1．The demand for goods
(商品) and service is lower
2．By operating (经营), they have cut down the cost by 5%. 3．
Her tears began to flow (流淌) more freely.
4．The crime rate in this city has decreased (减少) in the
last decade. 返回
5．The government has suggested measures (措施) to reduce crime. 6．Steel, iron, glass, cloth and paper can all be recycled (回 收)．
7．There is a large quantity
(大量) of rain in this area.
8．I try to avoid conflict (争执) wherever possible.
9．She's very particular 10．After a long debate
(讲究的) about what she wears. (辩论) the bill was passed.
11．He was arrested (逮捕) in connection with a series of
armed bank robberies.
12．The salaries in that company range (变化) from $300 to $1,000.
13． responsible adj.应承担责任的→ responsibility n． 责任，职责 14． consult v．咨询；请教→ consultant
15． produce vt.& vi.生产，制造→ product n．产品；产量
→ production n．产量；生产 16． arrive v．到达→ arrival n．到来，抵达；到达者
17． legal adj.合法的→ illegal adj.非法的→ illegally adv.
非法地 18． electrical adj.电的，用电的→ electric adj.电的；用电的； 能发电的→ electricity n．电；电学；电流 19． belief n．看法；信念→ believe vt. 相信；认为 → believable adj.可信的 20． credit n．赞扬，称赞；认可；信用，信誉；学分vt.信 任，相信→ creditable adj.值得赞扬的，应受肯定的
B：一言辨异(根据语境，用所给单词的适当形式填空) 21．After appreciating Xidan Girl's wonderful
performance, the crowd murmured in
22．The central feature of contemporary society is consumption rather than saving.Every one of us is a
consumer and we consume a lot every day.(consume)
23．The final exam is approaching and all the students are absorbed in study, trying to absorb knowledge in
24．Industrial development is causing widespread damage to the environment , so measures must be taken to improve environmental conditions.(environment) 25．This organization advocates energy conservation and
it also brings forward many measures to conserve
1．* open the floor
2．* result in 3．* cut back on 4． use up 5．* run out (of)
导致 削减，缩减，减少 用尽 用完，耗尽
6． dig up 7． cause/do damage to
8．* pick up
9． clean up 10． queue up 11．* set up 12．* pick out
整理；(把……)打扫干净 排队等候 创建，建立，开办 找出，挑选
13．* under way 14． let off 15． in use
在进行中 排放 在使用中
16．* in particular
17． do one's part 18．* in/with regard to
1．They returned home from Beijing when their money
ran out . 2．You can open the floor at the meeting and express yourself. 3．Can you pick out your brother in this crowd? 4．The quarrel resulted in his mother leaving the house.
5．Negotiations between the two sides are now under way .
6．Try to cut back on foods containing too much fat and sugar. 7．Several changes have been made in/with regard to security.
8．A new government was set up after the civil war.
1.With me are Ms Lin Shuiqing, ... and Mr Qian Liwei, ...
仿 我家门前有棵大树。 写 In front of my house stands a tall tree.
2．I like it when you told that joke. 仿 他讨厌别人用他的自行车。 写 He hates it when people use his bike.
3．Therefore, the more petrol and electricity we consume, the more carbon we are letting off. 仿 写
The harder you study, the greater progress
debate, operate, quantity,
常考 conflict, decrease, measure,
单词 appreciate, particular, absorb belief, arrival, arrest, range
常考 cut back on, run out （of）,
短语 pick out
①I like it when you told that joke.
②Therefore, the more petrol and electricity
we consume, the more carbon we are letting off. 返回
1．debate n. & vi. & vt.辩论；争论，讨论
Today's debate question is，?The economy or the
environment — must we choose？?(教材P22原句) 我们今天辩论的话题是“经济发展还是环境保护——我们 必须做出抉择吗？”
(1)be open to debate
a debate on/over/about sth. beyond debate under debate
关于……的辩论 无可争辩，毋庸置疑 在讨论中
(2) debate with sb. about/ on sth. 和某人争论某事
Disagreements are natural and in fact, debate and discussion should be encouraged.(选自2011年高考浙江卷· 任务型阅读) 有不同意见是很自然的，事实上我们应该鼓励争论和讨论。
It is a fact beyond debate that the employment pressure of
graduates is heavy. 毕业生的就业压力大，已成为不争的事实。 The committee will debate whether to lower the age of club membership to 16.
They are debating what to do next. 他们正在辩论下一 步该怎么办。
A．介词填空 ①So far there has been little public debate on/about/over these issues. ②The whole question of compensation is still under
③The truth of this new story is beyond debate.
Whether he deserves what has happened to him
is open to debate .
⑤双方就是否应提高税收而进行了辩论。 The two sides debated whether to raise taxes.
C．单项填空 ⑥The proposal whether the system should be changed is still A．in C．under debate. B．over D．on
解析：句意：有关这个制度是否改应该变的建议仍在辩 论中。under debate “在辩论中”。 答案： C
2．operate vt.经营，管理；操作vi.动手术；运转 The people operating these factories are deeply concerned about the environment.(教材P23原句)
In the laboratory, Tavella operated the wheelchair just by thinking about moving his left or right hand.(选自2011年 高考山东卷· 阅读D) 在实验室里，Tavella通过考虑移动左手还是右手来控制
(1) operate on sb.(for ...)
(2)operation n. 运转，运行，操作 come/go into operation 生效，实行 实施，使……生效
bring/put ... into operation be in operation
The doctor operated on his chest yesterday. 昨天医生给他的胸部动了手术。 The school has been in operation for several years. 这个学校已建校多年了。
[多维演练] A．写出下列句子中operate的汉语意思 ①The patient needs to be operated on immediately.
②When you want to operate the computer, you'll have to read the instructions first. 操作
③The machine seems to be operating smoothly. 运转
④It is an agreement to build and operate a cellphone network. 经营 返回
B．完成句子 ⑤新的制造厂上个月投入运转。 The new production plant went into operation last month.
The driver of the car was operated on immediately. 返回
⑦The hospital every day. A．is operated; operate B．operates; are operated on well, where many patients
C．operates; are operated
D．operates; operated on
解析： operate指“运转”时为不及物动词，无被动语态； many wounded与operate on之间为动宾关系，用被动
Ms Lin suggested we should cut back on the quantity of
things we produce in order to save the environment.(教材 P23原句) 林女士建议我们减少生产商品的数量以挽救环境。
in quantity(＝ in large amounts) a large/small quantity of
It's cheaper to buy goods in quantity.
批量购物比较便宜。 There is a large quantity of rain in this area. 这个地区雨水充沛。 Quantities of arms were discovered in the trucks.
a quantity of或quantities of后既可接可数名词
也可接不可数名词；quantities of ...作主语时，谓语动 词用复数；“a quantity of＋名词”作主语时，谓语动词
[多维演练] A．用所给动词的适当形式填空 ①Large quantities of money have been sent (send)
to the earthquake victims in the past two weeks.
②Every day in hot summer, a large quantity of beer is consumed (consume)．
The police found a quantity of drugs
at his home.
He likes reading and always buys books in quantity .
C．单项填空 ⑤(2009· 福建高考) — Why does the lake smell terrible? — Because large quantities of water A．have polluted C．has been polluted .
B．is being polluted D．have been polluted
两项不正确；水是被污染的，所以需要用被动语态。 故选D项。现在完成时表示过去的动作(水被污染)或行 为对现在造成的结果或影响(湖水的气味难闻)。 答案： D
Many people think that economic development and environmental protection conflict with each other.
conflict with ? ? ?be? in conflict with ? come into conflict with? ?
(a) conflict over sth.
(a) conflict between A and B A与B之间的冲突
These results conflict with earlier findings. 这些结果与早期的发现相矛盾。 She found herself in conflict with her parents over her future
她发现自己在将来择业问题上与父母存在着分歧。 轻巧识记 They came into conflict with each other.
A．介词填空 ①There is a conflict between the two sides of his personality. ②If so, your points of view are bound to conflict with his. ③They came into direct conflict with the local villagers because of a heated quarrel.
④It is in conflict with the rules of our company.
B．单项填空 ⑤There was a between South Korea and North
Korea in November, 2010.
challenge“挑战”； struggle“抗争，搏斗”； war“战争”，
语气过于严重。 答案： B
5．decrease vt. & vi. & n．减少 This is one of the cheapest and best ways of decreasing desertification.(教材P33原句) 这是减少沙漠化最便宜和最好的方法之一。
Official data already shows that the number of China's
educated jobless people, referred to as the “ant tribe”， appears to be decreasing. 官方数据已经显示，被称为“蚁族”的中国高学历失业者的 数量正在不断减少。 返回
(1)decrease from ...to decrease to decrease by
减少；减小，降低 减少到 减少了
(2) on the decrease
(a)decrease in sth. (a)decrease of＋(百)分数
The number of new students decreased from 210 to 160 this year. 今年新生人数从210减少到160。 He refused to accept a decrease of 20% to his salary.
A．介词填空 ①There has been a decrease in the number of students this year. ②The price of wheat has decreased by 15%.
③The number of the students in each class is on the
decrease. ④Prices are expected to decrease by less than one percent this year. 返回
⑤It has been reported that the exports of that company have decreased A．to C．with 3%. B．by D．at
解析： decrease to“减少到……”，其后一般接具体的数 字； decrease by“减少了……”，其后一般接分数或百分
6．measure n．[C]措施，方法，尺寸vt.测量；估量[系 动词]规格(或尺寸)为……
The centre has over 300 scientists devoted to finding
measures that will stop desertification.(教材P33原句)
(1) take measures (to do sth.) 采取措施(做某事) make ... to one's measure 根据某人的尺寸做…… (2)measure sb. for ... be measured by ... 为某人量尺寸 用……来衡量
There are five measures that need to be taken before you
can get the most out of a team ...(选自2011年高考浙江
卷· 任务型阅读) 需要采取五项措施你才能从一个团队中获取更多…… Education shouldn't be measured purely by examination results. 教育不应该纯粹用考试成绩来衡量。 返回
[点睛] (1)measure表示“措施”时，常用其复数形式。 (2)measure表示“有……长(宽、高等)”时，是系动词， 后跟量的结果，不用被动语态及进行时态。
①The table measures 2 meters long.
②The measures we have taken prove effective.
③那棵古树从树梢到地面至少有30米。 That old tree must measure at least 30 metres from top to bottom. ④我宁愿让人根据我自己的尺寸定制衣服也不愿意买现
I would rather have my clothes made to my own measure than buy those which are readymade.
⑤用prefer to do rather than do改写练习④ I prefer to have my clothes made to my own measure rather than buy those which are readymade.
⑥If we had taken such effective much earlier, the
river would not be polluted so seriously now.
A．treasures C．measures B．efforts D．actions
解析：句意：如果我们早点儿采取这样有效的措施，这 条河现在也不会被污染的这么严重了。take measures意 为“采取措施”，符合句意。 答案： C
7．appreciate vt.欣赏，赞赏；感谢；领会 The efforts of government and people to protect this muchloved river will be appreciated for years to come.(教
(1)appreciate (one's) doing sth.
I'd appreciate it if ... 如果……，我会感激不尽的
(2)appreciation 赏识，鉴赏，感激 appreciation of/for sth. 对某事的感激
There are various art websites that can help students to
appreciate and create art pieces.(选自2011年高考湖南卷· 阅
读填空) 有各种各样的艺术网站帮助学生鉴赏并创作艺术作品。 I don't appreciate being treated like a secondclass citizen. 我不愿被人当做二等公民。
I would appreciate it very much if you would help me with it.
①Thanks for helping me out, Li Ping, I really appreciate you. you→it
B．完成句子 ② I would appreciate it (我将不胜感激) if you would turn the music down. ③Her abilities are not fully appreciated 识) by her employer. (未被充分赏
C. 高考作文高级表达? ④你若能就如何解决这些问题给我提出些建议，我将 不胜感激。(2011· 山东卷书面表达)
I would appreciate it if you can give me some advice
on how to solve these problems.
⑤He was, after all, the manager, and did not
appreciate to feel like an ignorant schoolboy.
D．to be made
不喜欢被人当做一个无知的学生来看。appreciate 之后 用v.ing形式，此处还有“被人当做……”之意，故用 v.ing形式的被动式。 答案： A
挑剔的 In particular, metal products and paper products require a lot of energy to produce, so you should find ways to use these again without throwing them away.(教材P39原句) 生产金属产品和纸制产品尤其需要大量能源，因此你应 该找到方法重新利用它们而不是将它们扔掉。
be particular about/over
in particular particularly adv.
对……讲究，挑剔 尤其，特别 特别，尤其
During the last decade or so, the United States in particular
has developed an apology culture — apologies of all kinds
and for all sorts of wrongdoings are made far more frequently than before.(选自2011年高考江苏卷· 任务型阅 读) 在过去大约10年的时间里，尤其是美国形成了一种道歉文
I called you for no particular purpose. 我给你打电话没有特别的目的。 If you want to succeed, you should not be particular about your first job. 如果你想成功，就不要对你的第一份工作太过苛求。
[多维演练] A．用 particular的适当形式填空 ①His remarks were particularly helpful.
②He is known for being very particular .
B．介词填空 ③Is there anything in particular you'd like for dinner? ④She is very particular about her appearance.
C．单项填空 ⑤It was a good concert — I enjoyed the last song A．in particular B．in general .
解析：考查介词短语。句意：这是一场很好的音乐会。 我尤其喜欢最后那首歌。in particular“尤其，特别”； in general“一般地”； in common“共有”； in total“总共”。 答案： A
9．absorb vt.吸收(气体、液体、热、光等)；理解，使 全神贯注 Last but not least, you can plant a tree，because trees absorb the carbon dioxide in the air to produce oxygen.(教 材P39原句) 最后但并非最不重要，你可以种一棵树，因为树木可以吸 收空气中的二氧化碳，制造氧气。
absorb one's attention
absorbed adj. 被吸引住的，入迷的 be absorbed in 全神贯注于，专注于
Alcohol may take a few minutes to be absorbed into the
bloodstream and start action on the brain.(选自2011年 高考福建卷· 阅读A) 酒精进入血液并影响大脑的反应可能需要几分钟。 The film Inception has totally absorbed the children's attention. 电影《盗梦空间》完全吸引了孩子们的注意力。
Judith lay on the sofa, absorbed in her book.
[思考归纳] be absorbed in (doing) sth.结构在句中常以过去分词
absorbed in ...(在句中作定语、状语等)的形式出现，类似
的还有哪些？ be lost in ... 陷入……；be caught in ... 被困在…… ；be buried in ... 埋头于；be devoted to ... 专心于…… ，致力 于…… ；be occupied in ... 忙于…… ；be involved in ... 专注于…… 。 返回
[多维演练] A．句型转换 ①His business absorbs him.
→He is absorbed in his business.
②Devoted to the plot of a TV serial, we'll forget our worry and trouble. → Absorbed in worry and trouble. the plot of a TV serial, we'll forget our
B．完成句子 ③事实上我还没有时间弄懂他说的一切。 I haven't really had time to absorb everything that he said. ④录像完全吸引了孩子们的注意力。 The video was totally absorbing the children's attention .
C．单项填空 ⑤ in reading, he didn't notice me entering his
bedroom. A．To absorb C．Absorbed B．Absorbing D．Having absorbed
他的卧室。be absorbed in“全神贯注于”，为习惯用法， 本题中用其过去分词作状语。 答案： C
10．cut back on减少，削减，缩减
It is our duty to try to cut back on production and reduce
the amount of things we make and buy.(教材P22原句) 尽量削减生产，减少制造和购买物品的数量是我们的责 任。 We oppose any plans to cut back on the education budget.
cut down cut in
砍下；砍倒；减小 插嘴；插入 切断(水、电、煤气)；切掉；隔绝 切去；剪去 切碎
cut out cut up
Don't cut in while others are talking. 别人谈话时不要插嘴。 If you don't pay your gas bill soon you may be cut off. 你若不立即付清煤气费，就要停止向你供气。
[多维演练] A．用cut的相关短语填空 ①Tom showed me the article he'd cut out of the magazine. ②The tree was blocking the view from our window and we asked a neighbour to cut it down . ③I usually cut across the park on my way home. 返回
The company is attempting to cut back on expenses .
At this stage, your child will need someone to cut up her food for her.
⑥(2012· 绵阳三诊)The big earthquake struck, and the
island was immediately A．cut down C．cut in from the world. B．cut out D．cut off
解析：句意：大地震发生后，这个岛立马就与外界失去了 联系。cut ... off (from ...)“切断……的去路(或来路)，使 ……与外界隔绝”，符合句意。cut down“砍伐，削减”； cut out “删除”； cut in“打断，插嘴，超车”。
11．run out (of)用完，耗尽 What if they run out ？(教材P25原句) 要是它们用完怎么办？ You'd better go home before your money runs out. 你最好别等钱花光再回家。
Along the way, I realized that I had run out of ré sumé s.
(选自2011年高考安徽卷· 完形) 在路上，我意识到我的简历已经用完了。 返回
run out, run out of, give out, use up
run out of 耗尽，用完； give out 精疲力竭 用完
分发；散发出 及物动词短语 及物动词短语，主语一般为人；可用于 被动语态
use up 用光，用完
[多维演练] A．选词填空： run out, run out of, use up, give out ①The hot water has been used up . ②Our supplies soon ran out .
③We ran out of
④The office gives out financial advice to students who
ask for it.
⑤Give me a cigarette, please.Mine has been run out.
run out→used up或去掉been
C．单项填空 ⑥My money .I must go to the bank to draw some
of the savings out before I've none in hand. A．has run out C．has been run out B．is running out D．is being run out
的语境before I've none in hand分析，此时我手里还有些 钱，只是不多了，即将花完。run out为不及物动词短语， run out of为及物动词短语，故选B项。注意：run out of 虽为及物动词短语，但一般不用于被动句中。 答案： B
There are also things that can be done at a national or
international level, such as sharing information between countries and using satellites to pick out areas likely to be affected by desertification.(教材P33原句) 还有些事情需要通过国家的力量或国际合作才能完成，
It was so dark in the street that I could hardly pick out the person ahead of me. 街上那么黑以至于我几乎不能辨认出我前面的那个人。 She was picked out from dozens of applicants for the job. 她从大批的求职者中被选中承担这项工作。
pick up speed pick on
[多维演练] A．单句改错 ①See if you can pick out me in this photo.
out me→me out
②火车出站约一英里后开始加速了。 After a mile out of the station, the train began to pick up speed . ③她因为个头关系被其他女孩欺负。
She was picked on by the other girls because of her
C．单项填空 ④You'd better fly somewhere in the west. Then you can a taxi and travel around. B．get up D．turn up
A．take up C．pick up
解析： take up“开始学，从事，占去”； get up“起床， 站起来”； pick up“拾起，学会，收听到，搭车”； turn up“出现，调低(音量)”。故C项符合句意“然后你
1．I liked it when you told that joke.
句中it作形式宾语，真正的宾语为后面when引导的从 句。 某些及物动词，如like, love, enjoy, prefer, hate, appreciate等之后若没有出现宾语，而直接跟if/when引 导的状语从句，要在从句前使用代词it充当形式宾语。
She doesn't like it when her children tell lies to her.
I hate it if you use my bike without my permission. 我很讨厌你未经我允许就用我的自行车。
[多维演练] A．句型转换 ①Li Ping doesn't like you to point out her mistake. →Li Ping doesn't like it when you point out her mistake.
B．翻译句子 ②如果你能帮忙，我将不胜感激。 I will appreciate it if you can help me. ③她不喜欢你迟到。 She won't like it if you arrive late.
when the weather in Changsha
becomes freezing cold because there is no heater
A．this C．it B．that D．so
暖气。有些动词如like, appreciate, dislike, see to, hate习惯
2．Therefore, the more petrol and electricity we consume,
the more carbon we are letting off.
“the＋比较级 ..., the＋比较级……”句型，表示“越 ……，越……”。
“the＋比较级 ...”相当于主句。如果第二个“the＋比较 级 ...”用一般将来时，则第一个“the＋比较级 ...”通常 用一般现在时代替将来时。 The more you eat, the fatter you will be.
主句的情况随着从句的情况而变化。两个“the＋比较级 ...” 要分别放在两个句子的主谓结构之前，两句之间可以用逗 号隔开，当意思很明白时，两句常采用省略形式。 The more careful, the fewer accidents. 越小心，事故就越少。 The more he thought like this, the more unhappy he
A．句型转换 ①If you read more, you will learn more. → The more you read, the more you will learn.
②你在南京待的时间越长，你就越喜欢这座城市。 The longer
you stay in Nanjing, the better you like it.
③你出发得越早，你就会越早到那儿。 The sooner you start, the earlier you'll get there .
C．单项填空 ④As Deng Xiaoping said，“The more powerful China ， the safer the world will be.” B．became D．is becoming
A．will become C．becomes
本单元中还有以下知识点需要特别关注。 1．belief n．看法；信念，信心；信任；信仰 belief in sb./sth. beyond belief 对某人/某物有信心 难以置信
The conditions they are living in are beyond belief.
2．arrival n. 到达，到来；新来的人
on/upon arrival 到达时；一到达就……
Guests receive dinner on/upon arrival at the hotel. 旅客到旅馆即可就餐。
3．arrest vt. & n. 逮捕，拘捕 arrest sb.for ... under arrest 因……而逮捕某人 被捕
The policeman arrested the man for speeding. 警察以超速罪名逮捕了那个人。
within/in range of beyond/out of sb.'s range a range of range from sth.to sth. 在……可及的范围之内 超出某人的范围 一系列 在……之间变化(变动)
The houses are sold out within this price range. 这个价格范围之内的房子已售完。 The price of beer ranges from 50 cents to $4 per liter during the summer season. 夏季每升啤酒价格从50美分到4美元不等。
1．(2011· 湖南高考)Do you wake up every morning energetic and ready to start a new day? A．feel C．feeling B．to feel D．felt
作伴随状语。句意：你每天早晨起来感到精力充沛并准 备开始新的一天吗？ 答案： C
2．(2012· 镇江模拟)Children with disabilities will grow
that they are different from normal children.
B．having known D．known
A．to know C．knowing
3．(2012· 芜湖模考)A new law will go into effect on August 1st. According to this law, people found “harmful” advertisements in the streets will be punished strictly. A．putting up C．being putting up B．to put up D．having put up
解析：考查非谓语动词。句意：一部新的法律将在8月1日 生效。根据新法律的规定，在街上张贴有害广告的人，一 经发现将会受到严惩。found putting up作后置定语，修饰 people。find sb. doing sth.“发现某人正在做某事”。 答案： A
4．(2012· 潍坊抽样)With trees and grass
the urban area, the city of Weifang has taken on a new
look. A．covered C．to be covered B．covering D．being covered
达到39.6%，潍坊呈现出新面貌。trees and grass和 cover之间是逻辑上的主谓关系，故选B项。 答案： B
5．(2012· 湖南十二校联考)The firm was successfully run
， he owed his success to the support of his
A．looking back C．to look back
B．looked back D．when looked back
过去，他将自己的成功归功于朋友们的支持。 答案： A
根据汉英提示，写一篇巩固性短文。 全世界的环境(environmental)问题正变得越来越严重。 随着世界人口激增，我们正加速消耗(consume)我们的自然 资源(resource)。特别是(in particular)我们正在污染环境。
则流入海域。 我认为，必须采取有效措施(measure)来保护我们的星 球，我们应当过一种低碳(lowcarbon)生活。我相信我们能 够把地球变得更适合居住。 返回
参考范文： Environmental problems are becoming more and more serious all over the world. As the world becomes
more crowded, we are consuming our natural resources
more quickly. In particular, we are polluting our environment. Large quantities of poisonous gas are being
let off into the atmosphere, and other types of waste are
flowing into our water. In my opinion, effective measures must be taken to protect our planet. We should lead a lowcarbon life. I believe we can make the earth a better place to live in. 返回
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