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英语独立主格结构讲练


英语独立主格结构讲 练
一、独立主格结构的特点 独立主格结构是一个名词或代词 (作为逻辑主语),加上一个形容词、 副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等在句 中作状语。它有以下三个特点: (1) 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子 的主语不同,它独立存在。 (2) 名词或代词与后面的形容词、副 词、介词短语、分词、不定式等存在逻 辑上的主谓关系。 (3) 独立主格结构一般用逗号与主

句分开,但与主句之间不能使用任何连 接词。 二、独立主格结构的用法 它表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、 条件或伴随情况等,相当于一个状语从 句或并列句。 (1) 作时间状语

The work done(=After the work ha d been done) , we went home. 工作完 成后,我们才回家。 (2) 作条件状语 Weather permitting(=If weather pe rmits) , they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.如果天气允许的 话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。 (3) 作原因状语 An important lecture to be given tomorrow(=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow) , the profess or has to stay up late into the nigh t. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教 授不得不熬夜到很晚。 (4) 作伴随状语 He was lying on the grass, with hi s headcovered by his hands . 他躺在草 地上,两手捂着头。 (5) 表补充说明 A hunter came in, his face red wi th cold(=and his face was red with c

old) . 一个猎人走了进来, 他的脸冻得通 红。 注:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或 原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放 在句首,表示原因时还可放在句末;表 伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并 列句,通常放于句末。 三、使用独立主格结构的注意事项 (1) 当状语从句的主语与主句的主语 不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结 构取代状语从句,但不再保留连词。如: After class was over (=Class being over/Class over) , the students soon l eft the classroom. 下课后,学生很快离 开了课室。 (2) 在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构 中的 being (或 having been) 不能省略: a. 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如: It being Sunday, we went to churc h. 因为是星期天,我们去了做礼拜。 b. 在 There being+名词的结构中。 如:

There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车,所 以我们不得不步行回家。 (3) 在“名词(或代词)+介词短语”构 成的独立主格结构中,一般不用形容词 性物主代词和冠词。如: Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand. 史密斯先生走进了课室, 手里拿着一本书。 (比较 with 的复合结构:Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book i n his hand. ) (4) 独立主格结构没有所有格形式。 如: The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting.主编来了, 我们开始开会。 (比较动名词复合结构:The chief-edi tor’s arriving made us very surprise d. ) (5) 独立主格结构作时间或原因状语 时,可用完成时,表示该动作发生在谓 语之前。如:The listeners having take

n their seats, the concert began. 听众 坐好后,音乐会开始了。 Tom having been late over and ov er, his boss was very disappointed. 由 于汤姆一再迟到,他的老板非常失望。

非谓语动词考试讲解
关键点一:把握分词逻辑主语的概念
分词属非谓语动词,即不用作谓语的动词,所以它没有真正的主语。但是,分词作为 动词的一种形式,它应有自己理论上或逻辑上的主语,即逻辑主语。如: I often hear him singing this song. 我经常听他唱这首歌。 (him 是 singing 的逻辑主 语) Hearing the news, he couldn’t help crying. 听到这消息,他禁不住哭了。(he 是 he aring 的逻辑主语) 若用的是过去分词或现在分词的被动式,则上面提到的逻辑主语实为“逻辑宾语”。如: I often hear this song sung. 我经常听到有人唱这首歌。 (this song 是 sung 的逻辑主 语,但是 sing 的逻辑宾语) I saw her being taken to the operating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。(her 是 bei ng taken 的逻辑主语,但是 take 的逻辑宾语)

关键点二:提防使用分词逻辑主语的错点
分词作状语,它的逻辑主语通常应是句子的主语,否则会出错。请看下题: 1. Finding her car stolen, _________.

A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searched tho roughly C. it was looked for everywhe re D. she hurried to a policema n for help
此题答案应选 D,因为句首用作状语的现在分词短语 finding her car stolen 的逻辑 主语应是“她”,而不是 a policeman, the area, it 等。 在使用分词的逻辑主语时还要注意根据句意判断是主动还是被动。如: 2. _________ many times, he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Tho ugh to be told C. Having told D. He was told
根据句意, he 与 tell 应是被动关系。 从时间上看, 应该是 “被告诉”在先, “没有理解” 在后,故选 A。比较下题由于句中用了并列连词 but,情况有所不同: 3. _________ many times, but he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told ugh he was told C. To have been told was told

B. Tho D. He

此题答案选 D,句中的并列连词 but 表明整个句子为并列句,同时表明 but 前应是 一个独立的句子,而不能是一个非谓语动词短语(所以不能选 A 或 C)。

关键点三:牢记分词逻辑主语的特例
一般说来,分词作状语,它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,但事实上有少数例外的特 殊情况: 1. 某些表示说话人态度的一些惯用分词表达, 它们在用作状语时其逻辑主语可以与句 子主语不一致。如: Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来,女人比男人活得长。 Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. 从你的话看,他应当能成功。 Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly. 考虑到路程,他到达得很快。 Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素, 你最好离 开。 2. 当句子含有先行主语 it 或 there 时,有时用作状语的分词短语可以与先行主语不一 致。如: Having so little time, there was not much that I could do. 由于时间很少, 我能做 的事很有限。 Being French, it’s surprising that she’s such a terrible cook. 她是法国人,但她做 饭做得那么糟真是令人感到惊奇。 3. 当分词已转化为介词或连词,此时也无需考虑主语一致问题。如: Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? 要是她不来我们怎么办?(supposin g 为连词,意为“假若”) Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. 考虑到他们没有经验, 这工作已 做得很不错了。(given 为介词,意为“考虑到”) 4. 当分词暗含的逻辑主语为表示泛指意义的 one 或 you 时, 也无需考虑主语的一致性 问题。如:

In doing such work, patience is needed. 做这种工作需要耐心。(=When one does such work, patience is needed.)

关键点四:注意分词的独立主格结构
在通常情况下,分词作状语时它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,若不一致,则应改用 其他句型。如: 误:Crossing the road, a car knocked him down. (from www.yygrammar.com) 正:Crossing the road, he was knocked down by a car. 过马路时他被车撞倒了。 正: When he was crossing the road, a car knocked him down. 他过马路时车子把 他撞倒了。 解决状语分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的问题, 也可在分词前加一个名词或代词, 使之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式,故称分词的独立 主格结构,独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开,但是与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。 如: The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。 The weather being fine, we went swimming. 天气很好,我们就去游泳了。 He being absent, nothing couldn’t be done. 由于他缺席,什么事也干不成。

非谓语动词解题关键点
一、利用主动和被动关系 这里说的主动与被动关系,指的是非谓语动词所表示的动作与其逻辑主语之间是主动 关系还是被动关系。若是主动关系,非谓语动词就用主动式;若是被动关系,非谓语动词 就用被动式。下面分三类举例说明: 1. 涉及不定式的主动与被动式 (1) I feel greatly honored _________ into their society. (北京卷) A. to welcome B. welcoming C. to be welcomed D. welcomed

答案为 C。be (feel) honored 后习惯上接不定式,故可排除 B 和 D;又因为 I 与 welc ome 之间为被动关系,故用不定式的被动式。

(2) The message is very important, so it is supposed _________ as soon as possi ble. A. to be sent B. to send C. being sent D. sending

答案为 A。be supposed 后习惯上不接动名词,而接不定式,其意为“应该做某事”, 故可排除 C 和 D;又因为“消息”与“传达”之间为被动关系,故用被动式。 2. 涉及动名词的主动与被动式 At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _________ could be heard outside t he classroom. (全国 II) A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close

答案为 C。由于 desks 与 open 和 close 的关系是被动关系,故要用被动式,可排除 D; 又因为用于介词 of 后作宾语, 所以要用动名词, 不用不定式或过去分词, 故可排除 A 和 D, 所以答案选 C 3. 涉及现在分词的主动与被动式 _________ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she’d like that little doll o n her bed. (北京卷) A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen

答案为 A。首先要排除 B 和 C,因为 B 为不定式,它用于句首时,通常是表示目的, 在此不合句意;而 C 为动词原形,选它会构成祈使句,一是句意不通,二是这样会导致前 后两句之间没有连词而出错。在剩下的 A 和 D 之间,只能选 seeing,不能选 seen,因为句 子主语是 I 与 see 之间为主动关系,而非被动关系。 【注意】由于过去分词本身可以表示被动,所以过去分词不用被动式,同时它也没有 被动式。请看几道相关的考题: (1) The trees _________ in the storm have been moved off the road. (湖南卷) A . b e in g b low n dow n n D. to blow down B . b low n d ow n C . b low in g d ow

答案为 B。由于 trees 与 blow down 之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词。blown down in the storm 在此用作定语,修饰 the trees,相当于定语从句 which were blown down i n the storm。 (2) To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English _______ __ as much as we can. (江苏卷) A. speak B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak

答案为 C。由于 English 与 speak 之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词。 (3) We finished the run in less than half the time _________. (江西卷) A. allowing B. to allow C. allowed D. allows

答案为 C。由于 time 与 allow 之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词。in the time allowe d 意为“在规定的时间内”。 二、利用动作的先后关系 动作的先后关系在选项中的直接体现为一般式还是完成式。一般说来,当非谓语动词 所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前时,非谓语动词原则上要用完成式。 1. 涉及不定式的动作先后关系 Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519) _________ birds kept in cages in order to have th e pleasure of setting them free. (重庆卷) A. is said to be buying C. had said to buy B. is said to have bought D. has said to have bought

答案为 B。“be said+不定式”是英语中一个很有用的结构,其意为“据说”。其中的不 定式是用一般式还是完成式,取决于该不定式所表示的动作是发生在谓语动作之前还是之 后。根据句意可知,buy birds 肯定发生在过去,或者说发生在 is said 之前,所以其中的 不定式要用完成式,故答案选 B。又如:Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cance r. 据说布朗先生死于肝癌。 2. 涉及动名词的动作先后关系

I hear they’ve promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention ______ ___ when we talked on
the phone. (江西卷) A. to promote C. having promoted B. having been promoted D. to be promoted

答案为 B。由于动词 mention 后接动词作宾语时,习惯上要用动名词,不用不定式, 故可排除 A 和 D; 再根据句意可知, 句中的 he 与 promote 之间为被动关系, 故要用被动式, 同时,由于“被提拔”与“提到”之间有明显的先后关系,即“被提拔”在先,“提到”在后,故 用动名词的完成被动式,即答案选 B。 3. 涉及现在分词的动作先后关系 (1) _________ around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Ne st for the 2008 Olympic Games. (陕西卷) A. Having shown C. Having been shown B. To be shown D. To show

答案为 C。根据句意可知,“我们”与“带去参观”之间为被动关系,故应用非谓语动词 的被动式,可排除 A 和 D;再根据句中的 then 可知,前后动作有明显的先后关系,故先发 生的动作要用完成式,故选 C。 (2) _________ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. (重庆卷) A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed

答案为 D。根据语境分析,“用电话联系”与“发电子邮件”两个动作之间有明显的先后 关系,故先发生的动作要用完成式。 练习:1. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless _________ every da

y. A. watered

B. watering C. water D. to water

2. No matter how frequently _______ __, the works of Beethoven still attra ct people all over the world. A. performed B. performing C. to be performed D. being performe d 3. _________ many times, but he still didn’t understand it. A. Having been told B. Thoug h he was told C. To have been told D. He was told 4. _________ many times, he still did n’t understand it. A. Having been told B. Thoug h to be told C. Having told D. He was t old 5. The cave ________ very dar k, he lit some candles ______ __ light.

A. was; given B. was; to giv e C. being; given D. being; to give 6. The monitor _________ ill, we’d better put the meeting of f. A. being B. to be C. b een D. to have been 7._______ the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the oper ation. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 8. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons ______ ___ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finis hed D.were finished 9.With a lot of difficult problems ___ ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time.

A. settled B. setting C. t o settle D. being settled 10. In order to make our city g reen, _______. A. it is necessary to have plant ed more trees B. many more trees need to pl ant C. our city needs more tree s D. we must plant more trees 11. Before you decide to leave y our job, ______ the effect it w ill have on your family. A. consider B. considering C. to consi der D.considered 12. There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars ___ ____ road conditions need _______.

A. that; to be improve d B. which; to be impro ved C. where; improvin g D. when; improving 13.The first textbooks _______ for teaching English as a forei gn language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be writ ten C. being written D. w ritten 14.The Olympic Games, ______ _ in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912 .A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to b e first playing 15.The film star walked to his c ar, ______ a crowd of journali sts.

A. followed by B. following b y C. to follow D. to be followed b y 16.Do not leave the building un less ______ to do so. A. to instruct B. instructed C. being i nstructed D. instructing 17.If you don’t succeed the first time, ______ again. A. try B. to try C. trying D. to be trying 18.Anyone ______ bags, boxes, or whatever, was stopped by t he police. A. seen carry B. seen carrying C. saw to carry D. saw carrying 19.The plane crashed, _____ al l 200 people aboard. A. killed B. having killed C. killin g D. had killed

20. The new manager started l ast week, ______ with him ple nty of new ideas. A. bringing B. brought C. to brin g D. to have brought 21. I have a lot of books, half of ___ _____ novels. A. which B. that C. who m D. them 22. ________ more and more forests destroyed, many animals are facing t he danger of dying out. A. because B. as C. With D. Since 23. The bus was crowded with passen gers going home from market, most of ________ carrying heavy bags and baskets full of fruit and vegetables t hey had bought there. A. them B. who C. whom D. whi ch

24. The largest collection ever f ound in England was one of ab out 200,000 silver pennies, all of ________ over 600 years old. A. which B. that C. them D. it 1-5 AADAD 6-10 AABCD 11-15 AADCA 16-20 BABCA 21-24 DCA C


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