当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study

Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study


Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Ocean & Coastal Management
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oce

coaman

Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study
Ali Pak a, *, Farhad Majd b
a b

Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran SPI Consulting Company, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Available online xxx

a b s t r a c t
Free Trade Zones (FTZs) around the world offer special advantages to investors and facilitate import/ export of goods in order to boost the regional economy. Integrated coastal management in these areas faces special challenges in addition to what ordinary ICZMs usually encounter. For a successful ICZM plan, the very strong business orientation in FTZs has to be taken into account, while other important aspects such as environmental, social, and cultural issues should not be overlooked. The problem becomes more dif?cult where the free zone is situated in sensitive and valuable environmental circumstances. Kish Island, a free trade zone in the Persian Gulf region, has recently been the focus of a major ICZM study. In order to address the different needs of various stakeholders in the island, four strategic management plans are prepared. The investigations carried out in the course of this study indicated that the required management plans for this free trade zone should be provided with a spatial-plan-oriented approach, otherwise the integration can hardly be achieved and implemented. This article describes Kish FTZ characteristics and problems that required ICZM initiatives, the methodology for ICZM study, the preparation and implementation of strategic management plans considering the free zone obligations, and the need for a spatial umbrella plan to facilitate the integration among different plans in the implementation process. ? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction The world’s coastal zone forms a long narrow boundary between land and ocean that is highly valued by human societies. Although coastal zone is relatively small, it is a heterogeneous, dynamic, highly productive, and sensitive area of the earth’s surface. Coastal zones occupy less than 15% of the earth’s land surface, yet accommodate around 37% of the world population in a band of 100 km (estimated at 2002), and roughly 50% in a 200 km range (Burbridge, 2004). With three quarters of the world population expected to reside in the coastal zone by 2025, human activities originating from this small land area will impose an inordinate amount of pressures on the global system. In addition to pressures that the coastal zones around the globe are experiencing, small islands usually engage with extra problems. The UN conference on Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) has been held to ?nd common solutions for these vulnerable areas. The conference resolution, called Barbados program of action, was the ?rst global endeavor to tackle the problems of these countries (United Nations, 1994). Box 1 shows the inherent features that lead to small islands special vulnerability (Kaly et al., 2002).
* Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: pak@sharif.edu (A. Pak), majd@sazehpardazi.com (F. Majd). 0964-5691/$ e see front matter ? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

SIDS are increasingly confronted with the classic “contradiction between economic progress and environmental degradation”. It can be argued that this contradiction is more immediate for small states because of their limited resources and environmental vulnerability. Although maintaining a balance between economy and environment underpins sustainable development, it should be noted that the concept of sustainable development, as applied to other areas, has not gained much success in small islands due to their low level of resiliency against different kinds of natural hazards (Kerr, 2005). Each of the issues mentioned in Box 1, with various degrees of importance, causes dif?culties in the process of establishment of an integrated coastal management system in the islands. Although the main elements of a good ICZM practice are available based on the past experiences, there are varying levels of progress in putting these elements into practice and creating sustainable outcomes. There are weaknesses that detract from the potential effectiveness of ICZM; examples include (Kerr, 2005): 1. Low levels of involvement of the Private Sector in ICZM processes; 2. Weak integration of spatial, economic, and environmental planning between the terrestrial and marine components; 3. Lack of tools for effective implementation of coastal plans;

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

2

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

Box 1. Inherent features of SIDS leading to their special vulnerability.            Geographic isolation Small physical size Ecological uniqueness and fragility Rapid human population growth and high densities Limited natural resources High dependence on marine resources Sensitive and exposed to extremely damaging natural disasters Small economies with low diversi?cation (thinness) Economic openness Susceptible to climate change and sea level rise Poorly-developed infrastructure and limited capacity

4. Gap between the expertise developed through ICZM initiatives formulated at a local level and acceptance by and support from district or provincial levels of government. The reverse can be true where district or provincial authorities have stronger technical and ?nancial capabilities and local authorities are sometimes weak and not familiar with ICZM concepts and practices; 5. Poor cooperation and weak coordination between sectoral agencies that can inhibit vertical and horizontal integration of policies, plans, and management strategies affecting coastal areas; 6. Lack of understanding of natural and man-induced hazards in coastal areas and how these might increase as a result of global change. Free Trade Zones (FTZs) around the world have special characteristics. They offer advantages of free import/export of goods that attracts the investors and boost the regional economy. For FTZs having good infrastructures such as ports, airports, highways, and communications is of prime importance. Application of ICZM concepts and methods in FTZs requires a good deal of sophistication. In FTZs, ICZM not only is responsible for nature conservation, minimization of the con?icts among the stakeholders, and harmonizing the terrestrial and marine activities, it should also integrate spatial and economic development plannings (Kerr, 2005). Kish, an island in the Persian Gulf region, suffers from a number of issues which are mainly environmental. These problems have markedly emerged in recent years due to lack of coherent policies and consistent management. Kish Free Trade Zone authorities have recently initiated ICZM study expecting to witness a declining trend in the existing problems. In this paper, after describing the general characteristics of Kish Island, the necessities that rendered to ICM initiative in this island and its objectives will be discussed. The methodology of ICZM studies and the procedure for preparation and implementation of the strategic plans for Kish free trade zone ICZM will be explained. Then the spatial planning approach that was considered to address the contradictory issues that the island is currently facing will be discussed. Finally, the conclusions that can be drawn from this study will be presented. 2. Kish Island characteristics Kish is a small island at the north of Persian Gulf region with about 91 km2 surface area and 35 km perimeter. It is a relatively ?at coral island with a maximum height of 45 m above the sea level. The island is located 18 km south of the mainland with a distance of 250 km west of the strategic strait of Hurmoz (Fig. 1). Hurmoz strait

is the bottle neck of the oil stream from the huge oil and gas reserves of the Persian Gulf region towards the rest of the world. The number of the vessels that crossed this strait in 2006 has exceeded 15,000 ships carrying around 45% of the oil/gas world consumption. This large ?gure of the seaborne transportation is a basic threat to the marine environment due to the considerable volume of pollution. Persian Gulf is a closed body of water with an average depth of 65 m, which connects its littoral states to open seas solely through the Hurmoz strait. It has a unique hydraulic regime. It has been estimated that the water of this Gulf can be changed once in a 40-years time period. This is because its inlets and outlet are very small comparing with the volume of water that it normally contains. Occurrence of two wars in this strategic region during the last decades and the amount of pollutants that were either poured or dumped into the sea during the wars, as well as the oil tankers that have been drown in the sea, have caused severe harms to Persian Gulf environment. In order to restore the situation, the Persian Gulf littoral states have organized a joint effort by establishing an organization called ROPME (Regional Organization for Protection of Marine Environment) that was formed after 1992 Kuwait convention (http://www.ropme.com/). Although Persian Gulf has suffered from two major wars in the last decades, the marine environmental problems have mostly occurred along the southern and western borders, and the Northern coastlines do not seem to bear the burden of an environmental disaster as it was previously expected. The coastlines of Kish Island are no exception and its beautiful marine nature and attracting beaches, that are unique in the Persian Gulf region, did not suffer much from the past incidents. Kish Island was declared a Free Trade Zone by the government at 1989. Kish population in 1998 was 16,600 which reached to 22,000 in 2003, showing a 5% annual increase. This rapid immigration rate has mostly been due to very good employment opportunities that were the result of the free trade policies of the central government in order to enhance the regional economy and reducing the country’s high unemployment rate. A recent study has estimated that Kish population will reach 85,500 at the year 2025 (Drees and Sommer, 2005). Kish is the destination of around 700,000 domestic tourists every year that come to the island for spending their vacations. Although only 6 months of the year the weather permits outdoor activities such as sports and recreation, the retailers and other service providers have been successful in attracting tourists even during the hot months of summer. Kish has a warm and humid weather during spring and summer, and a mild and pleasant weather during fall and winter. Its average maximum monthly temperature is 33.9  C and the average minimum monthly temperature is 18.6  C. Kish has several shopping malls, a multitude of luxurious hotels, recreation centers, and sea-sport clubs. Sight-seeing and cycling are popular activities at the coastal areas due to good wealth of natural landscapes. At the terrestrial side, the habitat for 120 different types of birds, animals, and also unique types of sea-turtles, attract many people. At the marine side, corals, sponges, and marvelous types of reef ?sh provide an excellent opportunity for ecotourism and activities such as scuba diving (SPI, 2008a). In Kish the proportion of the active work-force to the whole population is 70%, while the same ?gure for the mainland does not exceed 37%. Table 1 shows the distribution of the active work-force for different activities in Kish Island. Kish has a small economy; but the authorities are planning for a stronger economy in the near future. At the same time, Kish is attractive because it is close to the south Pars gas ?eld which is the second largest gas reserve in the world. This gas ?eld is a common reserve from which two countries of Qatar and Iran are both

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

3

Fig. 1. Location of Kish Island in Persian Gulf.

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

4 Table 1 Importance of different human activities in Kish Island. Activity Agriculture Fisheries Mining Industry Energy Construction Retail Hotel & restaurant Transportation and communication Dealership Renting Public works Education Health and social welfare Other Total

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

Box 2. Existing Problems in Kish Free Trade Zone.
GDP % 0.03 0.16 e 5.49 6.35 2.53 29.11 7.71 6.15 2.36 16.33 19.66 0.50 0.87 2.75 100

Work e force % 0.1 1.62 0.34 8.04 2.42 18.82 24.27 8.99 8.50 2.14 5.09 5.24 2.63 0.70 10.6 99.54

bene?ting. Due to this proximity, some gas ?elds have recently been discovered around Kish Island. Although oil/gas development activities have not yet started in Kish, the pressure is mounting on the island’s authorities for issuing the required permissions to oil/gas companies to start the work. Kish Island is governed by Kish Free Zone Organization (KFZO). The managing director of KFZO is selected by the country’s free trade zones higher council (FTZHC) which operates under supervision of the country’s vice-president. Although KFZO should observe the country’s general laws and regulations, it is almost autonomous inside the island territories, and all the authorities and responsibilities of the central government have been transferred to KFZO. 3. ICZM study in Kish FTZ 3.1. Need for integrated coastal management in Kish Island Problems that Kish Island is currently facing have shown a rising trend in recent years. Problems originate from different natures. Whilst most of the problems are somehow related to the environmental issues, problems regarding legislation, land-use, and tourism are also very important. Box 2 contains list of the problems (SPI, 2008b). KFZO started the integrated coastal management study at 2006. The main objectives of this initiative were making balance among the existing contradictory needs for development, minimizing the con?icts, alleviating the pressures that are exerted on the island’s environment, and paving the way for future sustainable management. A ten-year time frame was envisaged for this ICZM plan. This ICZM effort is a consequence of Iran’s national ICZM study that started at 2003 (SPI, 2003; Pak and Farajzadeh, 2007). Integrated coastal management in Kish FTZs is in?uenced by advantages or disadvantages mentioned below (Box 3). The methodology for providing Kish ICZM plan contains preparation and implementation of four interconnected (yet relatively independent) strategic management plans that are explained in Section 3.2 below. The general methodology of the studies is depicted in Fig. 2. 3.2. Strategic management plans for Kish FTZ To achieve the ICZM goals the following four strategic plans were prepared: 1) Environmental Management Plan 2) Shoreline Management Plan

a) Coastal land-use  Violation of set-back-line regulations and illegal construction  Existing unsuitable coastal structures (e.g., scattered jetties)  Unplanned development in the coastal area  Problems associated with commercial and ?shing ports  Lack of public recreational facilities at the coastal areas  Problems associated with water-intakes and seawater desaltation plants b) Environment  Municipal/Industrial solid waste disposal  Wastewater/sewage disposal  Oil pollution at the coastal areas  Groundwater contamination  Destruction/threatening of marine and terrestrial habitats  Destruction of natural and beautiful landscapes c) Legislation  Lack of laws and regulations for controlling coastal activities  Inconsistent management and policy-making  Real estate problems at the coastal areas d) Infrastructure  Inadequate water supply  Electrical power shortage  Fuel  Communication e) Tourism  Lack of suitable swimming beaches  Problems associated with coastal and marine recreational activities  Coastal villages and coastal parks  Cultural problems

3) Monitoring and Evaluation Plan 4) Desired Land-use Plan The ?rst management plan is expected to conserve the terrestrial and marine ecosystems (e.g., corals, reef ?sh, turtles, etc.), restore the damaged habitats, and provide the required control measures to preserve natural resources. The second management plan basically pertains to the engineering measures that should be applied by the authorities to

Box 3. Advantages and disadvantages of Kish FTZs for implementation of ICM plans. Advantages: - Higher development rate - Capability for transit and re-export of goods - Higher educated and more active work-force - Good infrastructures - Higher level of public participation Disadvantages: - Domination of economical interests over ecological values - Biased Policy making towards economical issues - Higher levels of pollution

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

5

START

Gathering Data and Information Identification phase Goals and strategies and determination of coastal zone boundaries

Monitoring and Evaluation Plan Planning phase Kish Island Destination Master Plan

Environmental Management plan

Shoreline Management Plan

Spatial Planning (Desired Land-use Plan)

Implementation of Management Plan Implementation phase Monitoring and evaluation of outcomes

Fig. 2. Kish ICZM study and implementation procedure.

protect the shoreline from undesirable erosion/accretion of the sediments and also to build structures that are required against coastal ?ooding. The third plan is intended to serve the need for measurement and recording the basic physical/chemical/biological indicators at the coastal areas and monitoring the changes and trends that may threat island’s environment and inhabitants. This plan also helps the authorities to evaluate the effectiveness of different plans and projects that are carried out in the framework of integrated coastal management and examine the level of success of ICZM. The last plan is considered to be a key management plan for Kish FTZ whose necessity and effectiveness will be discussed in Section 3.3. 3.2.1. Environmental management plan (EMP) Preparation of an Environmental Management Plan requires a deep understanding of the existing situation and identi?cation of current and future problems. The ecological and human environments have been thoroughly studied by ?eld operations and desk studies and the results have been loaded in a comprehensive GIS database. Based on the obtained results, the following plans have been provided: - Management plan for protection of sensitive ecological regions

-

Management Management Management Management

plan plan plan plan

for for for for

rehabilitation of destructed habitats solid waste recycling/disposal liquid waste/sewage disposal air pollution

In preparation of the environmental management plan the ecological capacity of the terrestrial and marine areas have been studied in order to determine the amount of pressure that each zone can bear from different human activities. One of the major outcomes of the environmental management plan was allocation of an area in the south-east of the island for a new “National Park” due to its unique and invaluable natural resources. Because of very sensitive and vulnerable environment of Kish Island, implementation of Environmental Management Plan can prevent further destruction of marine and terrestrial habitats. Starting of EMP can be even more important for human environment because the groundwater system in the island has already been contaminated and management of municipal solid waste (MSW) across the island has become a major issue for Kish authorities. In the light of the EMP, site selection for a new MSW land?ll has been carried out and the design of land?ll has started.

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

6

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

3.2.2. Shoreline management plan (SMP) Generally, common technical measures for protecting the shoreline against sea hazards (e.g. sea-water-level rise, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc.) include (Frohle and Kohlhase, 2004):      beach nourishment, groin ?elds, offshore breakwaters, arti?cial reefs, submerged offshore breakwaters.

From the terrestrial point of view, in small islands there is a different rate of loss of water and sediment due to the small size of water catchment. Usually a great deal of threats to coastal areas can be attributed to unregulated and poorly controlled land-based activities. Therefore, management plans for protection of coasts of the small islands should be integrated with spatial plans of landbased activities (Caledo et al., 2007). In the course of preparation of shoreline management plan, winds, waves, currents, tides, surges, and also long-shore and crossshore sedimentation regimes around Kish Island were carefully studied. Then based on the obtained results, coastal cells and subcells have been identi?ed and proper management options have been proposed. The conducted studies showed that 35 km long shoreline of the island is fairly stable and no major hazard is foreseen in this regard. For example, less than 5% of the coastal areas are found to be prone to ?ooding when a heavy storm with a 25-years return period occurs. Based on the proposed SMP guidelines, Kish authorities have started a project for protecting and regulating the beach with emphasis on creating green areas and landscapes to enhance ecotourism around the island. The outcome of this plan has proved to be satisfactory. 3.2.3. Monitoring and evaluation plan (MEP) Preparation of this management plan had a two-fold objective. First, for the developing countries where the necessary long-term data and statistics for scienti?c studies are hardly available, the MEP provides a rational framework and timetable for the authorities to establish data recording and monitoring stations for gathering necessary physical, chemical, biological, ecological, and engineering data. Secondly, evaluating the level of success of ICZM plan (that requires recognizing the constraints and pitfalls and employing appropriate means to modify future actions related to ICM plan) can be carried out using the monitoring and evaluation plan. It is important to note that the current state of practice in ICM plans indicates that measuring the success of ICZM initiatives is by no means easy nor is necessarily a fully scienti?c and objective process. The nature of ICZM, challenges the standard approaches of project control and management. The majority of evaluation methods and criteria used in assessing ICZM initiatives are designed to measure ‘outputs’ rather than ‘outcomes’ (Humphrey and Burbridge, 1998; Olsen et al., 1998). Generally, methodologies that have been employed to measure success of ICZM are as follows (Kerr, 2005): 1) PSR Framework 2) Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) 3) Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions The ?rst is the Pressure-State-Response (PSR), which is designed to help in reporting on national sustainability with respect to Agenda 21of Rio declaration (1992). The second is LFA that has typically been designed to look at projects with clearly de?ned

outputs rather than outcomes i.e. the strength of the development planning and management processes. The third approach is to look at stakeholder perceptions of and satisfaction with a project or a program, and the outcomes. For Kish Monitoring and Evaluation Plan, ?rst a range of proper indicators for different monitoring purposes were identi?ed. Then, a plan for setting up the monitoring stations and a timetable for measurement of each indicator have been proposed. Also, actions that should be taken for evaluating the success of ICZM plans have been discussed. It should be noted that implementation of MEP requires suf?cient budget for establishment of monitoring stations, employing the quali?ed personnel, and providing a computerized data collection and data management system. A wide range of data types should be provided and stored based on monitoring physical, chemical, biological, economical, and social indicators in appropriate time intervals and suitable frequencies. Hence, prioritizations for data recordings were identi?ed and proposed in MEP and the required budget was estimated for short, medium, and long terms implementation periods. Although MEP has not been started at the time of preparation of this article, it is anticipated that the short term implementation plan is started upon providing the budget. 3.3. Spatial planning approach for integration A number of tools and techniques already exist and are available for implementation within an integrated coastal zone management framework. Some of the more frequently used management techniques include:  Zonation: The coastal area is divided into geographical zones for management purposes. The zone can be determined based on distances, height above sea level, degree of risk to storm surges, etc.  Set-Back Lines and Exclusionary Zones: A line along the shore is delineated beyond which construction of buildings is prohibited, usually to keep structures out of the areas where coastal erosion can cause damage or where there may be environmentally sensitive zones.  Protected Areas: Areas of land or water that have been specially designated to protect some aspect of ?ora, fauna, habitat or ecosystem, usually for the protection of rare and endangered species.  Special Area Planning: Where it is important to plan and manage an area as an entire unit.  Acquisition, Easement, and Development Rights: Method through which the government is able to control the use of particular pieces of coastal land through purchase.  Coastal Permits: Law enacted that requires anyone who wishes to undertake an activity in the coastal zone to obtain a permit from the appropriate agency. Most of the above mentioned techniques have been used in Kish free trade zone ICZM plan. The strong business orientation in FTZs such as Kish Island necessitates that the rules and regulations that originate from ICZM planning ?nd realistic grounds to be observed by various stakeholders. In Kish FTZ the valuable coastal land should be wisely managed and allocated to different bene?ciaries in order to establish a balance among different activities. This allocation should observe the environmental values and preserve the sensitive habitats in the islands’ terrestrial and marine zones. Besides, lack of law or inadequate law enforcement in the island, indicates that spatial planning can be very instrumental in creating a coherent and

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8 Box 4 Maps and information used in land-use planning.  Coastal morphology: 1) Erosion and sedimentation zoning Map 2) Sea-bottom sediment typology map 3) Sea-bottom terrain and slope map 4) Landforms along the beach  Ecology and environment: 1) 2) 3) 4) Corals distribution map Turtle habitats map Birds habitats map Sea-grass zonation map  Coastal hydrodynamics: 1) Coastal ?ooding map 2) Sea wave height zonation map 3) Sea-current speed zonation map 4) Wave-energy zonation map

7

 Existing land-use: 1) Existing land-use map 2) Proposed (future) land-use map 3) Real estate (ownership) map

The priorities in establishment of different activities in coastal areas have been determined in the course of Kish ICZM studies. Based on this prioritization, the investors’ applications are assessed and if the type of activity is consistent with the spatial plan priorities, the requested permit will be issued. In cases the proposed activity does not match with the desired Land-use plan, for instance if some contradictions with nearby activities are expected or the effects associated with the proposed activity on the environment are not clearly known, the authorities ask for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report. Issuance of the permit, therefore, will remain pending until the EIA report is submitted and evaluated. The preliminary results of the provided spatial plan have been very promising. The proposed spatial plan not only helps the investors to choose the place that ?ts best to their need and type of activity, but also helps the authorities to put their permit-issuance on a ?rm ground. The provided Land-Use Plan (LUP) has been used in the process of permit-issuance and/or zonation of the coastal land for better plannings and management.

sustainable management. A proper land-use plan can serve as a tool for a harmonious and target-oriented management that paves the way for establishment of integration among different activities in the island. In Kish Island the results obtained from four different study disciplines, namely: morphology, hydrodynamics, ecology, and existing land-use, have been used for preparation of the desired land-use plan,. Thematic studies were carried out and the results were gathered in a geographical information database. Box 4 shows the maps and information that were used. General categories of land-uses in Kish coastal area are tourism, ecotourism, sea sports, aquaculture, public services, residential, and infrastructure. The ?nal land-use plan for Kish FTZ is shown in Fig. 3.

3.4. Lessons learned from Kish ICZM Olsen et al. (1997) have argued that the fundamental challenge of coastal management is one of governance. However, it is important to note that setting up an administration or establishing an organization does not necessarily guarantee the success of an ICZM plan. The implementation is the most crucial phase, since the global experiences have shown that ICZM faces real challenges when it hits the ground. It was discussed that the vulnerability and limited resources of small islands cause different kinds of problems in these areas that should be addressed properly in ICM initiatives. Despite the fact

Fig. 3. Kish FTZ land-use Plan.

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033

8

A. Pak, F. Majd / Ocean & Coastal Management xxx (2010) 1e8

that in recent ICM attempts in some countries a less restrictive practice is recommended for implementation of management plans in the coastal zones (Anker et al., 2004), it was found here that due to strong economical concerns that exist in free trade zones, taking a spatial planning approach plays an important role in achieving the goals and objectives of ICZM. The role of ‘spatial planning’ within ICZM strongly depends on the fundamental understanding of ICZM either as a planning and decision-making tool, or a holistic philosophy of thought (Kannen et al., 2004). Although spatial planning has already been of concern in some ICZM plans (e.g., German National ICZM plan (Geek et al., 2004)), but employing spatial plan for implementing other required strategic plans for sustainable management in the coastal zone of FTZ does not seem to gain the attention that it deserves. It should be emphasized, however, that solely enforcing a desired land-use plan to be implemented, cannot necessarily assure the authorities for sustainable development. In other words, spatial planning should not be considered as a goal but a mean for better integration. The provided spatial plan has helped ICZM by enabling the authorities to observe the priorities in issuing the permits for various activities and to settle down the con?icts that arise in allocating coastal lands among different stakeholders (private investors, coastal authorities, and Department of the Environment). It seems that the spatial umbrella plan can pave the way for implementation of other strategic plans and converges various activities towards a sustainable and harmonized development. 4. Concluding remarks Integrated coastal management in Kish Island, a free trade zone, has been described in this paper. The methodology of the study and the management plans that deemed necessary for reducing the level of pressure that is mounting on the island have been explained. For Kish Island, the studies indicated that implementation of four strategic plans: environmental management plan, shoreline management plan, monitoring and evaluation plan, and desired land-use plan are necessary for an integrated coastal zone management. Vulnerability and low level of resiliency of small islands on one hand, and necessities of FTZs due to investors’ expectations on the other, cause the ICM plans in these areas particularly dif?cult. While the level of success of Kish ICZM initiative should be monitored in the years to come, the need for a spatial-planningoriented approach in ICM plans in free trade zones can be emphasized.

Acknowledgement Authors wish to thank Kish Free Zone Organization (KFZO) and Sazeh Pardazi Iran (SPI) consulting engineers for their support and granting permission for preparing this paper. The efforts of Ms. Maryam Mohammadi from KFZO in the course of Kish ICZM study are gratefully acknowledged. References
Anker, H.T., Nellemann, V., Jensen, S.S., 2004. Coastal zone management in Denmark: ways and means for further integration. Ocean and Coastal Management 47, 495e513. Burbridge, P.R., 2004. A critical review of progress towards Integrated coastal Management in Baltic sea region, coastline Reports 2. In: scheme ski, G., Loser, N. (Eds.), Managing the Baltic Sea. Caledo, H., Quintela, A., Porteiro, J., 2007. Integrated coastal zone management strategies on small islands. Journal of Coastal Research special issue 50. Drees, Sommer, 2005. Final Report. Kish Island Destination Master Plan (Persian Garden in Persian Gulf), vol. 1. Frohle, P., Kohlhase, S., 2004. The role of coastal engineering in integrated coastal zone management, coastline reports 2. In: Scheme ski, G., Loser, N. (Eds.), Managing the Baltic Sea. Geek, K., Kannen, A., Glaeser, B., Sterr, H., 2004. National ICZM strategies in Germany: A spatial planning approach, Coastline Reports 2. In: Schemewski, G., Loser, N. (Eds.), Managing the Baltic Sea. Humphrey, S.L., Burbridge, P.R., 1998. Thematic Study D: Planning and Management Processes: Sectoral and Territorial Cooperation, European Demonstration Programme on Integrated Coastal Zone Management. EC, Brussels. Kaly, U., Pratt, C., Howorth, R. 2002. Towards Managing Environmental Vulnerability in Small Islands Developing States (SIDS), SOPAC Miscellaneous Report, Box (1), 461, 16 pp. Kannen, A., Gee, K., Glaser, B., 2004. Anmerkungen Zum Verhaltnis von IKZM und Raumordnung. In: Glaeser, B., Gee, K., Kannen, A., Sterr, H. (im Druck): Auf den weg zur nationalen IKZM e stretegie: Perspektiven der Raumorclnung, Documentation des work shops in Berlin am 23. und 24.10.2003, BBR/Bonn 2004. Kerr, S.A., 2005. What is small island sustainable development about? Ocean and Coastal Management 48 (7e8), 503e524. Olsen, S., Tobey, J., Kerr, M., 1997. A common framework for learning from ICM experience. Ocean and Coastal Management 37, 155e174. Olsen, S., Lowry, K., Tobey, J., Burbridge, P.R., Humphrey, S., 1998. Current Purposes and Methods for Evaluating Coastal Management Projects and Programs Funded by International Donors. Coastal Management Report No. 2200. Coastal Resource center, University of Rhode Island. Pak, A., Farajzadeh, M., 2007. Iran’s integrated coastal management plan: Persian Gulf, Oman sea, and southern Caspian sea coastlines. Ocean & Coastal Management 50, 754e773. Sazeh Pardazi Iran (SPI) Consulting Engineering Company, 2003. Iran’s Integrated Coastal Zone Management Study Project. Ports and Maritime Organization of Iran. Sazeh Pardazi Iran (SPI) Consulting Engineering Company, 2008a. Current Environmental Status of Kish Island, vol. I Kish Island ICZM Study Project Reports. Sazeh Pardazi Iran Consulting Engineering Company, 2008b. Study of the Existing and Possible Future Problems in Kish Island Kish Island ICZM study project Report. United Nations. 1994. Barbados Programmer of Action, First Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of SIDS, Barbados.

Please cite this article in press as: Pak A, Majd F, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean & Coastal Management (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.033


更多相关文档:

Innovation and international trade in technology Journal of Economic Theory

? ICM plan in Free Trade Zones (FTZ)must observe the demand for a ...ICZM study in Kish FTZ 3.1. Need for integrated coastal management in Kish...

Coastal Zone by ICZM Project Counterpart, Planner

worldwide; one of them is an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan. ...In many cases, arbitrary land or seaward boundaries are chosen and defined ...

Shanghai plan to lure foreign investors to free-trade zone

Shanghai plan to lure foreign investors to free-trade zone_英语学习_外语... Integrated coastal man... 8页 免费 2009-13-Trade policy o... 13页 ...

科技英语:利用科技开启“蓝色经济”

were used to design the first integrated coastal zone management plan for ...This study developed the information the Belizean government sought to make ...

Case study report on integrated business managemen 2000字

Case study report on integrated business managemen 2000字_经济/市场_经管营销...The human resource management would be able to make effective plans on the...

《深化改革决定》要点双语对照(三)

structure is a main obstacle to integrated ...(Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, a number of ...coastal border clearance and port management ...

法律图书(中文翻译仅供参考)

Integrated Water Resources Management in Central ...509pp Jurisdiction of the Coastal State over ...378pp Collaborative Medicine Case Studies 协同医疗...

2010年度双语教学示范课程

integrated coastal and catchment management,2008-...ICZM: a case study from Victoria, Australia‘. ... Strategic Geographic Planning Tool Development, ...

Examples of integrated solutions within stormwater management

planning in the United States: its origins and recent case studies Original...coastal erosion management: The temporal and spatial Original Research Article ...

北大景观设计学研究院历年学生论文独一览

Integrated Conservation Strategy 姜斌 地理学(城市与...Management System — A Case Study on Weihai 宋...Coastal Zone in Weihai,Shandong 章晶晶 地理学(...
更多相关标签:
coastal zones | risk management plan | management plan | cost management plan | coastal | coastal engineering | coastal city | coastal scents |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com