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选修8 Unit 1 A land of diversity

选修 8
1. distinction 常用结构: n. 差别;区分;卓著

Unit 1 A land of diversity 学案

make a distinction between 对??加以区分 win a distinction for 因??而获功勋 without distinction 无

差别地;一视同仁地 联想拓展 distinct adj.清晰的;明显的;明确的 be distinct in ...from ... 在某方面与??不同 (as)distinct from ... 与??不同(的)

He has a distinct gift for drawing. 他有很明显的绘画天赋。 You should make your writing distinct. 你应该把字写清楚。 高手过招 翻译句子(原创) ①There is a distinct possibility that she’ll be your teacher next term. ②Those two ideas are quite distinct from each other. 2. means n. 手段;方法(单数和复数形式相同) 常用结构: by means of 用??办法;借助?? by all means 一定,务必;好的,当然可以 by no means 决不,一点也不(位于句首时,句子用部分倒装) by every means 用尽一切可能的办法 易混辨析 means/way/method means 指“方法、方式、工具” ,着重于具体的手段(单复数形式相同) 。 way 指“一般的方法、方式或个人的特殊方法、方式” ,与技巧或效果的好坏无关。 method 指“有系统的、有效率的精心拟定的方法” ,也可以指抽象概念“条理” 。 a way to do sth./a way of doing sth./a method of doing sth. 做??的方法 in this way/with the method/by this means 用这种/些方法 by the way 顺便问一下 on one’s way to ... 在去??的路上 in the way 挡住路 温馨提示 means 作主语且有 every, each 等词修饰时,谓语动词用单数;有 some, several, many, few 等词修饰时,谓语动词 用复数。 Radio and television are important means of communication. 无线电和电视是重要的通信手段。 Please find an alternative means of transport. 请另外找一种运输方式。 Every means has been tried. 每种方法都试过了。 All means have been tried. 所有方法都试过了。 She could not speak, but made her wishes known by means of signs.她不会说话,但她用手势表达了她的愿望。 高手过招 (1)单项填空 —May I have a look at your book? — . .(2010·01·江苏南京检测) A. By this means B. By all means C. By this way D. By any means (2)翻译句子 (原创) ①这绝非解决问题的良计。 ②他借助一根绳子慢慢地下来了。 3. majority n. 大多数;大半 A/The majority of doctors agree that smoking is extremely harmful to health.大多数医生认为吸烟对健康极为有害 The majority was/were in favour of the proposal. 多数人赞成这个建议。 (the majority 单独作主语时谓语动词单复均可) 常用结构: be in the/a majority 构成大部分/大多数 a majority over sb. 超过对方的票数

major adj.&n. &v.


minority adj.&n.

少数;少数民族 C. has; goes D. have; goes

高手过招 (1)单项填空 Every means been tried and all well now. A. have; go B. has; go (2)完成句子 (原创) English speakers form the (大多数) of the population. (3)用适当的介词填空 ①Among the members of the committee those who favour the changes are ②They had a large majority the other party at the last election. (4)用括号内所给词的适当形式填空 ①The majority of people (prefer) peace to war. ②The majority of the damage (be) easy to repair. 4. occur vi. 发生;存在;出现 常用结构: occur to (主意或想法突然)浮现于脑中;被想起,被想到 it occurs to sb. to do sth. 使某人想到做某事 it occurs to sb. that ... 某人想到??

the majority.

Just then an idea occurred to me. 就在那时我想起了一个主意。 It suddenly occurred to me that I had left my umbrella upstairs.我突然想到我把伞忘在楼上了。 易混辨析 happen/occur/take place happen 是一般用语,尤其指偶然发生,表示“碰巧、恰好”的意思。 occur 文言意味较浓,常指某特定事物的发生,也可以表示某种想法出现在人的头脑中。 take place 指事先计划或预料到的“发生” ,此外还有“举行”的意思。 New things are happening all around us. 新事物在我们周围不断发生。 The explosion occurred at 5:30 a.m. 爆炸发生在早上 5 点 30 分。 When will the basketball game take place? 篮球赛何时举行? 高手过招 单项填空 It suddenly to the detective that the millionaire was probably murdered by his own daughter. (2010·01·安徽合肥检测) A. Happened B. occurred C. thought D. took place 完成句子 I didn’t know what to do, but then _____________________________(我忽然想起一个主意). 5. indicate vt. 指出;标示;表明;暗示 I asked him where my sister was and he indicated the shop opposite.我问他我姐姐在哪,他指了指对面的商店。 Research indicates that men find it easier to give up smoking than women.研究显示男人比女人更容易戒烟。 常用结构: indicate sth. (to sb.) 向(某人)表示某事;把??指给(某人)看 indicate that ...表示??;示意?? 联想拓展 indication n. 指出;表明 indicative adj.指示的;暗示的 高手过招 完成句子 (原创) ①The government has (表明) that it intends to cut taxes. ②A flashing red light (标示) that a stretch of road was undergoing repairs. ③There is every (表明) of a change in the weather. ④(2009 浙江卷)There is a great deal of evidence ______that music activities engage different parts of the brain. A. indicate B. indicating C. to indicate D. to be indicating 重点短语 6. live on 继续存在;继续生存 She lived on for many years after her husband died. 丈夫死后她继续活了许多年。 联想拓展 live on sth. 以某物为食;靠某种经济来源生活 live by doing sth. 靠做某事为生 live for sth. 以某事物为生活目标 live through sth. 经历某事物而幸存

live up to sth. 依照某事物行事;表现出符合某事物的标准 live with sth. 接受或容忍某现象 live to be... = live to the age of... 活到??岁 live a... life 过着??的生活 高手过招 用 live 的相关短语填空(原创) ①The lonely old man charity. ②Mozart was dead but his music . ③My grandfather both world wars. ④We should work hard and try to our parents’ expectations. ⑤The brave girl is learning to her disability. 7. team up with (与某人)一起工作(尤指为共同目标) ;与??合作 The two companies have teamed up to develop a new racing car.那两个公司已合作研制新型赛车。 高手过招 完成句子(原创) He (与某人一起合作) his brother in the doubles. 8. mark out 划线;标出??的界线 They marked out the tennis court with white paint. 他们用白漆标出了网球场的界线。 Some of the best pupils have been marked out for special training.已经选出几名出色的学生进行专门训练。 联想拓展 mark sb. out for sth. 选出/选定某人做某事 mark down 写下,记下;降低??的价格 mark up 标出;提高??的价格 mark in 加画;绘入 mark out for 看中;选定 Just a moment. Let me mark down your name and address.等一下,让我把你的姓名和地址记下来。 Some shops marked up the goods unfairly. 有几家商店的货价提高得不合理。 He marked the book down to 49 cents. 他把书的标价降为 49 分。 高手过招 翻译句子(原创) ①他被选定担当更高的职位。 ②我把那一点记在我的笔记本上。 9. take in 包括;吸收;接纳;欺骗 The students find it easy to take in what you teach. 学生们发现你讲课很容易理解。 He had nowhere to sleep so we offered to take him in.他没地方可以睡觉,于是我们就提出让他留宿。 联想拓展 take apart 拆开;剖析,抨击(论点等) take down 拿下,取下;拆卸;记下 take back 取回,带回;收回说过的话;使??回忆起昔日 take care of 照料;保管 take up 开始从事;占用(时间或空间);着手处理;继续 take medicine 服药 take it easy 别紧张,慢慢来 take over 继承;接收,接管 take off 脱下(衣服等);起飞;大获成功 take on 承担,从事;呈现;雇用 take one’s place 入座;代替某人的位置 take one’s time 不急,慢慢干 高手过招 用 take 的相关短语填空 (原创) ①Don’t be by his promises. ②Who do you think will now that the governor has been dismissed? ③These boxes of yours are too much space. ④I was really when seeing old photos. ⑤Dear ladies and gentlemen,please now .The opera is soon to begin. ⑥Tom carefully what the teacher said.

10. a great many 很多,许多(修饰可数名词复数) ① Tom found that there were a great/good many people already there. 汤姆发现那儿已经有很多人了。 ② It seems that a great/good many of them are out of work now.似乎他们中的许多人现在失业了。 ③A great/good many of the/those students in our class have passed the exam.我们班中有很多学生通过了考试。 温 馨 提 示 : a great/good many 后 接 复 数 名 词 , 但 a good/great many 后 接 of 时 , 必 须 加 限 定 词 如 these/those/the/one’s 或是人称代词如 us/them/you 练一练:_______the houses were knocked down in the earthquake. A. A great many B. The number of C. A great many of D. A great deal of 11. apply for 申请 归纳总结 (1)apply for 申请 apply to 适用于 apply …to …把…应用到… (2) apply oneself to (doing)sth. 专注于,专心做某事 ①She applied for a job as an English teacher.她应聘英语教师的工作。 ②You can’t apply for the job until you have satisfied certain conditions.在符合一定的条件后你才能申请这一份工作。 ③What you said doesn’t apply to me. 你所说的并不适合我。 ④He applied himself to learning English. 他专心学英语。 ⑤We had to apply to the government for financial help.我们只好向政府申请财务援助。 练一练: To travel to the United States, you must first apply___the American Embassy ____your visa. A. for; to B. to; for C. for; for D. to; to 重点句型 12. Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. 最早一批人具体是在什么时候来到我们现在了解的加利福尼亚地区的,谁也说不清楚。 what we now know as California 是一个由 what 引导的名词性从句,作 arrive in 的宾语, what 是复合关系代词,相 当于 the thing(s) that。因此,在名词性从句中可以用 the thing(s) that 取代的,只能用 what。 联想拓展 ①名词性从句中 what 与 that 的区别:that 在名词性从句中不作句子成分,what 必须作句子成分。 ②名词性从句中 what 与 which 的区别:指代前文已经提到过的对象或范围时,用 which,否则用 what。 What he said sounds reasonable. 他说的听起来有道理。(what 作 said 的______语) That our team has won the game has been proved. 已经证实我们队赢得了比赛。 (that 在___语从句中不作句子成分) There are many books available. I don ? t know which to read.有许多书可供阅读,但我不知道读哪一本。 (which 指的是前文提到的 books 中的一本) What book do you want to buy? 你想买哪种书?(没有提及买什么书或哪一类书) 高手过招 选词填空(that/what) (原创) ①This is he wanted. ②This is the thing he wanted. ③She is no longer she used to be. ④She is no longer the person she used to be.

答案: ①她下学期当你们老师的可能性非常大。②那两种观点截然不同。 解析: (1) 选 B。by all means 意为“一定;当然可以” ,符合句意。 (2)①This is by no means a good way to solve the problem. ②He let himself down slowly by means of a rope. 解析:(1) 选 B。考查 means 作主语时谓语动词的形式。means 意为“方式,方法” ,单复数形式相同,被 every 修饰时谓语动词用单数形式;被 all 修饰时谓语动词用复数形式。 (2)Majority (3) ①in ②over (4) ①prefer/prefers ②is 解析:选 B。由空格后的 to 可知,选 B。occur to 一个想法突然呈现??。 答案: ①indicated ② indicated ③indication 答案:① lives on ② lives on ③ lived through ④ live up to ⑤ live with 答案: teamed/teams up with 答案:①He was marked out for a higher position. ②I marked that down in my notebook. 答案: ①taken in ②take over ③taking up④taken back ⑤take your place ⑥took down 答案: ①what ②that ③what ④that


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