（一）句子成分的定义：构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分；主要成分有主语和谓语；次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 （二）主语：主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句（当 主语不是疑问词时）和倒装句中，主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、 代词
、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。 （三）在下列句子中的主语划横线并说明由什么充当。 During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.（ ） We often speak English in class.（ ） Two-thirds of the students in this class are girls.（ ） To swim in the river is a great pleasure.（ ） Smoking does harm to the health.（ ） The rich should help the poor.（ ） When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.（ ） It is necessary to master a foreign language.（ ） （三）谓语：谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语，一般放在 主语之后。有人称和数的变化。谓语的构成如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如：He practices running every morning. He reads newspaper everyday. 2、复合谓语：（1）由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。 如：You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. My sister is crying over there. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如：We are students. （四）表语：表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态，它一般位于系动词（如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等）之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、 动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。 划出下列的表语，并说出由什么充当。 1. Our teacher of English is an American.（ ） 2.Is this black car yours?（ ） 3.The weather has turned cold.（ ） 4.The speech is exciting.（ ） 5.Three times seven is twenty one?（ ） 6. His job is to teach English.（ ） 7.His hobby is playing football.（ ） 8.The machine must be out of order.（ ） 9. Time is up. The class is over.（ ） 10. The truth is that he has never been abroad.（ ） （五）宾语：宾语表示动作的对象或承受者，一般位于及物动词和介词后面。 划出下列宾语，并说明由什么充当。 They went to see an exhibition yesterday.（ ） The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time.（ ） How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.（ ） They helped the old with their housework yesterday.（ ）
He pretended not to see me.（ ） I enjoy listening to popular music.（ ） I think（that）he is fit for his office.（ ） 宾语种类： （1）双宾语（间接宾语+直接宾语），例如：Lend me your dictionary, please. （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补），例如：They elected him their monitor. （六）宾语补足语：英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还要有一个宾语补 足语，才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为：某些及物动词（如 make 等+ 宾语+宾补）。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 划出下列宾语补足语，并指出由什么充当同时体会宾补和宾语之间的逻辑关系。 His father named him Dongming.（ ） They painted their boat white.（ ） Let the fresh air in.（ ） You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.（ ） We saw her entering the room.（ ） We found everything in the lab in good order.（ ） We will soon make our city what your city is now.（ ） （七）主补：对主语的补充。含有宾语补足语的句子变成被动语态时，宾语作主语，原来的 宾补就变成了主语补足语。 He was elected monitor. She was found singing in the room. He was advised to teach the boy a lesson. （八）定语：对名词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子，汉语中常用"......的"表示，名词、 代词、形容词、数词、非谓语动词、介词短语、副词、从句等都可以在句子中作定语。单词 作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前，短语和从句则放在所修饰的词之后。 口头翻译以下句子，划出定语并说明定语由什么词性或结构充当。 People there are very friendly.（ ） He didn't like the man downstairs.（ ） The next man is scientist.（ ） The man next to me is a scientist.（ ） The boy under the tree is Tom.（ ） The boy crying over there is my classmate.（ ） The house built last year is impressive.（ ） Guilin is a beautiful city.（ ） China is a developing country; America is a developed country.（ ） There are thirty women teachers is our school.（ ） His rapid progress in English made us surprised.（ ） Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.（ ） The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.（ ） He is reading an article about how to learn English.（ ） （九）状语：修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特征的句子成分，叫做 状语。充当状语的有副词、介词短语、非谓语、少数形容词（短语）、名词、独立结构、从 句等。按其用途可分为时间、地点、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随、 比较等种类。在句子中的位置各不相同。 划出下列句子的状语并指出由什么充当。 Light travels most quickly.（ ）
He has lived in the city for ten years.（ ） He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.（ ） He is in the room making a model plane.（ ） Wait a minute.（ ） Once you begin, you must continue.（ ） 指出下列划线部分属于什么状语？ How about meeting again at six?（ ） Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.（ ） I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.（ ） Mr Smith lives on the third floor.（ ） She put the eggs into the basket with great care.（ ） She came in with a dictionary in her hand.（ ） In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.（ ） He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.（ ） She works very hard though she is old.（ ） I am taller than he is.（ ） （十）同位语：是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者的说明的成份；近乎后置定语： We students should study hard. It's good to us students. 选择正确答案，并口头说出句中哪个是同位语。 1.The young man,______,works in the office. A.me brother B.my brother C.my brothers D.me 2.Our English teacher,______often helps us with study. A.Mrs.Wang B.Mrs.Wangs C.Mrs.Wang's D.of him 3.______,some railway workers,are busy repairing the train. A.Them B.He C.they D.Theirs 简单句、并列句和复合句 （一）句子种类两种分类法 1、按句子的用途可分四种： 1）陈述句（肯定、否定）：He is six years old; She didn’t hear of you before. 2） 疑问句 （一般、 特殊、 选择、 反意） ： Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can’t she? 3）祈使句：Be careful, boys; Don’t talk in class 4）感叹句：a.How clever the boy is!/What a clever boy the boy is !
其他类型的感叹句 b.They are so hard-working! Good idea! 即学即练：完成下列反意疑问句。 1.There was a hospital here,___________? 2.I am older than you ,____________? 3.What delicious food, _________? 4.He must work hard at physics,_________? 5.You must update the information,_______? 6.He must have come here yesterday,_______? 7.He used to live in the country,___________? 8.We had better go to school at once,________? 9.We have to get there at eight tomorrow morning,________? 10.There is nothing wrong with you ,_________? 3
11.It is unfair,_________? 12.Look at the blackboard, _________? 13.Let's go home,___________? 14.I don't think he will come,________? 课后巩固练习 1.There's not much news about the missing mountain climbers in today's newspaper,_______? A.isn't it B.is it C.isn't there D.is there 2.You can't finish the book in less than an hour,can you ? ______.I'll return it to you on time. A.Yes,I'm sure I can B.No,hardly C.Sorry,I can't D.I don't think I can 3.I don't know why Tom was absent from yesterday's meeting. He must have been sick,______? A.isn't he B.didn't he C.wasn't he D.mustn't he 4.What fine weather,_______? Yeah,How about going out fro a drive to the country? A.is it B.isn't it C.does it D.doesn't it 5._____down the radio----the baby's asleep in the next room A.Turning B.To turn C.Turned D.Turn 6.______it is to play football on such a cool afternoon! A.What a fun B.How a fun C.What fun D.How fun 7.______and you will be there,you desired university. A.If making one more effort B.Making one more effort C.One more effort D.To make one more effort 8._____seems______something unusual in his eyes. A.It;being B.It;to be C.There;to be D.There;being 9.Hello,Zhu Hua. I'll have to return to Canada because I've worked here for a year.________! A.What time flies B.How time flies C.What does time fly D.How does time fly 10.I don't think he did such a stupid thing last night,_______? A.do I B.didn't he C.did he D.don't I
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