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高中英语语法——情态动词总结(附带练习)


情态动词总结
I 情态动词的特征: 1. 本身有词义。 2. 不能独立作谓语。 2. 后接动词原形一起构成谓语。 3. 不随人称和数的变化。 II 情态动词各自的基本意义及用法: 1. can 与 could 用法 对比点 can You can use a different material instead. No, no, it can’t be true. Wh

at on earth can this mean? could I couldn’t understand what he said at all. He said I could borrow his bike. We thought the story could not be true. How could you be so careless? 1、表“能力” Can you lift this heavy box? 2、表“许可” 3、 “怀疑”

4、can 与 be able to 区别

1. could 代替 can,表示语气更为婉转。 Eg. Could I use your bike? Yes, I can 2. can (能够)=be able to(仅表能力时),但 be able to 表示一番努力后, 才能做得到,且有更多的时态。 may might Might I …?(=Could I…?) (但比用 may 更客气) He told me he might come. (might 与 told 相呼应) I’m afraid he might not like this play. 肯定:Yes, you may. 否定:No, you mustn’t 不行 (语气强硬) No, you may not 或 No, you’d better not. The emperor gave them some gold in order that they might begin their work at once. have to

2.may 与 might 用法 对比点

1.表“询问” May I …?(=Can I …?) 2.表“允许” You may take the boy there.

3.表“可能” She may nor like this place. “或许”

注:

1. May I…?的答语。 2. may 可表示期望或祝愿 May you succeed ! 3. may (might) 用于目的状语从 句。

3. must 与 have to 用法 对比点 must (主观看法)必须;没有过去式, 可用于间接引语中。 (客观需要)不得不,有多种时态。 He told me I must do according to It’s raining heavily, we can’t go now. what he said. Must I …? Yes, you must.(一定) Do you have to go today? No, you needn’t./ you don’t have to. Yes, we do.

1. 表“必须”

2. 疑问句

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(不必) 4. need 与 dare 用法 对比点 1.情态 v.+动词 原形 1)否定式 2)疑问式 2. 实 义 v. +to do 1)肯定式 2)否定式 3)疑问式 3. did not need to do 表示过去 没必要做 对比点 need He need not (needn’t)go. ---Need we do it again? ---No, you needn’t do it again. He needs to go. He doesn’t (does not) need to go. Does he need to do it again? No, he doesn’t need ot do it again.

You don’t have to worry about that. dare He dare not say so. Dare she go out alone at night? How dare you say I’m unfair? If he dare do that, he’ll be punished. I dare say. (固定用法) He dares to say. He does not(doesn’t)dare to say. If you dare to jump into the water from here, so dare I .

She didn’t need to attend the meeting yesterday, and she stayed with her children.(她没有参加)

5. should 与 ought to 用法 should ought to “有责任有必要”做某事 You ought to finish your work before you go home. We ought to help each other. “非常可能”的事,可译为“总应该” If we start to work right now, we ought to finish it before lunch. 表劝告、建议 You should listen to the doctor’s 1、表“应该” advice. We should learn from Zhang Hua. 2、表“估计” They should get home by now.

注:

1)should 还可在虚拟语气中的使用 2) 注意:ought to 的疑问式及否定式 ---Ought he to go? ---Yes, I think he ought to. ---No, he oughtn’t to. 否定式:oughtn’t to do (不说 ought to not do) 反疑问句:oughtn’t ______? shall will 1. 询问对方的意思或向对方提出要求: Will you (please)…? Won’t you…? Would you like to...? (would 替代 will 更客气) Won’t you go and see the film?你不去看电影 吗---Yes, I think I will. 不, 我想去。 2. 表示“意志” “意愿” ,用于各种人称: I won’t do anything you don’t like. 我不会做任何你不喜欢的事。 Would 表示过去时间的“意志” “意愿” Shylock would not take the money earlier. 夏洛克先前是不肯要钱的。

6. shall 与 will 用法

1. 征询对方意见或请求指示,用于第一、 三人称:Shall I (we)…? Shall he (she)…? Where shall I (we)wait for you? 2. 表示说话人的“意愿”有“命令” “警告” “强制” “允诺” “决心”等,用于第二、三 人称。 You shall do what I tell you ( to do). 我叫你干什么你就干什么。 Everything shall be done to save the ship. 一定要竭尽全力来拯救这艘船。 7. used to 与 would 用法 used to

would

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1.表示过去的动作、状态,重在与现在情况 的对比,不一定要有时间状语。 I used to play cards a lot, but now I seldom play. My hometown is not what it used to be.

1.只表示过去动作的重复,有明确的时间状 语。 I would go to see my grandfather on Sunday when he was in the middle school. 2.would 后只接表动作的动词,不接表认识 或状态动词 He used to be nervous in the exam.

2. 表示过去的习惯有时可互换: When we were very young, we used to / would go skating every winter. 3. 表示过去的次数时,不能使用: ( √)We went to the Great Wall five times when we were young. ( X ) We used to go / would go to the Great Wall five times when we were young. 注:used to do 的否定式:usedn’t to do 或 didn’t use to do (usedn’t 也可写作 usen’t) 疑问式: Did you use to do ? Didn’t you use to do? Used you to do? Usedn’t you to do? II 情态动词表推测: 1. 大多数情态动词(除表‘能力、许可、意志’外) ,都可以表示推测,其程度有差异。 按可能性程度的高低排列为:must ﹥will ﹥would ﹥ought to ﹥ should 完全肯定 完全可能 很可能 ﹥ can ﹥ could﹥ may ﹥ might 可能 有可能 2. 区分情态动词的否定含义:may not 或许不、可能不 might not 可能不 can’t 不可能 mustn’t 不许、禁止 shouldn’t 不应该 needn’t 不必 3. 情态动词表推测具体运用:情态动词可以对现在、进行、过去推测。 S 主+情态动词 + be + adj S 主+情态动词 + be + n S 主+情态动词 + 动词原形 S 主+情态动词 + be + V-ing S 主+情态动词 + have + PP 对“性质” “特征”的推测 对“职业” “事物”的推测 对经常性行为的推测 对进行着的行为的推测 对过去的行为的推测

情态动词表推测时:1、can 只能用于否定句和疑问句 2、must 只能用于肯定句(它的否定句和疑问句其实就用 can 来代替了) 3、如句中有情态动词 + 完成时,定是对过去的推测 。 4、句中如有表示不肯定的话语 E.g I am not sure; I don’t know 之类,常选 may /might 的各种形式。 4. 表示反劝的特殊的表推测形式 1). could + have + P.P. He could have finished the task on time, but the 表示本来能做到, 但事实上没有做到。 heavy snow came. 2). couldn’t +have + P.P. 表示本来不能做到,但已经做到了。 3) needn’t + have + P.P. 表示本不必做的,但已经做到了。 4.) should/ought to +have + P.P. 表示该做而没有做 She could not have covered the whole distance, but in fact she arrived ahead of time. She needn’t have attended the meeting yesterday, but she did. The plant is dead. I should/ought to have given ot more water.

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5) shouldn’t/ oughtn’t to +have + P.P. 表示不该做而做了。 5. 注意:

You oughtn’t to / shouldn’t have taken her bike without permission.

must 只能用于肯定句(它的否定句和疑问句其实就用 can 来代替了) 1.must + have + P.P. 表示对过去肯定的推测, “一定是,准 是” 2.can + have + P.P. 表示对过去的推测(限于问句中) 3.can’t + have + P.P. 表示对过去的否定推测 The road is wet. It must have rained yesterday.

Can she have said so? 他可能这样说吗? He cannot have said such a foolish thing.

III 情态动词表推测的反意疑问句 1. 情态动词表推测的反意疑问句, 简单来说, 就是以情态动词后的时态为淮, 如句子里有明确的时间状语, 则以其为准。 2. 以 must 为例: E.g. 1. You must be hungry now, aren’t you? 2. He must be watching TV , isn’t he ? 3 Tom must have lived her for a long time, hasn’t he ? 4. She must have arrived yesterday, didn’t she? 注:如选择题中(以 She must have arrived yesterday, didn’t she?为例)既有 didn’t she 又有 hasn’t she 则以 didn’t she?为最佳答案。 IV 情态动词专项练习与解析一 ( ) 1. You _____ return the book now. You can keep it till next week if you like. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. may not ( ) 2. Where is my pen? I _____ it. A. might lose B. would have lost C. should have lost D. must have lost ( ) 3. I wish I _____ you yesterday. A. seen B. did see C. had seen D. were to see ( ) 4. I didn’t hear the phone. I _____ asleep. A. must be B. must have been C. should be D. should have been ( ) 5. If my lawyer _____ here last Saturday, he _____ me from going. A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented ) 6. He _____ you more help, even though he was very busy. A. might have given B. might have C. may have given D. may give ) 7. If it _____ for the snow, we _____ the mountain yesterday. A. were not; could have climbed B. were not; could climb C. had not been; could have climbed D. had not been; could climb ) 8. Without electricity human life _____ quite difficult today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be ) 9. A computer _____ think for itself, it must be told what to do. A. can’t B. couldn’t C. may not D. might not

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) 10. Jenny _____ have kept her word. I wonder why she changed her mind. A. must B. should C. need D. would )11. We _____ last night, but we went to the concert instead. A. must have studied B. might study C. should have studied D. would study ) 12. — Could I borrow your dictionary? — Yes, of course you _____. A. might B. will C. can D. should ) 13. Tom ought not to _____ me your secret, but he meant no harm. A. have told B. tell C. be telling D. having told ) 14. — If he _____, he _____ that food. — Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken ) 15. Peter _____ come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet. A. must B. may C. can D. will ) 16. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I _____ for her. A. had to write it out B. must have written it out C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out ) 17. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _____, she would have met my brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come ) 18. — Shall I tell John about it? — No, you _____. I’ve told him already. A. needn’t B. wouldn’t C. mustn’t D. shouldn’t ) 19. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _____. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken ) 20. It’s nearly seven o’clock. Jack _____ be here at any moment. A. must B. need C. should D. can ) 21.— There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. — It _____ a comfortable journey. A. can’t be B. shouldn’t be C. mustn’t have been D. couldn’t have been ) 22. Johnny, you _____ play with the knife, you _____ hurt yourself. A. won’t; can’t B. mustn’t; may C. shouldn’t; must D. can’t; shouldn’t ) 23. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone _____ get out. A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to ) 24. — When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon. — They _____ be ready by 12:00. A. can B. should C. might D. need ) 25. — I stayed at a hotel while in New York. — Oh, did you? You _____ with Barbara. A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stayed ) 26. — Will you stay for lunch? — Sorry, _____. My brother is coming to see me. A. I mustn’t B. I can’t C. I needn’t D. I won’t

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) 27. — Are you coming to Jeff’s party? — I’m not sure. I _____ go to the concert instead. A. must B. would C. should D. might ) 28. — Write to me when you get home. — _____. A. I must B. I should C. I will D. I can ) 29. I was really anxious about you, you _____ home without a word. A. mustn’t leave B. shouldn’t have left C. couldn’t have left D. needn’t leave ) 30. — Is John coming by train? — He should, but he _____ not. He likes driving his car. A. must B. can C. need D. may

专项练习(二) 1. I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She _____ at the meeting. A. mustn’t have spoken B. shouldn’t have spoken C. needn’t have spoken D. couldn’t have spoken 2. One ought _____ for what one hasn’t done. A. not to be punished B. to not be punished C. to not punished D. not be punished 3. If you really want yourself to be in good health, you must ___ always ___ so much. A. not; be smoking B. not; have smoked C. not; to smoke D. be not; smoking 4. With so much work on hand, you _____ to see the game last night. A. mustn’t go B. shouldn’t go C. couldn’t have gone D. shouldn’t have gone 5. Most of the students felt rather disappointed at the English party. They say that it ______ better organized. A. had been B. had to be C. must have been D. could have been 6. I’m surprised that he _____ in the exam. A. should fail B. would have failed C. may have failed D. should have failed 7. The little girl _____ there alone. A. not dare go B. dares not go C. dare not go D. dare not to go 8. “Must we do it now?” “No, you _____.” A. won’t B. needn’t C. can’t D. don’t 9. He said he would rather not _____ it right now. A. doing B. to do C. do D. to be doing 10. You _____ to the meeting this afternoon if you have something important to do. A. needn’t to come B. don’t need come C. don’t need coming D. needn’t come 11. Put on more clothes. You _____ be feeling cold with only a shirt on. A. can B. could C. would D. must 12. I _____ play football than baseball. A. would rather B. had better C. like better D. prefer 13. I thought you _____ like something to read, so I have brought you some books.

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A. may B. might C. could D. must 14. There was plenty of times. She _____. A. mustn’t have hurried B. couldn’t have hurried C. must not hurry D. needn’t have hurried 15. The plant is dead. I _____ it more water. A. will give B. would have given C. must give D. should have given 16. You _____ return the book now. You can keep it till next week if you like. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. may not 17. It’s still early, you _____. A. mustn’t hurry B. wouldn’t hurry C. may not hurry D. don’t have to hurry 18. Please open the window, _____? A. can’t you B. aren’t you C. do you D. will you 19. We _____ for her because she never came. A. mustn’t have waited B. shouldn’t have waited C. mustn’t wait D. needn’t wait 20. — May I stop here? — No, you _____. A. mustn’t B. might not C. needn’t D. won’t 21. It’s a fine day. Let’s go fishing, _____. A. won’t we B. will we C. don’t we D. shall we 22. I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She _____ at the meeting. A. mustn’t have spoken B. shouldn’t have spoken C. needn’t have spoken D. couldn’t have spoken 23. — Please don’t make a noise. — _____. I’ll be as quiet as a mouse. A. Yes, I won’t B. No, I won’t C. No, I will D. Yes, I will 24. The young man has made so much noise that he _____ not have been allowed to attend the concert. A. could B. must C. would D. should 25. — Where is John? — He _____ in the library. A. should be B. must be C. can be D. must have been 26. Since the road is wet this morning, _____ last night. A. it must rain B. it must be raining C. it must have rained D. it must have been rain 27. — Will your brother stay home tonight? — I’m not quite sure. He _____ to the cinema tonight. A. must go B. can go C. may go D. may be going 28. She’s already two hours late. What ______ to her? A. can have happened B. may have happened C. should have happened D. must happen 29. You must be a writer, _____? A. mustn’t you B. are you C. must you D. aren’t you 30. I got up early that morning, but I _____ so because I had no work to do. A. mustn’t have done B. didn’t need to do C. needn’t have done D. can’t have done

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31. He _____ have come here yesterday, but he didn’t. A. could B. should C. ought to D. all the above 32. I missed the last bus, so I _____ go home on foot. A. must B. have to C. may D. had to 33. He ought to win the first prize, _____ he? A. oughtn’t B. shouldn’t C. mustn’t D. both A and B 34. Everyone _____ do his best for the modernizations of our country. A. can B. may C. should D. might 35. Let’s clean our classroom, _____? A. will you B. don’t we C. shall we D. do you 36. Let us play basketball, ______? A. will you B. don’t we C. shall we D. do you 37. He asked me for this book many times. Please tell him that he _____ have it tomorrow. A. must B. may C. shall D. both B and C 38. “Your phone number again? I _____ quite catch it.” “It’s 9568442.” A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t 39. Mother _____ us stories when we were children. A. was used to tell B. is used to telling C. used to tell D. used to telling 40. She would rather _____ more money on books _____ on clothes. A. cost … not B. to spare … don’t C. pay … than D. spend … than 专项练习(三) 1. — Has Li Lin started? He said he would join in the party. — He ______. He is a man of keeping his word. A. could have left B. must have left C. can’t come D. won’t be coming 2. — May I park my car here?— No, you ______. No car is allowed to park here. A. may not B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. daren’t 3. — Excuse me, could you tell me where the Yajia Supermarket is? — It’s two blocks straight ahead. You ______ miss it. A. mustn’t B. can’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 4. — I saw Mr. Sun at Tongyu Station this morning. — You ______. He’s still on holiday in Hawaii. A. couldn’t have B. mustn’t have C. shouldn’t D. needn’t 5. — How about paying a visit to Dr. Wang, our former Chinese teacher? — Good idea. I will e-mail him today so that he ______ know ______ to expect us. A. shall; why B. could; when C. would; what D. will; how 6. Everything has two sides. Beautiful songs, sometimes, ______ be just noise to others. A. must B. may C. should D. could 7. Someone ______ my umbrella. I found it wet yesterday. A. must be using B. must have used C. must use D. must have been using 8. — How dangerous it was!— Yes, but for the passer-by’s quick action, the girl ______. A. was drowned B. could have been drowned C. had drowned D. should be drowned 9. You ______ scold such a pupil who always keeps silent so seriously that you ______ hurt him. A. should; can B. may; will C. mustn’t; may D. can’t; must 10. — Why does Alice know so much about Angkor Wat?— She ______ have been there, or ... A. must B. oughtn’t to C. may D. can’t

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11. — You may laugh, but I’ve been thinking of becoming a vegetarian.— Oh, you ______ be crazy. You will be hungry all the time. A. must B. may C. will D. need 12. — What’s the matter with you? — Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I ______ so much fried fish just now. A. shouldn’t eat B. mustn’t have eaten C. shouldn’t have eaten D. mustn’t eat 13. — ______ he have been chosen as captain of the football team?— Yes, he ______. A. Can; must have B. Must; must have C. Can; must D. Must; must 14. Mr. Zhang ______ in Shanghai tomorrow morning. A. can have arrived B. will have arrived C. may have arrived D. must have arrived 15. Miss Wang started at 8 o’clock, and she ______ be there now. A. should B. can C. can’t D. need 16. — It must be Mr. Li who did it. — No, it ______ be Mr. Li. A. mustn’t B. wouldn’t C. can’t D. may 17. You ______ finish reading the book as soon as possible. A. may B. can C. need D. should 18. — Need you go to work now? — Yes, I ______. A. must B. need C. can D. dare 19. Your trousers are dirty. ______ them for you? A. Shall I wash B. Will I wash C. Am I going to wash D. Am I washing 情态动词专项练习与解析一 【练习解析】 1.C 从原题中 You can keep it till next week if you like 这一信息句可知, “你不必现在还” 。 2. 从原题中 Where is my pen?这一信息句可告诉考生, D “笔丢了” 丢的动作是过去发生的。 , 因此用 must + have done 表示对过去事实的肯定猜测。 3.C 原题中的 yesterday 这一信息词告诉考生,在 wish 后的宾语从句中,用过去完成时,表示与过去事 实相反的愿望。 4.B 从原题中的 I didn’t hear the phone.这一信息可以判断出,用 must have done 表示过去事实的准确的 肯定猜测。 5.A 从原题中 last Saturday 这一信息词可知,条件句中用表示与过去 事实相反的过去完成时,主句用 would + have done。 6.A might have + 过去分词,在次是虚拟语气,表示“本来可以给你更多的帮助” ,而事实则是帮助较 少。 7.C 从原题中的 yesterday 这一信息词暗示考生,该句应选用与过去事实相反的过去完成时,If it had not been for ? “要不是因为??” 。 8. D 原题中的 Without electricity 相当于一个条件句: there were no electricity,故主句用 human life would If be quite difficult today. 9.A can 可以表示一种客观上的能力,本句 can’t,表示“不能,不会” 。 10.B 从原题总的“I wonder why she changed her mind” “我不知道为何他改变了主意了。 ”这句话告诉考 生 Janny 没有守诺言。因此,用 should + have done,表示“过去本应该做某事,而实际上没有做” 。 11.C 可参看 10 题。意思是: “昨晚本应该学习,但是却去听音乐会了。 ” 12.C 原题中的 could 不是过去时,而表示一种委婉、客气的礼貌用语。因此用 could 提问时,用 can 回 答。 同样用 would, might 提问, will 和 may 回答。 用 [注意]①— Would you rather do such a thing? — Yes, I would.

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②— Would you like some tea? — Yes, I would. 这两个对话中的 would rather,would like 是惯用法,故不能用 will 来回答。因为在这两个句型中,will 不 能去替换 would。 13.A 可参看 10、15 题。该句意思是: “汤姆本来不该告诉我你的秘密,但他没有伤害你的意思。 ”ought not to have done = shouldn’t have done 14. 从答语中的 Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately 这一信息句可提示考生, B 条件句应填表示 与过去事实相反的时态。 15. 从原题中的 but he isn’ very sure yet 这一信息句可暗示考生, B t Peter 当晚来的可能性不大。 是 A “准 来,肯定来” 是“将要来” ,D 。 16.C 可参看 10、11、13 题。 “本应该”而事实上没有?? 17.D 从原题中 I didn’t see your sister at the meeting 和后文 she would have met my brother 这两个信息句 可知,if 条件句中应填与过去事实相反的过去完成时。可参看 6、7、14 题。 18.A 你不必告诉他。因为 I’ve told him already 这一信息句已暗示考生了。 19.C 当 as if 引导虚拟语气的句子是,如果主句与从句中的谓语词所表达的动作同时发生时,as if 后接 一般过去时。例如:He walked as if he were lame.如果从句中的谓语动作发生个在主句谓语动作之前,则用 过去完成时。例如:He talked as if he had known the secret.不论主句中的谓语是现在时还是过去时。 20.C 只要考生抓住 nearly 一词和后文 at any moment(随时的意思)这两个信息词语,就能很快选出 C 项,表示逻辑推测,意思是“快七点钟了,杰克一会儿就该到了。 ” 21.D 根据句意,是对过去情况的推测。 “当时决不可能是一次舒服的乘车。 ”must 表示对过去的推测只 能用于肯定句。 22.B mustn’t 表示“禁止” ;may 表示“有可能” 。句子的意思是: “你不可以玩刀,可能会伤你自己。 ” 23.D 该题在考考生 could 与 was able to 之间的区别。Was able to 表示在困难的情况下,经过一番周折而 “能??” ,并且成功地做了。 24.B 该题考查情态动词 should 表推测的用法。Can 和 might 都可以表示可能性,用 might 则语气更加不 肯定。Need 表示“需要”“必需” 、 。Should 可以表示推测,结合实际,合乎逻辑,意为“应当”“该” 、 。 根据第一个说话者说的 I need them tomorrow afternoon 的语境,可以确定正确答案为 B。 25.A 该题在考查“情态动词+不定式的完成式”的用法,从会话的语境看,空白处应填“could + have + 过去分词”表示过去本来能做到的事而事实上没有做到。 26.B 该题考查表示请求的英语口语,用 will 来向第二人称提问的疑问结构,是表达一种意愿和请求, 是以疑问的形式来表达较为婉转的祈使语气,意思是“请你??,好吗?” ,对于这种问句的肯定答语可 用 Sure! Certainly! Yes, of course. I’ be glad to 等; d 否定回答通常是 I’ sorry, I can’ No, I’ afraid I can’ m t. m t. I’m sorry, but ? I ‘d like to, but ?等。 27.D might 表示“可能性” 。 28.C 意思是“我会的” 。对祈使句的肯定回答。 29.B shouldn’t have done 为本来不该做某事,而事实上做了。 30.D 用 may not 可表示“可能不” 。而 can not 则表示断然的否定推测“不可能” 。A,C 意思不符。 专项练习二答案与解析 1. D. must 表示推测时不用于否定句; shouldn’ have done sth. 表示 t “本不应该做某事而实际上做了”; needn’ t have done sth. 表示“本来不必做某事而实际上做了”;couldn’t have done sth. 表示“不可能做过某事”。 根据题意,选 D。 2. A. 情态动词 ought 后要接带 to 的不定式,ought to do 的否定式是 ought not to do,所以答案是 A。 3. A. must not always be doing sth. 表示“不要老是做谋事”,含有埋怨、指责、反感等感情色彩。 4. D. 题中的 A 项和 B 项都指现在情况;couldn’t have gone 表示“不可能去过”;shouldn’t have gone 表

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示“本不应该去而实际上去了”。根据题意,选 D。 5. D. could have done sth. 表示“本来能够做某事而实际上未能做成”。 6. D. should 可用于表示惊奇、 感叹、 不满等感情色彩的句子, 如指过去的动作, 则要用 should have done sth. Would 和 may 通常不带感情色彩。 7. C. 题中的 dare 是情态动词,后接不带 to 的不定式,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件句中。 8. B. must 开头的疑问句,否定答语用 needn’t 或 don’t have to。 9. C. would rather 通常也视为情态动词(组) ,后接动词原形,其否定形式为 would rather not。 10. D. need 作为情态动词,其否定形式为 needn’t;作实义动词时,其否定形式为 don’t (doesn’t) need to do。 11. D. must 用在肯定句中表推测时,语气比 could, would 等肯定得多。此处“must + 不定式进行式”表“想 必正在……”之意。 12. A. would rather … than …,意为“宁愿(做)……而不(做)……”。 13. B. 由句意可知,这是对过去发生的事情不太有把握的推测。 14. D. needn’t have done 意为“过去不必做而做了某事”。 15. D. should have done 表示“过去应该做而没有做某事”。 16. C. can’t(不能) ,mustn’t(不准) ,may not(不可以) ,均不合题意。 17. D. don’t have to = needn’t 18. D. will 用在第二人称的疑问句中,为询问(或征求)对方的意愿或向对方提出请求之意。 19. B. should not have done 表示“过去不应该做而做了某事”,含有“后悔”、 “责备”、 “劝告”, “批 评”之意。 20. A. may 开头的疑问句,否定答语常用 mustn’t。 21. D. 疑问句中 shall 用于第一、三人称,用来征询对方的意见。 22. D. 推测“她不可能在会上发言”,must 表示推测时,不能用于否定句中。 23. B. will 在此处表示“意志(向)”。 24. D. should not have done 表示“过去不应该做而做了某事”,含有“后悔”、 “责备”、 “劝告”, “批 评”之意。 25. B. must do 表示对现在的事实进行推测。 26. C. must have done 用于对过去发生的事情进行推测,且较有把握。 27. C. 表示推测时,must 比 may 语气肯定。 28. A. can 表推测,只用于否定句和疑问句中。 29. D. must 表示推测时,其后的反意问句有两种情况:①对现存状态(现在的事实)进行推测时,反意疑 问句中动词用其一般现在形式。②对过去发生的事情进行推测时,若有表过去的时间状语,反意问句用动 词的过去式。 30. C. needn’t have done 表示“过去不必做而做了某事”,若表示“不必做某事(且实际上未做) “则用” didn’t / don’t / doesn’t need to.” 31. D. A 表示“本能够”,B, C 表“本应该” 。 32. D. have to 表示客观上要求做某事,must 表示主观上认为必须做某事。 33. D. ought to 的反意问句应用 oughtn’t 或 shouldn’t 开头。 34. C. should 含“按理应该做……”“有义务做……”之意。 、 35. C. Let’s 中的 us 一般包括对方在内。 36. A. Let us 中的 us 一般不包括对方在内。 37. D. may 和 shall 均可表“允诺” 。 38. A. 由句后得知句意为“我开始没听清楚对方的电话号码” ,为对过去的事实或发生动作的表述。 39. C. used to do“过去(常)做某事” ,be used to doing“习惯于做某事” 。

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40. D. would rather 后接动词原形。Spend … on sth.为常用结构。 w.w.w.g.k.x.x.c.o.m 专项练习三答案及解析: 1. B。从 He is a man of keeping his word 中可以看出,李林肯定已经出发来参加聚会了,这是对已经发生的 事情非常肯定的推测,故用 must have done。注意 must 表推测时,不能用于否定句和疑问句中。 2. C。此题考查以情态动词提问的一般疑问句的回答。在英语中,以某些情态动词提问的句子,出于礼貌 委婉或句意的需 要,回答时,要换用另一个情态动词。在回答 must 开头的一般疑问句时,肯定回答用 must,否定回答用 needn’t 或 don’t have to;在回答 may 开头的一般疑问句时,肯定回答用 may,否定回答 用 mustn’t;在回答 need 开头的一般疑问句时,肯定回答用 must,否定回答用 needn’t。 3. B。根据题意,此处需要表示“推测”的否定结构,故 can’t 为正确答案。4. A。这是一个省略句,couldn’t have done 表示对过去发生的动作的否定推测,意为“不可能……”。 5. B。这是一个综合题。本题 so that 后的目的状语从句中的谓语动词要用“情态动词( may / might / can / could ) + 动词原形”。 When to expect us 表示“我们什么时候可到达”。 “疑问词+不定式”结构在句中作 know 的宾语。 6. B。由 sometimes 可知,此处应用表示可能性不大的情态动词,即 may。 7. B。由后句可知,这是对过去发生的事情的肯定推测,故 B 项正确。 8. B。but for 的意思是“要不是”,语法功能上等同于 if 引导的否定虚拟条件句,因前句中 How dangerous it was 可知应与过去事实相反。 9. C。mustn’t 表示“不准许”,may 表示可能性,所以 C 正确。 10. C。句意:她或许到过那里,或者……。or ... 是重要的信息,说明还有其他的可能性。A 的说法太绝 对,与 or ... 提供的信息冲突。 11. A。must 表示的把握最大,may 表示有可能,need 不表示推测,will 表示将来。根据句意可知 A 正确, 表明对对方的不理解和责备,语气比较坚决。 12. C。shouldn’t have done 表示“本不该做……,但实际上却做了”。 13. A。疑问句中可以用 can, 肯定句用 must。 14. B。will + have done,表示对将来必然进程的猜测。 15. A。should 表示主观性猜测,译为“应该”。 16. C。can’t 表示否定的猜测,侧重于主观判断,译为“决 不会;不可能”。 17. D。should 表示劝告某人应该做某事。 18. A。need 引导的一般疑问句,肯定回答应用 must。 19. A。Shall I ... ?是征求对方意见时常用的句型。

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