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11 语法复习十一:助动词与情态动词


语法复习十一:助动词与情态动词 (一)助动词有 be, have, do, will, shall。它们本身没有词义,只和实义动词的一定形式构成复合谓语 1、be (am, is, are, were, been) (l)“be + -ing” (2) “be + 过去分词” (3) “be + 动词不定式”① The prime minister is to visit Jap

an next year. ②You're to do your homework before you watch TV. 2、have (has, had) (1)“have+过去分词”Have you seen the film ? (2)“have been + -ing”What have you been doing these days? 3、do (does, did) (1)“do not + 动词原形”如:His brother doesn’t like playing basket.;(2)“Do + 主语 + 动词原形” Does he go to school by bike every day? (3)“do + 动词原形”如:I did go to see him, but he wasn’t in。 Do do some work. (4) My mother told me to go to bed early. So I did. 4. will, shall (would, should) “will (shall+动词原形” We will have a meeting to discuss the problem. (二)情态动词 1、can 和 could (could 为 can 的过去式) 的基本用法 (1)表示能力 He can speak English better than you. (2)在疑问句和否定句中表示“怀疑” 、 “猜测”或“可能性” , Can this green bike be Liu Dong's? (3)表示“许可”时 can 可以和 may 换用,如:You can (may) go home now. (4) 如果要表示语气婉转,用 could 代替 can,如:Could you come again tomorrow? (5)can 和 be able to。 He will be able to do the work better. 2、may 和 might (might 为 may 的过去式)的基本用法 (1)表示允许或征询对方许可,如:You may use my dictionary. --- May I use this dictionary? ---- Yes, please. 或 ---- Certainly.如果 Might I?? 就比用 May I?? 语气更婉转些,May I have a look at your new computer? 但是表示 “阻止” 或 “禁止” 对方做某事时, 要用 must not 代替 may not, 如: ---- May we swim in this lake? ---- No, you mustn’t. It’s too dangerous. (2)may 或 might 都可以表示可能性,如:They may (might) be in the library now . 3、must 的基本用法 (1)must 表示“必须” 、 “应该”之意,其否定式 must not,表示“不应该” , “不准” 、 “不许可”或“禁止” 之意,We must study hard and make progress every day. You mustn't touch the fire. (2)对以 must 提出的疑问句,如作 否定回答时,要用 needn't 或用 don't (doesn't) have to (不 必)来回答,而不用 mustn't, ---- Must we finish the work tomorrow? ---- No, you needn't (don't have to), but you must finish it in three days. (3)在肯定句中 must 可以表示推测, 表示“一定”或“必定”之意,如:---- Whose new bike can it be? ---- It must be Liu Dong's. I know his father has just bought him a new one. 4、can, could, may, must 后接完成式的用法 It's too late. You could have answered it earlier, I am sure. Mary might have learned some Chinese before. You didn't do the work well that day. You might have done it better. Liu Dong isn’t in the classroom. He must have gone to the library. 5、have to 的基本用法 I must study hard. 6、ought to 的基本用法 7、dare 的基本用法 (l)dare (dared 为其过去式) 作情态动词用时,主要用于否定句,疑问句和条件从句中,Dared he bread the I had to give it up because of illness.

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traffic regulations again? (2)用作行为动词,其变化与一般行为动词相同,She dares to stay at home alone at night. 8、need 的基本用法 (1)need 作情态动词用时,主要用于否定句和疑问句中,He needn't worry about us now. Did you answer the letter yesterday? ---- Yes, I did. ---- But you needn’t have answered it. 9、shall 的基本用法 (1)shall 用作情态动词时,用于第二、三人称,表示说活人的意愿,可表示“命令” 、 “警告” 、 “强制” 、 “威 胁”或“允诺”等意,He shall go first, whether he wants to or not. (2)在疑问句中,shall 用于第一、三人称,表示 说话人的征询对方意见或请求指示,如:Shall I open the door? 10、should 的基本用法 (1)should 作为情态动词可以表示“建议”或“劝告” ,有“应该”之意,如:You should learn from each other. (2)should 后接完成式表示过去没有做到本来应该做的事情,或是做了本来不应该做的事情。如:You should have give him more help. 11、will 的基本用法 (1)用于各人称,可以表示“意志”或“决心” ,如:I have told him again and again to stop smoking, but he will not listen. (2)在疑问句中用于第二人称, 表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问对方的意愿, 如: Will you please tell me how to get to the Capital Gymnasium? (3)will 可以表示一种习惯性的动作,有“总是”或“会要”之意,如:Every morning he will have a walk along this river. 12、would 的基本用法 (1)would 作为 will 的过去式, 可用于各人称, 表示过去时间的 “意志” 或 “决心” , 如: He promised he would never smoke again. (2)在疑问句中,用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或许问对方的意愿时,比用 will 的气更加婉转,如:Would you like some more coffee? (3)在日常生活中,学用“I would like to?”表示“我想要” 或“我愿意”之意,以使语气婉转, (4)would 可以表示过去的习惯动作,比 used to 正式,并没有“现已无此习 惯”的含义。 13、used to, had better, would rather 的用法 (1)used to 表示过去的习惯动作或状态,疑问句:Did you use to/ Used you to go to the same school as your brother? 否定句:I usedn’t to / didn’t use to go there. (usedn’t 也可写作 usen’t);. (2)had better 后接不带 to 的不定 式, 例如: ---- We had better go now . ---- Yes, we had (we'd better/ we had better)./ Hadn’t we better stop now? (Had we better not stop now?) (3)would rather 如:I’d rather not say anything./ Would you rather work on a farm?/ ---- Wouldn’t you rather stay here? ---- No, I would not. I’d rather go there. 由于 would rather 表选择, 因 而后可接 than, 如: I would rather work on a farm than in a factory. / I would rather watch TV than go to see the film/ I’d rather you didn’t talk about this to anyone. 1. If they _________ to do this work, he might do it some other way. A. were B. should C. will D. can C. should be sending D. should send 2. I was told yesterday that the company _________ me to Rome next week for a business conference. A. should have sent A. will we B. don't we B. were going to send C. do we D. shall we 3. Let's take a walk, ________? 4. He was a good swimmer so he _________ swim to the river bank when the boat sank. (2)need 也可作为行 为动词用,You need to practise reading aloud every day. (3)needn't 后接完成式可以表示过去不必要做的事情,----

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A. could A. can

B. might B. may

C. should C. might

D. was able to

5. I went to the doctor's yesterday, I had to wait for half an hour before he ________ see me. D. could ---- No, it ________ not be mine. It ________ be his. C. Can, may, must D. Must, can, may "He _________ it. " D. needed have attended D. may have lost D. must have been snowing D. mnyn't you D. needn't you 6. ---- _________ this book be yours? A. Can, must, may A. mustn't attend

B. May, might, must

7. "We didn't see him at the lecture yesterday. " B. can't have attended

C. would have not attended C. can have lost

8. They _________ the plane, or perhaps they have been prevented from coming for some reason. A. can have missed A. had snowed A. mustn't you A. haven't you A. can't A. mustn't B. may have missed 9. Since the ground is white, it _________ last night. B. must have snowed C. must be snowing B. needn't you B. didn't you B. isn't able to B. can't C. needn't B. dare you say B. might to take B. would be C. aren't you C. mustn't you ---- No .it _________ be. C. can D. was able to D. shouldn't C. do you dare say C. ought to take C. were D. had been D. dare to say D. need to take 10. You must be fifty, ________? 11. You must have seen him off yesterday, _________? 12. ---- That must be a mistake.

13. He had known the matter before you told him, so you _________ have told it to him. 14. How ________ so? A. dare you to say A. should to take A. used to be 15. You are their teacher. You _________ care of them. 16. She is studying medical science now but she _________ a lawyer. 17. If you were in an English-speaking country, you, too, _________ English every day. A. will be used to speak C. must be used to speak A. should have A. would A. would go A. needn't A. I don't like it B. go B. wouldn't B. Yes .please B. will be used to speaking D. would be used to speaking C. must have C. might C. are going C. mustn't “__________”. C. No, please D. No. I'm sorry “__________”. D. should D. will be gone D. shouldn't D. shall have

18. I did not call to make my airline reservation (预订) but I _________. B, may have B. will 19. As a girl, she _________ get up at six every day. 20. Don't you remember that we _________ to the cinema tonight? 21. ---- Shall I tell John about it? ---- No, you _________. I've told him already.

22. "Would you mind if I open the window?" 23. "Would you tell me something about the affair?"

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A. Yes .please 24. M:________?

B. All right

C. Not at all

D. I do

T:I'd love to, but I'm afraid I have no time." T: It's very nice of you. But I'm sorry I have to go to a meeting. B. Shall I have you with me at my birthday D. Have you enjoyed yourself at the party "Yes, I _________. " C. ought C. I'll like to C. Must C. leaving C. to speak D. Will D. left D. spoken D. was used to D. can't, must D. have ought to D. I would "Yes, ___________. "

M:0h, no. You'll surely come over. C. Did you go to see the film

A. Do you have lunch out in a restaurant 25. "You ought to have come here ten minutes ago?" A. ought to A. I'd like to 27. ________ you succeed ! A. Can A. leave A. speak A. used to A. may not, must A. Shall A. must be A. should have told A. ought to not A. mustn't A. may not A. would A. dare not go C. dares not go A. used to B. can't B. should B. dare not to go D. does not dare go B. get used to B. May B. to leave B. speaking B. has been used B. mustn't, might B. Should B. must have been C. Will 28. Did he need ________ then? 29. Do you think if he dares _________ in public. 30. He ________ eating American food since he came here. B. ought to have B. I'd like 26. "Would you like to go out for a walk?"

C. has been used to C. shouldn't, could "Not at all. "

31. A computer ________ think for itself; it ________ be told what to do. 32. "________ you mind my opening the window?" 33.1 didn't hear the phone. I _________ asleep. C. should have been D. could have been D. should tell D. can't 34. You _________ me about it earlier, but you didn't. B. would have told B. ought not to B. needn't C. mustn't C. will C. must have told C. ought not to have C. mightn't D. needn't D. shall D. won't 35. The teacher told the students that they ________ keep silent in class all the time. 36. "May I go now?" "No, you ________. " 37. You _________ do the exercise if you don't want to. 38. You _________ pay more attention to your spelling next time. 39. The girl _________ out alone at night.

D. Would

40. There ________ be a lot of small houses on both sides of the street. C. would D. did use to

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