是我正在找的手表。 The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. 那个保姆照看的小宝宝们 都很健康。 2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用 whom;关系代词指物时只可用 which。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是我的邻居。 The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. 我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。 3.“介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词 或者数词。如: He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母,他们俩待 他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果,有些已 经坏了。 (四)关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents. 你还记得在农村和 你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗? 2.where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 3.why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。如: From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he w anted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时,他就已经知道长大后要做什么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live.他们生活的城市正发生巨大的变 化。 The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒绝接受邀请的原因 是十分明了的。 (五)限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 不用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除, 主句则失去意义或 意 思 表达不完 整。 译法上 译成先行词的定语:“...的” 关系词的使用上 A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用 that C.可用 who 代替 whom 形式上 意义上

非限制性定语从句 用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 只是对先行词的补充说 明,如删除,主句仍能表 达完整的意思。 通常译成主句的并列句。 A.不可省略 B.不用 that C. 不可用 who 代替 whom

限制性定语从句举例: The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是我唯 一的可以依赖的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语从句举例 : His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他,对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立的, 现 在正变得越来越强大。

注意区分下列几组句子的不同含义:
1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上大学。(意含: 她还有其他哥哥。) Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college.

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

她哥哥是当兵的,他总是鼓励她上大学。(意含: 她只有一个哥哥。) 2. All the books that have pictures in them are well written. 所有里面带插图的书都写得很好。(意 含: 不带插图的书则不一定写得好。) All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written.所有的书都带插图, 这些书都写得很好。 (意 含: 没有不带插图的书。) (一)限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况 1.当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing 等不定代词,或当先行词受 no, little, few, much every, any, all, some, 等修饰时。如: Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗? There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么不可能 的事。 2.当先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或被 the very, the only 等词修饰时。如: The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。 This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后,那辆旧车成 了他的唯一拥有。 3.当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如: Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身? 6.当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如: They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能记起的在 校时的人和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他的 毛驴。 (二)关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具体情况是: 1.as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如: He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导 的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。如: As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知,中国是发展中国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人,这一点我们从他的口音可以知道。 注意:当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用 which。如: Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老是迟到, 这使得老师 很恼火。 1. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如: I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 引导的定语从句意思有区 别。如:She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一 条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。 (三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导,而且通常可以省略。如: The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 (四)关系代词与关系副词的选择 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用(即所担当的成分)。 试比较: A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景色优 美而闻名的地方。 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度假 的日子。 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 这就是他向我 解释的他没有参加会议的原因。 (五)but 有时也用作关系词引导定语从句。如: There are very few but admire his talents. 很少有人不赞赏他的才干的。(but = who don’t) (六)定语从句与同位语从句的区别 The news that he told me is true. (定语从句) 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The news that he has just died is true. (同位语从句) 他刚刚去世了,这个消息是真的。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. (定语从句) 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. (同位语从句) 他是否一定会 赢得那场比赛,这个问题很难回答。

定语从句练习题 1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14.I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny


广州新塘教育中心 020-82701158
Guangzhou Xintang Education Center

参考答案: 1. A. which 用作关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。 2.C. "和谁讲话”要说 speak to sb. 本题全句应为 Do you know the man whom I spoke to.。 whom 是关系代词,作介词 to 的宾语,可以省略。 3. D. where 是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 4. C. when 是关系副词,表示时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 5.A. which 是关系代词,在从句中作 forget 的宾语。其他几个答案都不能作宾语。 6.C. 解析同第 5 题。 7. A. 解析见第 3 题。 8. A. 本句话的先行词应该是 films,因此,关系代词 that 是负数概念,其谓语动词应用复述的被 动语态 have been shown。如果句中的 one 前面使用了定冠词 the,则 the one 应该视为先行词。 9. A. “谈到某事物”应说 talk about sth.。about 是介词,其后要用 which 作宾语,不能用 that。 10. A. with which 是"介词+关系代词"结构,常用来引导定语从句.with 有"用"的意思,介词之后只 能用 which,不能用 that. with which 在定语从句中作状语,即 he is writing with a pen. 11. C. in front of which 即 in front of a farmhouse. In front of which 在从句中作状语. 12. D. with whom 引导定语从句.with whom 放在从句中即为:my father works with the engineer. 13. D. whose 引导定语从句,在从句中作主语 family 的定语. 14. A. that 引导定语从句,因为先行词是 all,所以只能选用 that 引导. 15. D. the same??..as 是固定用法, as 引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本句话中,as 作从句的主语. 16. D. such??? as 是固定用法,as 引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本题中,as 作表 语. 17. B. as 作关系代词可以单独用来引导非限制性定语从句。 这时 as 所指代的不是主句中某个名词, 而往往指代整个主句的含义。 as 在从句中可以作主语、 宾语。 从句可放在主句后, 也可置于主句前。 在本句中,as 作宾语. 18. B. Li Ming enjoyed it very much 是主句,with whom I went to the concert 是定语从句.with whom 放在从句中为:I went to the concert with Li Ming. 19. C. as 引导定语从句时通常构成 such?as 或 the same?as 固定搭配,其中 such 和 same 修饰 其后的名词,as 为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。 as 在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾 语。Such 修饰单数名词时,要用 such a??..,本题中 such books, such 直接修饰复数名词. 20. B. things 和 persons 是先行词.当定语从句要修饰的先行词是既表示人,又表示物的名词时, 其关系代词要用 that.

爱心启迪智慧,教育改变命运!
Love inspires wisdom and education changes destiny



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