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高级英语 Mark Twain, Mirror of America

Mark Twain —Mirror of America

Noel Grove

Mark Twain – Mirror of America 1. Who was Mark Twain ? Where did his pen name come from? 2. What had he been before he became a

n author?

Mark Twain: Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835--1910) two fathoms deep
a boatman’s signal called up from the bow where the leadsman was sounding the river’s channel with his line. “Mark Twain” meant the second mark, or 12 feet deep, enough water to float any steamboat

Printer, pilot, soldier, silver-miner, gold-washer, reporter, lecturer, traveler, businessman, novelist, autobiographer, Mark Twain had led an active life, in the very center of the American experience.

National Geographic Magazine:a monthly
journal run by the National Geographic Society based in Washington DC, a non-profit scientific and educational

organization. Mark Twain: Life Works Evaluations

His Life: Life:
Printer Pilot Soldier Miner Reporter Writer

The historical background of Mark Twain's time
Twain lived in the stirring(动荡) years in American history ---- the American-Mexican War, The Civil War, the Gold Rush, the western expansion, the American Spanish War, the rapid development of capitalism and later the emergence of imperialism along with the first economic depressions, etc.

Major works by Mark Twain
1) “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (1865) 《加拉维加县有
名的跳蛙》 his first sketch that brought him fame and success.

2) Innocents Abroad (1869) 《傻瓜出国记》
The book version of his travel sketches about Middle East, Europe, etc.

3) The Gilded Age (1873)

4)A Tramp Abroad (1880) Another book of humor and travel observations in the vein of The Innocents Abroad and Roughing It.

5) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
A story written for boys, full of the horror and joys of childhood flowing on the surface of experience. Generations after generations of young people have held it dear to their hearts. Tom Sawyer is sure to be studied in American schools as The Declaration of Independence.

6) The Prince And The Pauper (1882)
A tale of the 16th century England, a period to which Mark Twain was attracted by his Tom Sawyer-like love of the romantic parts of English history. he made the tale the vehicle of an attack upon class distinctions and hereditary advantages.

7) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)
A sequel to Tom Sawyer, it is a much better book because Huck is far more interesting and complex than Tom; because Huck, who tells the story in his own wonderful vernacular (i.e. the native spoken language of the country or

area), almost never strikes a false note; because Huck’s experiences are deepergoing and his moral travail more meaningful. His decision to follow his own good-hearted moral impulse rather than conventional village morality amounts to a vindication of what Mark Twain called “the damned human race,” damned for its comfortable hypocrisies, its thoroughgoing dishonesties, and its pervasive cruelties, all of which Huck plentifully observes on his river odyssey with Jim, the run-away slave.

8) Life On The Mississippi (1883) 9) A Connecticut Yankee In King Arthur’s Court (1889) The story reflected his current concern with invention and his obsession with large-scale practical enterprise. A Connecticut Yankee expresses Mark Twain’s conviction or firm and sincere belief that the real heroes of civilization, “the creators of this world ---- after God,” are inventors.

10) Pudd’nhead Wilson (1894) 《傻瓜威

A story that deals once more with the theme of exchanged identities, but this time the author enriches his situation with all his deepest insights into the human condition.

11) The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (1900)

The most celebrated of Twain’s stories on the theme that every man in America is rotten so far as the dollar is concerned.

. It tells of a town that for three generations had kept an unsmirched reputation as “the most honest and upright town in all the region round about”. But the town had “the ill luck to offend a passing stranger”, who thereupon resolved to “corrupt the town”. He did it by offering a bag of gold as a reward to the Hadleyburg citizen who could identify himself as the stranger’s benefactor. As there was no such benefactor, all of the town’s leading citizens were shown to be mercenary frauds when they came forward to claim the bag of gold. The moral of the demonstration is that “the weakest of all weak things is a virtue which has not been tested in the fire”.

12) The Mysterious Stranger (1916) The story tells of the visits of an angel to the village of Eseldorf in Austria in 1590.

13) What Is Man? (1918) Mark Twain in his last years saw himself as a Job. In What Is Man? He gave his fullest answer to Job’s anguished question:
What is man, that thou shouldest magnify him? And thou shouldest set thine heart upon him? And thou shouldest visit him every morning , And try him every moment?

His answer to the question is that:
Man is machine, made up of many mechanisms, the moral and mental ones acting automatically in accordance with the impulses of an interior Master who is built out of born-temperament and an accumulation of multitudinous outside influences and trainings; a machine whose one function is to secure the spiritual contentment of the Master , be his desires good or be they evil; a machine whose will is absolute and must be obeyed, and always is obeyed.

14) A Million-Pound Note (1893) A story about an experiment on human nature, full of humor and sarcasm.


A brief outline of Tom Sawyer
Tom lives with his younger brother Sid and Aunt Polly in St. Petersburg, a remote town on the banks of the Mississippi river. While his brother Sid is a “model” boy, Tom is quite the opposite of his brother.

A brief outline of Tom Sawyer
At school he disobeys his teacher and always busies himself with outside matters at the lessons. Tom’s bosom friend is Huck Finn, a boy deserted by his drunkard of a father and looked upon as an outcast in the town.

But Tom has read many books and wants to make his life just as bright as it is depicted in the stories. He devises games in which the boys play the role of brave outlaws and warlike Red Indians who are the terror of the rich and the oppressors.

One night the boys involuntarily witness the murder of Dr. Robinson. An innocent man is charged with the crime. But on the day of the trial Tom fearlessly exposes the real criminal the Indian Joe who escapes through an open window of the courtroom.

Another night, the boys went out to dig for hidden treasures near a deserted house three miles from town. There they almost fall into the hands of the murderer who accidentally finds a box filled with gold coins.

Shortly after the incident Tom goes to a picnic with a party of schoolmates. Exploring a cave, he gets lost with Becky Thatcher, the daughter of the Judge. Tom behaves like a brave boy, calms Becky’s fears and finds the way out of the cave. In a few days’ time Tom and Huck return to the cave. They find the dead body of the murderer, who could not have found the way out of the cave and also the hidden treasures.

A brief outline of Huck

Tom and Huck find the money. They each get six thousand dollars, which they deposit with Judge Thatcher. The Widow Douglas takes Huck for her son and tries to “civilize” him.

In the meantime, Huck’s father tries to get the money and succeeds in kidnapping the boy and imprisons him in a lonely cabin. To free himself from both the boring widow and the brutal father, Huck runs away to a deserted island in the middle of the Mississippi river.

In doing so, he makes it appear that he has been murdered by some robbers. On the island he meets Jim, Miss Watson’s runaway slave, and the two become close friends.

They started down the river, come across all sorts of people and have lots of fun and adventures. Toward the end of the novel Jim is caught and imprisoned at a farm, and Huck and Tom make a spectacular but unsuccessful attempt to rescue him. At last it turns out that Huck’s father has died and Miss Watson has also died, but not before setting Jim free in her will.

He is the writer H. L. Mencken called “the true father of our national literature” and America’s most famous humorist and the author of popular and outstanding autobiographical works, travel books and novels.

Remarks: Mark Twain is a part of America. His personal success and failure were those of America. He moved, along with America, from innocence to experience. Ernest Hemingway : All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. ... There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since.

4. His writing style:
his style was precise, enviable, and well-crafted. He was a master of irony, turning the tables on those most confident. His ear was finely attuned to nuances of dialect and of the vernacular of different classes and ethnic groups. His

characters were alive and fallible.
His journalistic proses were filled with terse sarcasm. His use of local color and historical settings to illuminate and shed light on contemporary society has served as a creative inspiration for generations of writers to come.

1. Why is Mark Twain considered “mirror of America”?

Mr. Clemens lives on in the hearts and minds of grateful readers everywhere.

Detailed Study of the Text
2. Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood: Huck Finn’s simple and pleasant journey through his boyhood which seems eternal.

idyllic: a simple happy period of life, often in the country an idyllic setting, holiday, marriage

cruise: n. a sea voyage for pleasure v. sail or travel about as for pleasure He was on a world cruise. They spent the summer cruising in the Greek islands. The taxi cruised off down the Chang'an Avenue. cruise missile 巡航导弹 cruiser: a large fast warship 巡洋舰

3. Tom Sawyer’s endless summer of freedom and adventure: endless: hyperbole; parallelism summer : because all the adventures of Tom Sawyer described in the book are supposed to have taken place in one particular summer. 4. every bit as…as: He is every bit as clever as you are. I'm every bit as sorry about it as you.

4. … as adventurous, patriotic, romantic, and humorous as … : a) adventurous: Mark Twain was adventurous in every sense of the word. He was always trying new things, and always going to new places. Even in his literary career, he was never satisfied with what he achieved. b) patriotic: It refers to Mark Twain’s profound love for his country with its robust people and beautiful scenery and its lofty ideals. It may also refer to his pride in the American tradition and the American language.

c) romantic: (in art, literature and music) marked by feeling rather by intellect; preferring greatness, passion, informal beauty, to order and proportion. d) humorous: His works are so full of humor that he is considered as America’s greatest humorist.

5. cynical cynic: n. a person who believes that people do not do things for good, sincere or noble reasons, but only for their own advantage a cynical remark, attitude, smile They've grown rather cynical about democracy, ie no longer believe that it is an honest system.

6. obsess: to worry continuously and unnecessarily She is obsessed by the desire to become a great actress. 7. frailty: a weakness of character or behaviour One of the frailties of human nature is laziness. That chair looks too frail to take a man's weight. There is only a frail chance that he will pass the examination. 8. Black wall of night: metaphor

9. tramp: a person who has no home or permanent job and very little money 10. prospector: one who explores and searches for valuable ores such as gold, silver, oil, etc. 11. starry-eyed: full of unreasonable or silly
hopes We were all starry-eyed about visiting London.

12. acid-tongued: sharp, sarcastic in speech 13. digest: think about, understand , and remember The report contains too much to digest at one reading. He reads rapidly but does not digest very much.

14. …the new American experience: Twain lived in the stirring years in American history ---- the American-Mexican War, The Civil War, the Gold Rush, the western expansion, the American Spanish War, the rapid development of capitalism and later the emergence of imperialism along with the first economic depressions, etc.

15. adopt: to take and use as one's own The US government decided to adopt a hard line towards terrorism. Having no children of their own they decided to adopt an orphan / dog. adopt a name, a custom, an idea, a style of dress

adept: skilled; ~ (in sth); ~ (at/in doing sth) He's an adept in carpentry. adapt: make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc. This novel has been adapted for TV from the Russian original. Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark.

16. Signal n. & v. a signal made with a red flag She flashed the torch as a signal. They signaled their discontent by refusing to vote. This is an event signaling a change in public opinion.

17. the climax of western expansion:
When America became independent, there were only 13 states along the Atlantic Ocean. By 1850, the U.S. had expanded to the Pacific coast. Events in this western expansion include: The massacre of the native Indians The Louisiana Purchase (1803) Texas Annexation (1845) The push into Oregon (1846) Mexican Cession (1848) The Godsden Purchase

18. … drained three-quarters of the settled U.S. : Drain: receive the waters of this area and carry them to the ocean Here the meaning is that the river drained a vast basin, and the basin made up ? of the populated area of the U.S. of that time. 19. cosmos

19. a) pilothouse: an enclosed place on the upper deck of a river boat in which the helmsman or pilot stands with steering b) feud: bitter quarrel between persons, families or countries over a long period of time c) piracy: robbery of ships on the high sea or inland waterways d) lynching: the murder of an accused person without trial, carried out by a mob, usually by hanging e) medicine show: show given by entertainers who travel from town to town, accompanied by quacks and fake Indians, selling cure-alls, snake-bite medicine, etc. f) savage slums: slums that are crude, lack polish or are violently lawless

20. Steamboat decks teemed not only with… Steamboat decks were filled with people of pioneering spirit or people who explored and prepared the way for others, and also lawless people or social outcasts such as hustlers, gamblers and thugs (violent criminals). teem with: be full of, have in great numbers, etc. 1) His head teems with clever ideas. 2) Fish teems in this river. 3) The marshes teem with mosquitoes in summer. 4) Before being polluted that river teemed with fish and shrimps”.

21. perception: natural understanding extra sensory perception perceive: realize, notice, see or hear sth. esp. when it is not obvious to other people Just as a good artist must have good perception of colour, a good musician must have good perception of sound. Alcohol reduces your perception of pain

22. … the difference between what people claim to be and what they really are: This is a good example of antithesis. That is the difference between words and deeds, or between what they preach and what they practice. People often claim to be kind, generous, honest, etc., whereas in reality, they are seldom what they say they are.

23. trade: job, esp. one needing special skill with the hands I am a fisherman by trade. They work in the cotton / tourist / shoemaking / jewellery trade. 24. acknowledge This is a fact even our enemies abroad have to acknowledge. He is an acknowledged expert on examination.

25. acquaint: cause to know personally, make familiar with, You must acquainted yourself with your new duties. be acquainted with I have heard about your friend but I am not acquainted with him. make acquaintance of sb. / make sb's acquaintance Where did you make his acquaintance? Very pleased to have made your acquaintance. nodding acquaintance / bowing acquaintance

26. motley: having or composed of many different or clashing elements a motley crowd / crew, ie a group of many different types of people 27. band: a group of people joined together for a common purpose (derog.)

27. …succumbed to the epidemic of gold and silver fever : gave way or yielded or submitted to the prevailing gold and silver fever. ( metaphor: The author describes the gold and silver rush as a fever and an epidemic, that is a disease spreading rapidly among many people in the same area at the same time.) 1) In the end he succumbed to the temptation. 2) The president succumbed to the pressure of his opponents. 3) Mrs. Clemens succumbed to a heart attack in Florence. (die of)

28. … he flirted with the colossal wealth … and was rebuffed: He tried but not very hard or persistently enough to get the enormous wealth available to those lucky and persistent ones, and he failed. (metaphor.) rebuff: refuse unkindly and contemptuously cf: refuse The friendly dog was rebuffed by a kick. He refused / rebuffed the suggestion. He can't refuse (vi.) / *rebuff (vt.) if you ask politely.
Please pay attention that words like flirt, lucky, persistent and rebuff are often associated with love.

flirt a. Originally it means to make love without serious intention. Don't take her seriously, she is only flirting with you. She flirts with every man in the office. b. If you flirt with the idea of doing or having sth. , you consider doing or having it, without making any definite plans. We flirted with the idea of going abroad but decided against it.

29. … to literature’s enduring gratitude:
to one’s surprise/satisfaction/disappointment/delight If Mark Twain had not accepted that job offered to him by Territorial Enterprise, literature might have lost that literal giant. Therefore, world literature is forever grateful to this turn of events. endure: continue to exist without any loss in quality or importance His fame will endure eternally. enduring memories / peace His influence was the most enduring of all.

30. The instant riches of a mining strike would not be his in the reporting trade, but for making money, his pen would prove mightier than his pickax: He did not succeed in his reporting trade and become rich overnight as a gold miner might have done at that time by discovering a vein of gold. Yet his reporting brought him more money than his unsuccessful mining or prospecting might have. mining strike: sudden discovery of some mineral ores

31. hone: n. a stone used to sharpen knives and tools v. to sharpen with hone e.g. to hone one’s wit
32. scathing columns: severe and harsh articles A column (专栏) is one of a series of feature articles appearing regularly under a fixed title in a newspaper or magazine, written by a special writer or devoted to a certain subject. cf: columnist (专栏作家)

33. be accustomed to: be in the habit of, be used to, be familiar with (+doing/ do) He is accustomed to working hard. You will soon get accustomed to that kind of thing. He was not accustomed to leave home during the winter. He is not accustomed to work under such noisy condition.

accustomed: used as an attribute
He sat in his accustomed chair. her accustomed smile his accustomed attitude of optimism accustom oneself He has to accustom himself to the cold weather. 34. trend: fashion, tendency Today's trend is toward less formal clothing. Young women are always interested in the trends of fashion.

35. … for all the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths… : Because all the slow, dull and lazy people stayed at home, hence implying that all those who came pioneering out west were energetic, courageous and reckless(不计后果的) people.

36. get up: arrange , organize or start Who is going to get up the concert? The students got up a countrywide campaign in support of the nuclear disarmament.

37. astound 38. Enterprise 39. rush through: to complete (a job) hastily We will try to rush your order through before Saturday.
40. Reckless: Showing a complete lack of care about danger or about the results of their actions. Many young motorcyclists are very reckless.

It was these pioneers that brought California a reputation. California was made famous for organizing surprising businesses and developing them with great bravery and courage, without caring cost or result. And California keeps this fame until now. When she makes plans for a new surprise, the dull, solemn, dignified people in other parts of the States smile as usual and say: “Well, that's typical of California, that's just California style.”

41. celebrated a celebrated actress, writer, pianist, etc. celebrity: famous person celebrities of stage and screen
42. distinct: easily heard, seen, or understood The footprints are quite distinct; they must be fresh. ~ (from sth) different in kind Although they look similar, these plants are actually quite distinct. Mozart's style is quite distinct from Haydn's.

43. –logue (–log): a. forming n: talk or speech Dialogue; monologue b. = -logist, ideologue (ideologist) 思想家
Sinologue Sinologist, 汉学家

44. sore: aching a sore knee, throat, etc My leg is still very sore. She feels sore about not being invited to the party. Your financial help is sorely needed.

44. Casually he debunked revered artists and art treasures:
He exposed the pretensions of respected artists and the false glamour of art treasures. He did this as if unintentionally and in a nonchalant manner.

debunk If you debunk an idea or belief, you show that it is false or not important. debunk fashionable opinions bunk: sl. Nonsense e.g. Don't talk bunk! de: to remove from; debunk: to remove the nonsense revere: (fml) to give great respect and admiration to He was a revered figure with a great national reputation. They revered him.

45. version Did you read the short or full version of the book? There have been several translations of the Bible, including the Authorized Version and the Revised Version. 46. innocent: simple, not able to recognize evil He was a financial genius but a political innocent. He is innocent before found guilty. 47. in earnest Are you joking or in earnest?

48. classic: having the highest quality; of the first or highest class or rank classical: being in accordance with ancient Greek or Roman models in literature or art(古典) classical music as opposed to popular, jazz, or folk music.

Chinese Classic
四书The 大学

Four Books The Great Learning


The Doctrine of Mean中庸 The Analects of Confucius论语 Mencius孟子

Five Classics The Book of Songs诗经 The Book of History书经 The Book of Changes易

The Book of Rites礼记 The Spring and Autumn Annals春秋

49. mischievous: eager to have fun, esp. by playing harmless tricks 50. ingenuity The boy showed ingenuity when solving the difficult maths problem.

51. Fleeing from a respectable life: Towards the end of the book, Huck was adopted by the kind-hearted widow Douglas who was determined to have him and turn him into a “respectable” boy. But Huck could not stand it. Eventually he ran away to seek his freedom. 52. puritanical: extremely or excessively strict in matters of morals and religion.

53. Huck was given a life of his own, in a book … : Huckleberry Finn was published in 1884. This book is Mark Twain’s finest creation, a symbol of simple honesty and conscience. Huck first appeared in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Compared with Tom, Huck lacks Tom’s imagination. He is a simple boy with little education. The son of the town drunkard, a homeless river rat, cheerful in his rags, suspicious of every attempt to civilize him, Huck has none of the unimportant virtues but all the essential ones. The school of hard knocks has taught him skepticism, horse scene has given him a unyielding or firm grasp on reality. But it has not toughed him into cynicism or crime.

Nature gave him a staunch and faithful heart, friendly to all underdogs and instantly hostile towards bullies and all shapes of overmastering power. He is obviously a universal character, the free soul that every boy would wish to be before the world breaks him. The book is a loosely-strung series of adventures, and can be viewed as the story of a quest for freedom and an escape from what society requires in exchange for success. Joined in flight by a Negro companion, Jim, who seeks freedom from slavery, Huck discovers that the Mississippi River is peaceful, but the world along its shores is marred by deceit and cruelty and murder. A joy forever, this book is generally acknowledged to be among the best of American and world literature. Hemingway once said, “All American literature begins with one book: Huckleberry Finn”.

54. energy-sapping sap: gradually weaken sb/sth by taking away I was sapped by months of hospital treatment. She's been sapped of her optimism. Stop sapping her confidence! 55. clamour: a continuous strong demand or complaint The public are clamouring for a change of government. The baby clamoured to be fed.

56. …lay ourselves on the shelf occasionally and renew our edges: To relax, rest, or stay away from all this crazy struggle for success occasionally and keep our edges sharp. Mark Twain thinks the Americans should keep their daring and enterprising spirit. But we are working too hard on money. We should halt to renew our energy, so that we can think more, use our brain. There is something missing in our life, e.g. individual freedom.

57. haunt: to visit, appearing in a strange form The old house is said to be haunted by a headless ghost. A spirit haunts the castle. The sad memory still haunts her. (She was haunted by sad memories.) Poverty and poor health haunted the famous musician.
58. meningitis : -itis : diseases involving inflamation bronchitis (支气管炎), tonsillitis (扁桃体炎), appendicitis (阑尾炎), hepatitis (肝炎), arthritis (关节炎).

59. The Mysterious Stranger : Published posthumously in 1916, this book is the greatest story of Mark Twain’s later period, too often neglected in the appraisal of his work. The story is that of some boys who are really Tom Sawyer’s gang in medieval dress, in a small village in Austria, who strike up an acquaintance with a supernatural visitor who calls himself Satan and is able to work miracles and jiggle (move from side to side with short quick light movement) with human lives. At last he grows bored with his own game. He then said to the boys: “It is true, that which I have revealed to you, there is no God,

no universe, no human race, no earthly life, no heaven, no hell. It is all a dream ---- a grotesque and foolish dream. Nothing exists but you. And you are but a thought ---- a vagrant thought, a useless thought, a homeless thought, wandering forlorn (unhappy) among the empty eternities!” Here in the closing pages of the story, Mark Twain tries to solve his riddle of grief and self-reproach, and clothe his soul in the invulnerable armour of desperation. Good or evil, like reality itself, are to him only illusion.

60. final release from earthly struggles: euphemism earthly: worldly -ly : an adjective-forming suffix, meaning like, suitable to, characteristic of e.g. manly, fatherly, brotherly, heavenly

This excerpt is a brief yet impressive introduction of Mark twain, one of the greatest writers in America. His adventurous, patriotic, romantic and humorous characteristics are known by most people. Before becoming a writer, he had done various kinds of jobs which greatly enriched his writings. His experience on the

Mississippi River left such a profound and permanent influence on him that his beat when he wrote about this river. He came to fame with a short novel about the Calaveras jumping frog, and then reached the peak of his career by Tom Sawyer and Huk Finn. However, the bitterness of his life, especially the successive deaths of his family members, is seldom made known to the public. And it is this

dark side of his life that makes his later works filled with a satiric tone. Ironically, the man who makes the world laugh is made bitter by his all misfortunes. Thus his bitter life experience seems to be in contradiction with his own humorous works. And by presenting both sides of his life, the author presents to his readers a fuller picture of Mark Twain that will help them understand his works much better.

Mr. Clemens lives on in the hearts and minds of grateful readers everywhere.

V. Structural Analysis
Part 1: Introduction Part 2: His early life, his success and comments on his works. Section1: the setting, background knowledge Section 2: early years of life on the Mississippi and as a Confederate guerrilla Section 3: On his way to success Section 4: Comments on his best works. Part 3: Personal tragedy and conclusion.

III. Comments on usage and style
1. The text is on the life of Mark Twain and Twain’s place in American literature. The language is formal, the writing style is easy, vivid and humorous. 2. Rhetorical devices employed or used in the text

1. Metaphor:
Mark Twain -- Mirror of America saw clearly ahead a black wall of night... main artery of transportation in the young nation's heart the vast basin drained three-quarters of the settled United States All would resurface in his books...that he soaked up... Steamboat decks teemed...main current of pioneering spirit...but its flotsam of hustlers, thugs When railroads began drying up the demand... ...the epidemic of gold and silver fever...

2. Simile: Most American remember M. T. as the father of... ...a memory that seemed phonographic 3. Hyperbole: ...cruise through eternal boyhood and ...endless summer of freedom... The cast of characters... - a cosmos. 4. Parallelism: Most Americans remember ... the father of Huck Finn's idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and Tom Sawyer's endless summer of freedom and adventure.

5. Personification:
life dealt him profound personal tragedies... the river had acquainted him with ... ...to literature's enduring gratitude... ...an entry that will determine his course forever... the grave world smiles as usual... Bitterness fed on the man... America laughed with him. Personal tragedy haunted his entire life. wealth described as a lady

6. Antithesis: ...between what people claim to be and what they really are... ...took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land... ...a world which will lament them a day and forget them forever 7. Euphemism: ...men's final release from earthly struggle diligently avoiding contact with the enemy

8. Alliteration: ...the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths stayed at home ...with a dash and daring... ...a recklessness of cost or consequences... 9. Metonymy: ...his pen would prove mightier than his pickaxe pen associated with writing talent, pickax associated with mining, 10. Synecdoche Keelboats,...carried the first major commerce

These tablets make me feel rather-------. a. ill b. comfortable c. sluggish d. tedious Football hooliganism is now reaching -----proportion. a. hot b. popular c. epidemic d. considerate That child --------new facts like a sponge! a. takes up b. soaks with c. soaks up d. takes over

That sounds like my sister --------. a. all over b. over all c. over d. to over Her kindness to him was met with a cruel -------. a. refusal b. rebuff c. silent d. astonishment Key


Questions for discussion: 1. Why should Mark Twain be considered as mirror of America? 2. Why is Mark Twain one of America’s best –loved authors? 3. Why is Tom Sawyer sure to be studied in American schools as The Declaration of Independence?


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