主题句是篇章的核心，它表明作者的态度、观点、意图等，同时反映了段落的中心思想。主 题句应具备：一是明确的观点， 二是有一定的概括性，能用其它句子来解释、 描述、 分析等。 扩展句主要围绕着主题句进行叙述，说
明或论述等。扩展句必须明确、具体。总结句指用一 句话将某一主旨进行归纳总结或概括，有时还起承上启下的作用。总结句需要与主题呼应， 引发读者对段落主题的进一步认识。总之，篇章的主题必须统一，内容完整、结构连贯，长 度适度。
段落的扩展 段落的扩展对构成一篇文章，展示文章的主题，有着举足轻重的作用。常用的方式有： 1．排列顺序：既按照内容的主次、时间的先后或位置的先后来进行论证，陈述或解释。 常用的词语有： first／firstly, second／secondly， furthermore， finally， above all， first and most important, to begin／start with, in the second place, moreover, to conclude, next，then, afterward lastly, in the end, eventually． 2．比较和对比：一般来说，比较包括相同点和相异点。对比则仅指相异点。常见的词及词 组有：in comparison(with)，likewise，similarly，in the same way，equally，but, in contrast With ／to，instead，conversely，on the contrary, in／by contrast，while，Correspondingly． 3．因果和推理：这种段落发展方式通常用于解释某件事发生的原因和结果。经常用到的因 果关系的动词和动词词组有：cause，produce，lead to, bring about, result from, be due to，have an effect on, result in． 因果关系的连接词有：due to，the fact that, for the simple reason，because (of)，so that, consequently，hence，as a result，accordingly，therefore，so long as，so，thus，owing to，now that, for／as，since． 4．举例：用实例来说明作者的观点是举例段落的发展方式。采用举例的方式，使文章内容 更加充实，更富有内涵。常用于举例的词和词组有：such as，for example，for instance，as an illustration，to illustrate，a case in point，as follows，just as，just as，including，like．
短文的基本格式为：开始段，主体段和结论段。 短文的基本格式为：开始段，主体段和结论段。开始段是短文的中心，即主题。文章的开 头段必须把握两个原则：表明文章的主题使文章的发展有所遵循；引发读者的兴趣、使他确 信值得读下去。主体段，即文章的发展，是文章的中心的发展，它以文章的开头为线索，准 确，具体而充实地论证、说明或分析文章的主题。主体段须遵循 1)文章的发展必须通畅、
自然。2)文章的发展必须联贯统一。3)文章的发展必须长短适度。结论段：同文章的开头和 发展一样，文章的结尾也是写作成败的关键。它起着总结，概括全篇的作用，使主题更加鲜 明，结构更加完美。 Section I 补充主题句 1)__________________, generally, the standard of education is higher. This is because colleges and universities have up-to-date equipment and other resources. Also, teachers and lectures are highly-skilled professionals who are aware of all the latest developments in their fields of interest. A final point is that the overseas qualifications which a student obtains are valid usually anywhere in the world. 2) __________________. These include defense capabilities and social security. Private enterprise and the profit motive should not form part of these essential services. On the other hand, some services could be provided by either governments or private groups or both. Education and health care are examples of such services. A government must provide at least a basic level of education and health care so all citizens call have access to them. 3) __________________. Every day there are opportunities to practice listening to and speaking with Australians. Also, students can experience the culture first-hand, which is a great help when trying to understand the language. This is especially true if they choose to live with Australians, as part of a home-stay family, for example. Furthermore, if students attend a language school full-time, the teachers will be native speakers. 4) __________________. Jose did not complete his mathematics yesterday. He spent the first fifteen minutes of the hour working on the first of the ten examination problems. He spent other minutes doodling on his test paper. 5) __________________. One example is the word "graft." The verb to graft first meant merely to work. English people once used the word in such expressions as " Where are you grafting?", meaning " Where are you working?". From this perfectly respectable meaning, the word has gradually changed. Today graft refers to illegal gains won by dishonest politicians.转 Section II 重组下面的段落 6. Certainly TV can be a powerful educational tool. People can learn about situations and problems far away, and begin to understand different cultures. Many informative documentaries about nature, news, and social issues are made now, and these can stimulate people to action. People in isolated areas can know for themselves what is happening in the world. This gives them the power to make their own decisions and form their own opinions. 7. In my opinion, television is the most important technological development. Nowadays almost everyone in the world has access to TV. Television has caused significant changes in family life and education. Some of these changes have been positive while others have been negative.
8. However, the changes have not all been positive. Before television was widely available, families spent more time together talking and playing games. They seemed much closer to each other than modem families. 9. To sum up, I feel that, overall, there are strong positive effects of TV in terms of its education role, but it has in many ways altered people and families in a negative sense. 10. Also, the fact is that people waste a lot of time watching poor quality programs which do not have a positive influence. People get a bad impression of the real world from such programs. Furthermore, TV is sometimes used to deliberately misinform people; for example when it is used to as a propaganda tool by governments. 转贴 BEC 段落写作训练二 Section III 根据所给出的主题句写出支持句 11. The most obvious advantage to overseas university study is real-life use of a different language. _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 12. For the individual office worker, telecommuting would mean spending more time at home. _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 13. The younger generation is essentially different from the older generation. _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________
14. I like traveling by bus than traveling by airplane for three reasons. _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Section IV 用启、承、转，合词填空 Text 1 Teachers of foreign languages should be extremely well-qualified in order to carry out their duties properly. 15) ______, a teacher should possess a minimum of a graduate degree from a certified education school or institute if he is to teach high school or below. Besides the academic degree, teachers should not consider teaching only as an occupation for earning money; they should also be interested in teaching. It was 16) ______ necessary that teachers be knowledgeable in their major fields, 17) ______ they should further more be skillful as well. 18) ______ the language teacher must know the target language well enough to be imitated by his students. A teacher should 19)______ know the linguistic facts of the language of the students in order to understand problems they will have in learning the target language, 20)______ the teacher must be familiar with audio-lingual techniques. Knowing all this will help the students to learn correctly and quickly. Text 2 21) ______ studying too much may be harmful to students. 22) ______, many teachers expect their students to do more work than they can handle. 23)______, parents do not realize that pressuring their children to study hard than called for can injure their children＇ health. 24)______ s most parents know what growing boys and girls need relaxation as well as exercise, 25)______ many students have no choice but to burn the candle at the both ends in order to get good grades and please their parents, but a physically weaker or socially deprived child may not be able to keep up with such a hurried pace. Accordingly, this pressure to study in excess of what is required. 1) University Students Like Reading Newspapers in English Dear Editor: I am a student at Renmin University of China in Beijing. As a regular who goes to the university library＇s newspaper room, I have discovered that many students like reading newspaper in
English, especially China Daily. The reason that China Daily is popular among students is not difficult to explain. A major characteristic of China Daily is the conciseness of its articles. Most of the articles are brief, clearly written and informative. Many students are busy with their studies and don＇t have much spare time. However, by reading China Daily, readers can get up-to-date news about China and the world and enhance their reading capabilities at the same time and, more importantly, it doesn’t cost them a lot of time. In this sense, China Daily is providing a sort of “fast-food” to its readers. Furthermore, China Daily also helps its readers improve their writing skills. For those students who find English compositions difficult, articles on China Daily serve as perfect examples. 转贴 Many fellow students told me that they had learned a lot from China Daily about China and the world. As a result they also improved their reading and writing and got high marks in English exams. Yours Sincerely, Lin Weiying 2) China＇s Most Famous Symbol in Need Of Help Years ago, walking the Great Wall in the Beijing region was like no other experience in China. It was peaceful; there were no coke cans or mineral water bottles to spoil the view----it was quite simply the world＇ s most spectacular open air museum. How things have changed! There are now cans and bottles, and sometimes much worse. While I used to spend most of recreational time climbing the Great Wall, I have found myself spending an increasing amount of time cleaning up the wall. In the last 18 months I have organized four Great Wall clean-up activities, mobilizing around 350 people to collect garbage. I ask myself, why is the Great Wall becoming such a dump? Litter was not a problem at in the 1980s, because packagers of foods and drinks used traditional materials that were biodegradable or returnable. Now, as the market economy has expanded, consumption has boomed. In everyday life, plastic bottles, metal cans, foils and cellophane are widely used as disposable packaging materials. Increased mobility as the result of mushrooming private car ownership has also fueled the widespread use and abuse of disposable packaging. Viewing this serpent of stone snaking across the mountains north 0f Beijing, I know that the Great Wall is the No 1 wonder of the world, a precious and unique cultural relic, a fragile wilderness. The Great Wall is in danger of becoming just a symbol, despoiled in reality. I hope that more people can start to show their love for the Great Wall in action. 3) Wealth and Happiness Wealth has always been what some people long for. It is true that most of them try to acquire
wealth by means of honest labor. Their efforts contribute to the welfare of the society and at the same time to the accumulation of their wealth, and hence to their happiness. There is no doubt that wealth brings happiness, especially in the modern society. Various kinds of up-to-date household appliances, latest fashions and recreations make their appearance with each passing day. All this makes our life more comfortable and colorful. Therefore, without money we cannot turn admiration into reality. But there are exceptions when wealth does not go hand in hand with happiness. Wealth may tempt weak-willed persons to be addicted to harmful habits, such as drug-taking and gambling, and result in their own ruin. Also, a person may lost his reason and go astray if he is entirely devoted to seeking wealth. In my opinion, on no account can we identify wealth with happiness. I also believe that one should never rely only on wealth to achieve happiness. 转
BEC 段落写作训练三 4) The Fight Against Crime Today the crime rate in some of our cities seems to be rising. Many citizens complain about the thefts and robberies which take place in their street blocks. Therefore, more and more people are appealing to the authorities to take strong measures to reduce the crime rate. Faced with criminals, different people have different attitudes towards them. Some become so frightened that they tend to give up fighting or to turn a blind eve to the criminals. Others, however, are brave enough to fight the criminals even at the risk of their own lives. In their eyes, responsibility is the most important of all the values that hold honest people together Without it there can be no self-respect, no trust, no law-and, ultimately, no society. There is no doubt that they set a good example for all of us to follow. As far as I am concerned, my suggestions are as follow. In the first place, every one of us should receive a law education. Secondly, criminals must be punished severely. Finally, it is urgent to set up a foundation to reward those who fight criminals. In this way we can stand up to any crime and smash it. 5) Challenges of Environmental Issues Environmental protection has aroused great concern among people. In many cities, especially in big populous cities, environmental pollution has become really serious. For example, an urban population of 12 million and 1.4 minion vehicles in Beijing puts great pressure on resources and the environment, The underground water level in Beijing has continued to decrease in recent years due to excessive use. Coal burning, exhaust emissions from vehicles and factories also intensify the city＇ environmental problems. We have to pay the historical debts we owe to the environment s
because of early rapid economic development. However, pollution control does not have to hinder economic development. In a sense, it is a stimulation to the economy because pollution controls motivate enterprises to aim for higher industrial standards and start a material and resource efficient production. The exhaust control on vehicles can be cited as an example. Some municipal governments require that the pollutant level in vehicle emissions be controlled to reduce air pollution. Unleaded gasoline has also been promoted during the past year. As a result, automobile and chemical factories have to enhance their production technology to meet the demand. Now some municipal governments have also taken such measures to stop the pollution as replacing coal with natural gas, reducing dust and deforestation to improve the lives of residents. In Beijing, 30 per cent of fuel used in urban centers will come from natural gas. Low sulfur coal is replacing high sulfur coal for factories. Many small boilers and kitchen ranges in restaurants and dining halls have been replaced by gas ovens. As we can see that the measures have been effectively combating pollution. The air sulfur dioxide density has been on the decline since this year, and the density of total suspended particles and carbon monoxide bas been kept on the same level as last year. Though the density of nitrogen oxides continues to increase because of the rising of the number of automobiles, the degree of growth has been reduced. Despite the progress some big cities have achieved in improving the local environment, we believe that big city planners should adopt a comprehensive environmental policy, which is more important than the detailed measures and achievement. 6) Opportunities don＇t come often. They come every once in a while. Very often, They come quietly and go by without being noticed. Therefore, it is advisable that you should value and treat them with care. When an opportunity comes, it brings a promise but never realizes it on its own. If you want to achieve something or intend to fulfill one of your ambitions, you must work hard, make efforts and get prepared. Otherwise, you will take no advantage of opportunities when they come to visit you. The difference between a man who succeeds and one who does not lies only in the way each treats opportunities. The successful person always makes adequate preparations to meet opportunities as they duly arrive. The unsuccessful person, on the other hand, works little and just waits to see them pass by. 转 In my opinion, there are plenty of opportunities for everyone in our society, but only those who are prepared adequately and qualified highly can make use of them to achieve their purpose. 7) EDUEATION IN CHINA
In the wave of the economic reform, many scholars and educators have realized that China＇s education system, especially the higher education, has to gear itself to the market economy. First of all, the present college education system cannot meet the needs following the development of the market economy. For example, the enrollment and job assignment which are carried out in the conventionally planned manners should be reformed. The competition in the next century will be based on national strength and on science and technology. Therefore, training high-calibre Professional is important. Someone suggested to build 20 to 30 quality universities in a bid to train high-level professionals. But this is far from enough. If the state wants to succeed, it has to develop applied science, high-tech, inter-disciplinary sciences and engineering technology. The universities should try to readjust their syllabus in order to meet the needs of economic and social development. The reform is a long-term job. The second problem is concerning the expenditure of universities and colleges. The expenditure comes mainly from the State and the marketing of research findings: But it is not enough to rely on allocations from the state and the income of the school. Now many schools have asked the students to pay a certain amount of fees. This is workable because China＇ college education is not compulsory and s with the improvement of people＇s living standards, parents are willing to pay for education, colleges can set up scholarships and students loans for outstanding students from low- income families. From a strategic point of view, the country should increase expenditure on education. If China want to strengthen her overall national strength, the best way is to start from education. 8) A sane person should be at peace both with himself and with others. At work, for example, the successful businessman first creates ideas in his own mind, and then presents his plans to a committee where they can be improved upon by the wisdom of them. I believe that study also comprises the two sides of solitary work and group activity. Wisdom always recognizes the worth of others. Firstly, there is so much to be learned from the expertise of a genuinely knowledgeable teacher. Secondly, other students can offer different perspectives of a topic. On a practical basis, friends can be useful for recommending the perfect textbook and so forth. In learning a foreign language, the student should always try to find friends who are native speakers of the target language. It is with sadness, contempt and cynical disbelief that I see a certain type of foreign student departing from a host country: by slavishly working in the library the student is awarded with high academic marks, but he or she has never spoken to a native speaker for any other reason than for petty power and financial gain. The insular academic student should remember the English saying that "no man is an island". There is no substitute for self-study, for the solitary labor of reading and reflective thought. If a person is to master any academic subject, he must first read extensively. Until he does so, he can only contribute superficially to the group. Quiet reading encourages the student to think for
himself. By thought and reflection the student begins to understand the world. Self-study (as the word implies) is also an inward 30urnev. When the student re-emerges from the forest of his own character, he gains one of the highest forms of learning-that of self-knowledge. Free from self-deceit, he is only then truly ready to create within the collective economy. Overall, although I have argued for both methods, I prefer self-study to group interaction. Too much conversation can lapse into idleness; and weaker students sometimes attempt to take more than they contribute. Self-study is at the base of learning. Most important of all is the fact that a person has to learn about and control himself before he is prepared to present his opinions to others. Just as the businessman requires many years of experience to learn about commerce and industry so the student requires many years of reading. 转 BEC 段落写作训练四 9) ECONOMIC REFORMS IN CHINA China has taken her economic reforms for nearly two decades. People have greatly benefited from the free market economy. Year in and year out, our salaries are higher and higher, and at the same time, our deposit secured steadily. With money in pocket, people can turn their eyes to other forms of consumption instead of living necessities: They have more opportunities to enjoy their lives. Meanwhile the number of people in poverty also decreased greatly. China, now full of confidence, is catching up with other developed nations. However, there do exist some problems in the reformation of economy in China. First of all, with the aggravation of leans in some state-owned or state-operated corporations, more and more people lose their jobs. That will make not only those laid-off workers but the whole society lose confidence and will hinder the development in economy. Secondly, deficit in bank has become a major problem in the reformation in China. Thirdly, the polarization of the society gets more and more serious. The rich have become richer and the poor poorer. In spite of all these difficulties, people don＇ t feel frustrated. They still feel happy and confident about the future. They expect the government can continue the reformation in economics and solve all these difficulties.
10) AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is one of the major problems of the modern world. As is known to all, air is essential for life, but it has been getting polluted almost everywhere. Air pollution is more serious in industrialized countries. With the development of industry, the number of various kinds of vehicles and factories is rapidly increasing. They give off a great amount of gas, which is poisonous and harmful to the health of people. Scientists are finding ways to stop air pollution especially in big industrial areas and
densely-populated cities. For instance, people have fixed special device on a car to reduce its end gas. Measures have been taken to purify the poisonous gases to a great degree. Smokeless fuels like natural gas are used by more and more citizens. New factories are not allowed to be put up in the center of cities, and factories have used soot-eliminating devices or built recovery towers and sewage treatment tanks to turn the harmful into the beneficial. However, we still have a long way to go before we have a "clean" world. Air pollution is a world-wide problem. It can＇t be solved easily within a day or night. People all over the world should make concerted efforts to reduce air pollution step by step. 11)WOMAN＇S POSITION Almost 50 years have passed since China＇s liberation. "Though the position of women has improved to a level higher than used to be the case, it is not high enough. The situation can be reflected from the facts of woman＇s social life. Firstly, in many rural areas, the problem of looking down on female children is very serious. To give birth to a boy, peasants run here and there to escape the punishment of the authorities, and a few people even throw the newly-born girl baby in the open. Moreover, to the children＇s education, the parents adopt quite different attitudes. If their money is limited, they always send the boys to school ad let the girls stay at home to earn money. They often say, "Daughters eventually will belong to others. Though some female students are lucky enough to enter college, they will force the problem of employment after their graduation. Most companies would rather accept boys. About this they have many so-called excuses. If the female employees get married, they will have much trouble. They will need a long time to take a care of the baby. Some women who have been accepted by the company will have few chances to be trained or promoted for the same reason. Now among the senior leaders of the state there are only a few women, so many important policies will not reflect women＇s thoughts and desires.
12) MY VIEW ON TELEVISION The advent of Television has exerted a strong influence on our lives. But in my view, Television watching should be minimized if we want to live a more meaningful and healthy life. The reasons are as follows: First of all, people spend too much time watching Television to carry out other activities which are better. Many people schedule what they do around planned periods of viewing. It is estimated that the average child today spend more time watching TV than in any other activities save for sleep. If
people would turn off TV and enjoy a quiet hour, they might be able to rediscover reading in which they would probably find more entertainment. Or they might take a walk with their family and discuss some problems that have been bothering them. Secondly, a growing number of movies and shows display violence and sex for a sensational effect. But viewers, especially teenagers may take this as granted indiscriminately and this may pose a serious threat to our society. Thirdly, scientists have found out that prolonged exposure to artificial light may alter human cells, thus poses a danger to human health. Therefore, life-long TV exposure might well be a physical risk to human beings. In short, it is high time that we turned off TV and have some fun in other activities. By using the quiet hours to do something more useful, we may get to like our new life better.
13) EXAMINATIONS HAVE A BAD INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the method of testing a person＇ s knowledge and ability remains as primitive as ever it was. For most people, a test means that the candidates or examiners are sitting in a room with a pen in their hands and are supposed to finish the questions on the test paper within a limited time. Examinations are used for various purposes. A teacher may use it to measure how much progress his/her students have achieved after a period of instruction and, in turn, the results or data or examinations reveal what knowledge and ability the students are lacking. In addition, we have entrance examinations, placement tests, proficiency tests and so on. Outside school, examinations are used for the purpose of selection and promotion. Therefore, examinations are of great importance in modern society. However, people have noted tat examinations have a negative effect on education. On one hand, the tests themselves are questionable; the results of tests lack validity and reliability. On the other hand, both teachers and students are working for high marks instead of learning. As a result, we have high marks but incompetent students. Examples have shown that some Asian students with very high TOEFL marks turn out to be poor in their communication skills in the United States. With the development of science, examinations which can objectively and comprehensively measure a person＇s knowledge and ability will be constructed. They will contribute more to education if they are rightly understood and appropriately used. BEC 段落写作训练五 14) ON MAKING FRIENDS
As a human being, one can hardly do without friend. It is because one is not only an individual, but also a social being as well. There are times when one needs to turn to someone for help or comfort. It is because life is full of disappointment, sorrow, loneliness and sorrows. In today＇s competitive society, no one can cope everything by himself. There are many kinds of friends. Some are just our playmates, some for show-off, but true friends are those you can count on when faced with difficulties. There is a well-known saying "Friend in need is friend indeed". If your friends turn a cold shoulder to you or even turn against you when you are having troubles, he/she is not your genuine friend. Therefore, I prefer staying with those friends who are helpful, trusting, encouraging and loyal. Being selective and knowing that they can stay by my side when I need them is the most important principle in friend-choosing. 15) As technology has greatly excelled, the mobile phone market is getting larger and larger. According to a survey, as high as 40% people in a coast city in China have already owned mobile phones. There are certain reasons why people prefer mobile phones. As shown in the chart, nearly over 95% people put convenience in the first place. Following that, about 80% of people state that a mobile phone is most helpful in emergency situations. It is true that mobile phones have brought much convenience to people＇ daily life. It makes life much easier. You don＇ have to wait around s t for a phone call, you can contact people wherever you are, and thus it can be more productive. It may help you or even save your life in emergency cases. Of course, there are many other advantages too. Honestly, there are certain hazards by using mobile phones. Many people have realized some of them. It is shown that nearly over 95% people admit that they have to spend much of their money on it＇s bills. Thus, if used improperly, it can increase some people＇s economical burden. Apart from that, over 60% people state that it may do harm to people＇s health. However, not many people, only about 20%, have realized that the wasted batteries would be harmful to the environment. Mobile phones, in my opinion, will continue to be seen and will only be seen more and more as technology advances. When they are appropriately used, the benefits will be greater, more helpful and more important. 转贴
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