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高考英语应对策略与基础写作指导讲座


2008 年高考英语基础写作指导(I)
第一讲 一、写作指导
高考英语基础写作中的写人侧重人物的介绍,可以用第一人称(如写求职信),也可以用第三人 称,时态常常用一般现在时和一般过去时,具体的人称和时态要依据写作的要求来确定。写作过程 中要注意以下几个方面的问题: 1.人物写作通常需要介绍人物的姓名、年龄、外貌、学历、经历、专业、爱好、特长、事迹、 性格等多个

方面,但英语基础写作需要严格按照写作要求来写,包括所给的全部信息点,既不能遗 漏,也不能随意添加。 2.对题目所给的信息要进行适当重组,安排好写作顺序,突出重点信息。重点信息通常是写作 的目的所在,比如求职要重点突出学历、经历,新闻报道要重点突出事迹,介绍自己的老师、朋友 要突出他们的特点,等等。 3.正确运用描写人物的词汇和句型。 4.注意运用正确的时态。描写人物的外貌、性格、兴趣等常用一般现在时,而描写人物的出生、 教育背景、经历、事迹常用一般过去时。

记叙文:如何写人

二、常用词语
外貌特征:beautiful, big nose, black eyes,fat, good-looking,handsome, healthy, near-sighted, ordinary-looking, pretty,short,strong, tall, thin, with a big nose, with a big smile, white-haired,1.80 metres tall, etc. 性格特点:absent-minded, attractive,bad-tempered,be ready to help others, bright,charming, confident, diligent,friendly, generous, have a good temper, humorous,independent, kind, kind-hearted, lazy,narrow-minded, naughty,patient,think of others, smart,talkative, warm-hearted,wise,etc. 出生年龄:a twenty-five-year-old young man, as a boy of 15, at the age of 20, be born on February 12th, 1987 , during his childhood, in one’s fifties, live a happy/ hard life, spend his childhood in the countryside, the son of a poor family, when he was a small boy, etc. 兴趣爱好:be angry with sb for sth, be angry about, be delighted in doing, be good at singing, be interested in English, be fond of music, be crazy about, be pleased with, be sick for, be sorry for, be strict in one’s work, be worried about, do well in his research work, ,enjoy doing, expect to do, feel surprised at, have a strong desire to do, look forward to doing sth., long for (long to do), make rapid progress in, put one’s heart into, take a pleasure in doing; wish to do, work hard at his studies, etc. 教育背景: be admitted to Beijing University, be enrolled in, fail in the test, get a master ’s degree, get on well with one’s lessons, give sb. a passing grade, go abroad to further one’s study, graduate from Physics Department of Qinghua University, his father was very strict with him, lay a good foundation in English, major in history, receive a doctor’s degree, pass the examination, study hard at, take several courses at school, take an active part in class,when at college, etc. 经历事迹: become a member of the team, concentrate oneself to doing sth., devote oneself to one’s business, do sth with great determination and perseverance, do research into this field, encourage sb to do sth, fight for our revolutionary course, give up one’s life for sth, have a good way of doing sth, have a talent for language, make up one’s mind to do sth., overcome many difficulties, receive the Nobel Prize for physics, serve as nurse, set a new world record of 110 metre hurdling, try one’s best to do sth., win the first prize in the competition, win a gold /silver/ bronze medal, etc. 他人评价:an inspiring leader, a model worker, an advanced teacher, be respected by all his students, be honored as, be considered as, be famous/known as, be regarded as, his hard work brought him great success, make great contributions to our country, one of the most important persons in the past ten years, consider sb. as a genius, consider sb. as the greatest leader, set a good example for all of us, speak highly of him, etc.

三、实例分析
【例 1】 李华自我介绍

假设你是李华,申请到一家外资企业工作,你需要用英文给人事部经理写一封信,介绍自己的 基本情况,简介信包括下表所列内容: 1981 年 8 姓名 李华 出生年月 月 出生地 广东省佛山市 1994—2000 佛山第一中学 学历 2000—2004 广州大学计算机系 2004—至今 在一家计算机公司工作 所学主要课 计算机、中文、数学、英语、体育 程 特长爱好 游泳(曾获得过大学游泳比赛一等奖) ,音乐 写作要求: 1. 简介必须包括以上全部内容(信的开头和结尾已经写好) ; 2. 使用 5 个句子。 Dear Manager, . I am waiting for your reply. Thank you. Yours Truly, Li Hua 写作指导: 文体 记叙文,用第一人称 信 息 ①写信目的,到贵公司工作;②姓名、出生地点、日期; 组织 ③学习简历;④学习内容,现在情况;⑤爱好和特长 时态 现在进行时,一般过去时 参考范文: Dear Manager, I am writing you a letter in order to apply for a position in your company. My name is Li Hua and I was born in Foshan City of Guangdong Province in August 1981. I studied in Foshan No. 1 Middle School from 1994 - 2000, and then I came to study in the Computer Department of Guangzhou University for four years. I studied computer science, Chinese, maths, English, P.E, and now I am working for a computer company. I like pop music and swimming very much, and I once won the first prize for swimming in the school competition. I am waiting for your reply. Thank you. Yours Truly, Li Hua 【例 2】介绍姚明和刘翔 假设你是李华,正在美国参加学习,课堂上老师要求你简要介绍我国的名人,你选择了姚明和 刘翔,两位体育明星,他们的基本情况如下: 姓名 姚明 刘翔 出生 1980 年,上海 1983 年,上海 事迹 世界著名篮球运动员, 现在 多次获得世界 110 米栏 美国 NBA 火箭队效力, 球队主力 冠军,2004 年雅典奥运会冠 队员之一, 多次进入美国全明星 军, 不久以后还打破了世界记 队。 录。 爱好 听流行音乐 音乐,唱歌 写作要求:

1. 简介必须包括以上全部内容(开头已经为你写好) ; 2. 使用 5 个句子。 3. 参考词汇: 火箭队 Rocket, 110 米栏 110-metre hurdling, 雅典奥运会——the Athens Olympic Games Hi, everyone. I would like to introduce two famous sport stars, Yao Ming and Liu Xiang. _______________________________________________________________________ ____________ That’s all. Thank you! 写作指导: 文体 信息组织

时态

记叙文,用第三人称 有两条线索:一是分别对比两人的各项情况,二是先介绍 姚明,再介绍刘翔。第二条线索比较好。 ①姚明,篮球运动员,出生;②主力队员,明星队; ③刘 翔,110 米栏世界冠军;④04 雅典冠军,打破记录;⑤两人的 爱好。 一般现在时,一般过去时

参考例文: Hi, everyone. I would like to introduce two famous sport stars, Yao Ming and Liu Xiang. Yao Ming, born in Shanghai in 1980, is a world famous basketball player. He is now one of the best players in Team Rocket in NBA, and he has been in All-Star Team for several times. Liu Xiang, who was also born in Shanghai but three years younger than Yao Ming, is a world champion in the 110-metre hurdls. He won the first prize in the Athens Olympic Games and broke the world record soon after that. Both of them love music, but Yao Ming likes listening to pop music whilst Liu Xiang likes singing.

四、即时练习
1. 介绍同学 假设你是李华,学校网站英文版通讯员,最近学校网站准备宣传一些优秀学生,请你用英文为 李敏同学写一篇简介,李敏同学的基本情况如下: 姓名 特点 事迹 李敏 健康、活泼 职务 爱好 高二(1)班班长 体育活动,唱歌跳舞

她各科成绩都好,但她刚进校时,英语学习有困难,经过努力,成绩上去 了。2006 年参加全国物理奥林匹克竞赛并获得一等奖。她严于律己,乐 于助人。

写作要求: 1. 简介必须包括以上全部内容; 2. 版面有限,只能使用 5 个句子。 写作指导: 文体 信息组织 时态 记叙文,用第三人称 ①姓名、职务、特点;②爱好、成绩; ③英语学习困难;④04 物理竞赛;⑤她的品格 一般现在时,一般过去时

2. 介绍两位年轻人

假设你是李华,正在伦敦的一条街上购物,突然有两个年轻人匆匆走过,引起了你的注意,你 就向不远处的一位警察反映,正好他在寻找两名小偷,他请你书面描述一下那两位年轻人的特征, 你所看到的基本情况如下: 年轻人之一 年轻人之二 身高 约 1.90 米 约 1.65 米 长相 高鼻子,大嘴巴,秃头 小鼻子,小眼睛,卷头发 衣着 蓝上衣,旧皮鞋 黑色的裤子,运动鞋 神色 匆匆忙忙,四处张望,每人手上都拿着一个塑料袋。 逃离方向 沿着这条街,在红灯处左拐弯。 写作要求: 1. 书面描述必须包括以上全部内容; 2. 使用 5 个句子。 参考词汇:秃头 bald head ,卷头发 curly hair 写作指导: 文体 信息组织 记叙文,用第三人称,侧重描写这两个人的外表特征。 信息组织可以有两条线索,一是分别逐项对比,二是先描述一个, 再描述另一个。选择第一种比较容易辨别。 ①身高对比;②长相对比; ③衣着对比;④神色;⑤方向 一般现在时,现在进行时,一般过去时,现在完成时

时态

参考范文
1. Li Ming, the monitor of Class 1 Grade 2, is healthy and lively. She does well in all her subjects, and she is fond of sports, singing and dancing. When she came to school, she had quite a lot of difficulties with the language, but with great efforts she made a lot of progress in her English language study. In 2006 she took part in the National Physics Olympic Competition and won the first prize. Li Ming is very strict with herself in her work and daily life, and is always ready to help other people. 2. One is about 1.90 metres tall, and the other is only about 1.65 metres, quite short. The taller has a big nose, a big mouth and a bald head, whilst the shorter one has a small nose, small eyes and curly hair. The taller is wearing a blue jacket, a pair of old shoes, and the shorter is wearing black trousers with sports shoes. Each of them took a plastic bag in their hands while going in a hurry and looked around sometimes. They ran away down his street and turned left at the red light.

2008 年高考英语基础写作指导(II)
第二讲 一、写作指导
叙事类记叙文通常要将时间、地点、人物、事件、原因和结果等六个要素交代清楚。好的记叙 文具有描述事件具体、人物逼真形象、故事生动感人、材料表现中心和写作主旨明确等特征。高考 英语基础写作中的叙事类短文也需要具有记叙文写作的一般特点,但要求相对比较低,其考查重点 在语言运用正确、句子连贯通顺、信息点表述完整等方面。写作时要注意以下几个方面的问题: 1. 严格按照基础写作的要求完成各个信息点,不要为了文章的生动而随意添加信息。 2. 信息点的表述不要完全按照题目所给的顺序,要适当重组信息点。 3. 记叙文写作的时态多数是用一般过去时,但也要注意灵活运用其它时态。 4. 叙事类记叙文的话题通常和中学生的生活阅历有关,如校园生活、旅游、交通、交友等,平 时要注意积累这些方面的词汇和短语。

记叙文:如何叙事?

二、常用语句
1. 表达时间 a long time ago, at six o’clock in the morning, at the end of, at the weekend, before he came here, by the end of last term, during the summer holidays, in a few years’ time, in the past, in the old days, in the

past ten years, in August 2002, in winter vacation, in weekdays, last month, next week, on Sunday morning, on October 1st, since early in the 20th century, so far, up to now, not…until, while , etc. 2. 表达地点 at the crossing, at the end of the street, at the airport, at the village, at the foot of the mountain, at the bottom, at the top of, be located in, behind the park, be situated in, five kilometers to the north of Guangzhou, in the south of Guangdong Province, in the middle of the park, in Class 3 Grade 2, in the front of the bus, in front of the bus, in the tree, in Guangdong, in China, lies to the west of Sichuan, on the other side of the street, on both sides of the road, on the east coast of the Pacific Ocean ,on the right, etc. 3. 表达因果 as, as a result, because, because of, for, in the end, cause, result in, consequently, originate from, since, so, therefore, It is clear that… , It turns out to be… , The primary reason is … , etc. 4. 事件话题 (1)学校生活及学习成绩 be active in class, be interested in, be interesting to sb., be fond of, be good at , be poor at , be tired of one’s work, be weak in, do one’s homework, do sports after school, do well in; education for all-round development(素质教育), examination-oriented education system(应试教育), fail in the test, get a doctor’s degree, get on well with English, get an “A” in the exam, get 90 marks for English, give sb. a passing grade, have a good command of the language, have eight classes every day, help with each other, lay a good foundation in, learn…by heart, major in history, make friends with sb., make progress in, put one’s heart into, pass the examination, study in groups, succeed in doing sth., take an active part in the activity, take several courses at school, work out a problem, work on a maths problem , work hard at, etc. (2)师生关系及其活动 be friendly to sb., be kind to sb, be a strict teacher, be strict with one’s pupils, be strict in one’s work, be satisfied with , blame sb. for sth, correct the students’ homework carefully, devote all one’s time to work, form a good habit of, get on well with sb, give advice on, give sb a lot of work , help sb with sth , make one’s lessons lively and interesting, praise sb for sth., prepare for tomorrow’s lesson, question sb on, teach sb. English , teach sb how to do sth., etc. (3)课余活动及周末生活 do some reading, enjoy a family trip, enjoy doing sth., go swimming, go for an outing, go to the cinema, have an outing at the seashore, have a swim, have dances on weekends, have a picnic at the weekend, have a party, hold a sports meeting, Internet bar, net friend, online love affair(网恋) , play the piano, play chess (basketball), see the sights of Beijing, spend one’s time in many different ways, teach in

a family, etc.
(4)交通情况 a big traffic jam, a traffic accident, be very crowded in the street, be seriously injured, by bus (train / ship / boat), drive a car, flight No. 2130, in a small boat, give sb. a lift, keep right, lie on the street, meet sb. at the station, on the bus ( train), on board, on one’s way to London, on the journey, one way only , pick up sb., ride a bike, ride a horse , see sb. off at the airport, self-service ticket , take a flight to New York, traffic light, travel through China, turn right, etc. (5)度假旅游 New Year ’s Day, Women’s Day, May Day, Youth Day, Children’s Day, Teachers’ Day, Mid-Autumn Day, National Day, valentine’s Day, the Spring Festival, a hot spot, a place of interest, a tourist destination, a five-star hotel, a good restaurant, a return ticket, a single ticket, a city with a long history, a quiet village, a three-day tour, an experienced guide, Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, beautiful scenery, in peak tourist seasons, natural attraction, on one’s way to France, on the back way , one of the great wonders of the world, spend one’s holidays on the sea , the 11th Asian Games, travel agency, the tour route, the inner-ring road, travel to England, the Great Wall , the Summer Place , Zhongshan Park , etc. (6)环境保护 a good environment, area pollution, air pollution, air quality standard, Antarctic Circle, atmospheric

chemistry, a heavy rain, a heavy snow, be polluted, be hot, be cold, be cool, be cloudy, be rainy, be sunny, be flooded, climate, carbon dioxide(CO2), chemical change, chemical cleaning of coal, climate change, dirty, drought, dry, flood, early warning system, environmental behavior, environmental quality, feel comfortable, global warming, minus 20 degrees centigrade(-20°), 30 degrees above zero(30°),sea level, warning center, wastes, water surface , water treatment, water pollution control, weather, windstorm , etc.

三、典型例文
【例 1】介绍学校 假设你是李华,你的笔友 Jane 准备暑假来你校参观,想请你介绍一下学校情况。下面是你校的 基本信息,请根据以下内容给 Jane 回一封信,并表示欢迎她来参观。 学校名称 广东第三中学 地理位置 离大海约 15 公里的一个小镇上 学校历史 80 多年历史的老学校 师生人数 老师 200 多人,学生 3000 多人,高中学段 校园环境 占地近 15 万平方米,学校很美,有花草,大树,三座教学 大楼,6 座宿舍楼 学习课程 中文、数学、科学、英语、计算机、体育、美术等 写作要求: (1)必须包括以上全部内容(信的开头和结尾已经写好) ; (2)只能使用 5 个句子。 参考词汇: 宿舍楼 dormitory building Dear Jane, I am very glad to tell you something about our school, Guangdong No. 3 Middle School. ____________ ______ Best wishes to you. Yours sincerely, Li Hua 审题: 文体 记叙文,用第三人称 信息组织 ①名称、位置、历史;②师生人数,校园面积; ③校园 环境;④学习课程;⑤邀请 时态 一般现在时 特别注意 1.邀请的内容不再方框内出现的,不能忽略。 2.高中学段: 可以和人数一起结合起来说 3000 多高中生。 参考范文: Dear Jane, I am very glad to tell you something about our school, Guangdong No. 3 Middle school. It lies in a small town about 15 kilometres away from the sea and it has a history of over 80 years. Our school, covering an area of nearly 150 thousand square meters, has more than 200 teachers and 3000 senior students It has three teaching buildings and six dormitory buildings, with many flowers and tall trees all around, so it’s very beautiful. In our school we learn Chinese, maths, science, English, computer, PE, arts and some other subjects. We warmly welcome you to visit our school in the summer holidays. Best wishes. Yours sincerely, Li Hua 【例 2】介绍春节 假如你是李华,你校的外教要在中国过春节,请你根据以下内容,用英文写一篇短文介绍我国

的春节,并祝他们节日愉快。 时间 一般在二月份,中国农历正月初一,前后要持续半个月 风俗 1. 12 生肖命名,如狗、猴、虎等,今年是猪年 2. 春节前人们要大扫除,大年夜全家人在聚集一起吃年夜饭 3. 年初一、初二走访亲友,给孩子们压岁钱 写作要求: (1)必须包括以上全部内容(题目已经写好) ; (2)只能使用 5 个句子。 参考词汇: 农历 Chinese Lunar Calendar 压岁钱 lucky money 审题: 文体 记叙文,用第三人称 信息组织 ①新年时间;②12 生肖; ③大扫除,聚餐;④初一、初二走 亲戚、给利市;⑤祝愿。 时态 一般现在时 特别注意 祝愿的内容不在方框内出现的,不能忽略。 参考范文: A brief Introduction of the Chinese Spring Festival The Chinese Spring Festival comes on the first day of the Chinese Lunar Year, which is usually in February. There is a name for each year, such as the dog, the monkey, the tiger or one of the twelve animals, and this year is the year of the pig. Before the New Year’s Day, the Chinese people usually give their houses a good cleaning and on the last evening of the old year, all the members of a family will get together and have a big meal. On the first or second day of the new year, people usually go to visit their relatives and friends and give some lucky money to children. I wish you have a good time during the Spring Festival.

四、即时练习
1. 义工活动 假设你是李华,正在美国学习。2007 年 7 月 28 日,你与班上的几名同学一起参加了义工活 动。请根据以下表格的内容,给老师写一篇小短文,描写当天参加义工活动的情况。 时间 2007 年 7 月 27 日,星期五 参与者 你自己,英国的 John,印度的 Sinba,美国的 Keith 等 18 名同学 地点 Lee 苹果场,距离学校大约 60 公里,西北方向 交通 早上 8 点出发,坐公交车 1 个小时,再步行 15 分钟 内容 前几天龙卷风袭击了农场,捡苹果并分类,好的放入箩筐 感受 累,但有意义 写作要求: (1)必须包括以上全部内容; (2)只能使用 5 个句子。 参考词汇: 龙卷风 tornado 2. 教学经历 假设你是李华,广东某中学的学生,现正作为交流生在英国学习,前几天你为低年级的学生上 了一节中国文化和历史课。请你用英文简要介绍一下你上课的经历。内容如下: 时间 上个星期三上午,9 点—11 点半。 听课者 7 年级学生。 经过 1. 用了 1 个半小时陈述,介绍了中国的古代王朝、近代革命, 重点介绍当代的改革开放和经济发展 2. 用 1 个小时交流 感受 1. 他们对中国了解很少, 但很有兴趣,他们提了很多奇怪的问题

结果 建议 写作要求: (1)必须包括以上全部内容; (2)只能使用 5 个句子。 参考词汇:改革 renovation

2. 第一次这样上课,很紧张,压力很大 自己得到了锻炼,中国也得到了更多的了解 需要更多这样的文化交流

参考范文
1. On July 27th 2007, Friday, we 18 classmates, including John from Britain, Sinba from India and Keith from the USA, went to Lee Farm to help the farmers. We started off at 8 o’clock in the morning, and after an hour’s ride on the bus, we walked for another 15 minutes. Lee Farm is about 60 kilometres northwest to our school. A few days ago it was hit by a strong tornado, and many apples were blown onto the ground, so we helped to pick up the apples and put the good ones in the baskets. We felt very tired after the work, but all of us thought it was a great help to the farmers. 2. Last Wednesday I gave a lecture about China’s culture and history to the 7th students from 9-11:30 in the morning. This is the first time I gave a lesson, so I felt very nervous and great pressure. I presented for one and a half hours, introducing from the dynasties in ancient times to the revolutionary in recent times, but I spent a lot more time on present China, the renovation, the open policy and the economic development. In the following hour we exchanged ideas and had a good discussion, but I was sorry to find that they knew little about China and raised a lot of strange questions. I think we need more cultural exchange of this kind, because we can get more practice and the foreign students can understand more about China.


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