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语法专题一 句子成分与种类:
(一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当 主语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、 代词

、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。 (三)在下列句子中的主语划横线并说明由什么充当。 During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.( ) We often speak English in class.( ) Two-thirds of the students in this class are girls.( ) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.( ) Smoking does harm to the health.( ) The rich should help the poor.( ) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.( ) It is necessary to master a foreign language.( ) (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放在 主语之后。有人称和数的变化。谓语的构成如下: 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:He practices running every morning. He reads newspaper everyday. 2、复合谓语:(1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。 如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. My sister is crying over there. (2)由系动词加表语构成。如:We are students. (四)表语:表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、 动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。 划出下列的表语,并说出由什么充当。 1. Our teacher of English is an American.( ) 2.Is this black car yours?( ) 3.The weather has turned cold.( ) 4.The speech is exciting.( ) 5.Three times seven is twenty one?( ) 6. His job is to teach English.( ) 7.His hobby is playing football.( ) 8.The machine must be out of order.( ) 9. Time is up. The class is over.( ) 10. The truth is that he has never been abroad.( ) (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。 划出下列宾语,并说明由什么充当。 They went to see an exhibition yesterday.( ) The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time.( ) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.( ) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.( )

He pretended not to see me.( ) I enjoy listening to popular music.( ) I think(that)he is fit for his office.( ) 宾语种类: (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例如:Lend me your dictionary, please. (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如:They elected him their monitor. (六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补 足语,才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等+ 宾语+宾补)。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 划出下列宾语补足语,并指出由什么充当同时体会宾补和宾语之间的逻辑关系。 His father named him Dongming.( ) They painted their boat white.( ) Let the fresh air in.( ) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.( ) We saw her entering the room.( ) We found everything in the lab in good order.( ) We will soon make our city what your city is now.( ) (七)主补:对主语的补充。含有宾语补足语的句子变成被动语态时,宾语作主语,原来的 宾补就变成了主语补足语。 He was elected monitor. She was found singing in the room. He was advised to teach the boy a lesson. (八)定语:对名词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用"......的"表示,名词、 代词、形容词、数词、非谓语动词、介词短语、副词、从句等都可以在句子中作定语。单词 作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前,短语和从句则放在所修饰的词之后。 口头翻译以下句子,划出定语并说明定语由什么词性或结构充当。 People there are very friendly.( ) He didn't like the man downstairs.( ) The next man is scientist.( ) The man next to me is a scientist.( ) The boy under the tree is Tom.( ) The boy crying over there is my classmate.( ) The house built last year is impressive.( ) Guilin is a beautiful city.( ) China is a developing country; America is a developed country.( ) There are thirty women teachers is our school.( ) His rapid progress in English made us surprised.( ) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.( ) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.( ) He is reading an article about how to learn English.( ) (九)状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做 状语。充当状语的有副词、介词短语、非谓语、少数形容词(短语)、名词、独立结构、从 句等。按其用途可分为时间、地点、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随、 比较等种类。在句子中的位置各不相同。 划出下列句子的状语并指出由什么充当。 Light travels most quickly.( )

He has lived in the city for ten years.( ) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.( ) He is in the room making a model plane.( ) Wait a minute.( ) Once you begin, you must continue.( ) 指出下列划线部分属于什么状语? How about meeting again at six?( ) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.( ) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.( ) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.( ) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.( ) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.( ) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.( ) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.( ) She works very hard though she is old.( ) I am taller than he is.( ) (十)同位语:是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者的说明的成份;近乎后置定语: We students should study hard. It's good to us students. 选择正确答案,并口头说出句中哪个是同位语。 1.The young man,______,works in the office. A.me brother B.my brother C.my brothers D.me 2.Our English teacher,______often helps us with study. A.Mrs.Wang B.Mrs.Wangs C.Mrs.Wang's D.of him 3.______,some railway workers,are busy repairing the train. A.Them B.He C.they D.Theirs 简单句、并列句和复合句 (一)句子种类两种分类法 1、按句子的用途可分四种: 1)陈述句(肯定、否定):He is six years old; She didn’t hear of you before. 2) 疑问句 (一般、 特殊、 选择、 反意) : Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can’t she? 3)祈使句:Be careful, boys; Don’t talk in class 4)感叹句:a.How clever the boy is!/What a clever boy the boy is !
其他类型的感叹句 b.They are so hard-working! Good idea! 即学即练:完成下列反意疑问句。 1.There was a hospital here,___________? 2.I am older than you ,____________? 3.What delicious food, _________? 4.He must work hard at physics,_________? 5.You must update the information,_______? 6.He must have come here yesterday,_______? 7.He used to live in the country,___________? 8.We had better go to school at once,________? 9.We have to get there at eight tomorrow morning,________? 10.There is nothing wrong with you ,_________? 3

11.It is unfair,_________? 12.Look at the blackboard, _________? 13.Let's go home,___________? 14.I don't think he will come,________? 课后巩固练习 1.There's not much news about the missing mountain climbers in today's newspaper,_______? A.isn't it B.is it C.isn't there D.is there 2.You can't finish the book in less than an hour,can you ? ______.I'll return it to you on time. A.Yes,I'm sure I can B.No,hardly C.Sorry,I can't D.I don't think I can 3.I don't know why Tom was absent from yesterday's meeting. He must have been sick,______? A.isn't he B.didn't he C.wasn't he D.mustn't he 4.What fine weather,_______? Yeah,How about going out fro a drive to the country? A.is it B.isn't it C.does it D.doesn't it 5._____down the radio----the baby's asleep in the next room A.Turning B.To turn C.Turned D.Turn 6.______it is to play football on such a cool afternoon! A.What a fun B.How a fun C.What fun D.How fun 7.______and you will be there,you desired university. A.If making one more effort B.Making one more effort C.One more effort D.To make one more effort 8._____seems______something unusual in his eyes. A.It;being B.It;to be C.There;to be D.There;being 9.Hello,Zhu Hua. I'll have to return to Canada because I've worked here for a year.________! A.What time flies B.How time flies C.What does time fly D.How does time fly 10.I don't think he did such a stupid thing last night,_______? A.do I B.didn't he C.did he D.don't I




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