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黄菊论文终结版


内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计)

Content Abstract.....................................................................................................................................2 Introduction

.............................................................................................................................3 I. Cultural Elements in The Analects.............................................................................3
A. Moral Elements....................................................................................................................3 B. Philosophical Elements........................................................................................................5 C. Social Elements.....................................................................................................................6

II. Difficulties in the Cultural Transmission of The Analects..............................6
A. Difficulties in Understanding The Analects........................................................................6 1. Difficulties Caused by Punctuation.........................................................................................6 2. Difficulties Caused by Inadequate Understanding of the Original Text.................................7 B. Difficulties in Translating Cultural Elements...................................................................9

III. Strategies Applied to the Cultural Transmission in The Analects….....10
A. Note.......................................................................................................................................10 B. Paraphrase............................................ ..............................................................................11 C. Transliteration with Brief In-text Explanation................................................................11 D. Generalization and Specialization.....................................................................................12 E. Contextual Amplification...................................................................................................12 F. Coinage.................................................................................................................................13 G. Free Translation + (Pinyin, Chinese Character)..............................................................13

IV. Necessity to Retranslate The Analects...................................................................13 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................14 Notes.........................................................................................................................................15 Bibliography..........................................................................................................................16 Acknowledgements..............................................................................................................17

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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计)

Abstract:More and more people are greatly interested in Chinese culture with China’s
increasing role in international affairs. Among many Chinese classic works, The Analects is regarded as the symbol of Chinese culture. The research on the transmission of Confucianism will be helpful to the understanding of Chinese history and traditional culture. This thesis mainly talks about the cultural elements in The Analects and the possible difficulties in the process of cultural transmission. Finally, the author summarizes seven translation strategies to deal with these difficulties, namely, note, paraphrase, transliteration with in-text explanation, generalization and specialization, contextual amplification, coinage, and free transliteration + (Pinyin, Chinese character).

Key words:The Analects; culture elements; translation difficulties, strategies 摘要: 随着中国在世界中的作用逐步加强, 越来越多的人对中国文化产生了浓厚的兴趣。
而在许多中国古典典籍中,《论语》被认为是中国文化的象征和标志。对《论语》翻译 中儒家文化传递的研究将有利于世界更好的了解中国的历史和传统文化。本文主要介绍 了《论语》中的文化因素及在文化传递中可能遇到的困难。最后作者还总结了七条应对 这些困难的翻译策略,即注释,释义,音译加篇内解释,概略化和具体化,增益,再造 及直译辅之以汉语拼音加汉字。

关键词:《论语》,文化因素,翻译困难,策略

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On The Transmission of Cultural Information in The Analects
Introduction More and more people are greatly interested in Chinese culture with China’s increasing
role in international affairs. Among many Chinese classic works The Analects is regarded as the symbol of Chinese culture and it had laid the foundation of Confucius’ philosophy of humanity and philosophy. Therefore, it is of great importance to analyze how the translators make the cultural context explicit in The Analects to help target language reader understand it better. During the last century there are more than thirty English versions, complete ones and selective ones altogether. However, due to many cultural elements in The Analects and the difficulties in translating them, many translation versions are not satisfactory. Therefore, correct cultural transmission becomes crucial in its translation. Since language is only a carrier of culture, we should put cultural transmission before language translation.

I. Cultural Elements in The Analects
As an important literary text, The Analects is a marker of Chinese culture. There are a large number of cultural elements related to morality, history, society, politics, address, philosophy and some other aspects, especially some concepts with abundant connotations. They are important points that translators should take into consideration when translating. The important cultural elements can be divided into three groups as follows: A. Moral Terms Since Confucius’ time, The Analects had greatly influenced the moral values of people in China. It taught the basic Confucian value including de (德), zhong (忠), xiao (孝), xin (信), and yi (义). And all centered around the core thought of Confucius – ren (仁). They presented a coherent and consistent Confucian moral system. 1 子曰:“为政以德,譬如北辰,居其所,而众星拱之。” ○ James Legge: The Master said, ?he who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.‘ Ku Hungming: Confucius remarked, ―He who rules the people, depending upon the moral sentiment, is like the Pole-star, which keeps its place while all the other stars revolve round it.‖
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This chapter illustrates the significance of de (德) in Confucian doctrine. As an old concept of ancient Chinese thoughts, de is heavily freighted with a long train of cultural and religious baggage, extending far back into the mists of early Chinese history. It seemed to be a kind of moral power attributed to people in remote antiquity. 1 De refers to not only the power to live a virtuous life, but also the influential power of the good example of a person. For Confucius, de seems to be more than magically efficacious, but stringently moral. It is also regarded as an indispensable quality of a successful ruler. Actually, de does denote inherent quality as well as moral excellence. So, maybe virtue is the better translation because it represents the basic meaning of the Chinese character “德” in that it may either mean good quality in the sense of a moral virtue or that in the somewhat archaic English sense of an inherent power (as in “healed by virtue of medicine” 2). 2 子曰:“弟子入则孝,出则悌。” ○ James Legge: The Master said, ―A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders.‖ Ku Hungming: Confucius marked, ―A youth, when at home, should be a good son; when out in the world, a good citizen.‖ In the development of a person’s character, the most fundamental practice is that of xiao (孝). It generally means “to love, respect and take care of one’s parents.” As for ti (悌), it is about fraternal duty. The two virtues are the foundation of ren. Confucius believed that if people cultivated the innate tendency well, all other natural forms of human goodness would be positively affected by it. 3 吾日三省吾身:为人谋而不忠乎?与友交而不信乎?…… ○ James Legge: I daily examine myself on three points: whether, in the transaction business with others, I may have been not faithful; whether, in the intercourse with friends, I have been not sincere…… Ku Hungming: I daily examine into my personal conduct on three points: first, whether in carrying out duties entrusted to me by others, I have not failed in conscientiousness; secondly, whether intercourse with friends, I have not failed in sincerity and trustworthy…… The conventional meaning of zhong (忠) in classic Chinese is “loyalty”, especially loyalty to a ruler on the part of a minister. In The Analects, Confucius extended its meaning to exercising oneself to the fullest in all relationships, below and above. So both translations above touched the essence of the Chinese terms.
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4 子曰:“仁远乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣。” ○ James Legge: The Master said, ―Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous, and lo! Virtue is at hand.‖ Ku Hungming: Confucius marked, ―Is moral life something remote or difficult? If a man will only wish to live a moral life – there and then his life becomes moral.‖ As the core concept in The Analects, ren (仁) plays a leading role in Confucius moral system. Confucius was original in attaching to it the value of the most universal virtue. He wished his ren to serve as the mainline to lead all the major virtues such as zhong, xiao, ren, etc. It is the extremely abundant connotations that multiply the difficulties in interpreting and translating the words into English. B. Philosophical Terms As a crystal of human intelligence, The Analects also possesses profound philosophy of Confucius and other thinkers in his era. These philosophical terms embody a collective worldview of our Chinese nation. In this book, tian and dao are of central significance in Confucian philosophy. 5 子曰:“巍巍乎!唯天为大,唯尧则之。” ○ James Legge: The Master said, ―How majestic! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yao corresponded to it.‖ Ku Hungming: Ah! How toweringly high and surpassingly: Yao‘s moral greatness is comparable only to the greatness of God. “天” is a word familiar to Chinese native in daily life, but it is difficult to explain in English. It is used everywhere in the Chinese Classics for the Supreme Power, ruling and governing all the affairs of men with an omnipotent and omniscient righteousness and goodness. 6 ○ 子曰:“君子谋道不谋食。”

James Legge: The Master said, ―The object of superior man is truth. Food is not his subject.‖ Ku Hungming: Confucius marked, ―A wise and good man is occupied in the search for truth; not in seeking for mere living. Ku Brothers: Master said, ―A noble person plans for the way, not for a salary.‖ Dao is an important term in Chinese philosophy, which is always used in a broad sense. It is indefinable and can be apprehended only in its infinitely multiple aspects. And from the
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earliest recorded discourse dao stands for the absolute principle underlying the universe. C. Social Terms Social culture is a broad term that embraces many aspects in human life, including mode of life, education, religion, materials, customs and habits and so on. People in different nations have formed rather different social cultures and customs, which would pose many difficulties for translators in translating. 7 ○ 太庙(子入太庙,每事问。)

James Legge: the grand temple Ku Hungming: the State Cathedral (Ancestral Temple of the reigning prince) “太庙” is the place where the emperor or rulers make sacrifice to the ancient people. Legge, translated “太庙 ” into “grand temple” and it retained literal meaning as well as extended some cultural message or background to the target readers. But Ku employed “the State Cathedral” with strong color of Christianity, in which religion took the place of ancient Chinese tradition. 8 (子贡问曰:“赐也如何?”子曰:“女,器也。”) ○ 曰:“何器也?”曰:“瑚琏也。” James Legge: ?What utensil?‘ ?A gemmed sacrificial utensil.‘ Ku Hungming: ―What work of art?‖ asked the other. ―A rich jeweled work of art,‖ was the replay. Here, “瑚琏” was a very valuable vessel in ancient China which was used for sacrificial purpose. Confucius made a metaphor in his remarks implying Zi Gong had a special talent in one aspect, yet he was far from a perfect man. So Ku Hungming rendered the phrase by explaining it as “a rich jeweled work of art”.

II. Difficulties in the Cultural Translation of The Analects
A. Difficulties in Understanding The Analects 1. Difficulties Caused by Punctuations One important feature of the classical Chinese is that it was very economic of words and had no punctuation at all. As a result, it often causes confusion and ambiguity for lack of markers to indicate the start and end of a unit of speech. The latest edition of The Analects we have now is compiled by modern scholars largely on the basis of the annotation made by Zhu Xi of Song Dynasty. Today there are some new versions of The Analects with punctuations, but many arguments still linger on the use of punctuations. Because of the different position of
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some punctuation marks, the understanding of the original text is extremely different. For example, 9 富与贵,是人之所欲也。不以其道得之,不处也。 ○ 贫与贱,是人之所恶也。不以其道得之,不去也。 And another version is as follow: 富与贵,是人之所欲也。不以其道,得之不处也。 贫与贱,是人之所恶也。不以其道,得之不去也。 It is apparent that everyone wants “wealth and rank” and dislikes “poverty and obscurity”. No doubt that there is something wrong in the first version. The second one is more proper. The connotation here is that if you become poor through practicing humanity and righteousness, you ought to accept it without complaining. 2. Difficulties Caused by Inadequate Understanding of the Original Text Even with right punctuation, there are still some difficulties in understanding The Analects. Because Confucianism has been too long ago.And his teaching methods and The Analects itself are difficult to understand for the inadequate understanding of the original text, such as inadequate understanding of some vocabulary, sentences, and even cultural elements4. Here are examples respectively: 10 子张问政。子曰:“居之无倦。行之以忠。” ○ Welay: Tzuchang asked about public business. The Master said, Ponder over it untiringly at home, carry it out loyally when the time comes. Here Welay misunderstand the word “居”. It does not mean “living at home” here but means “be in office”. Chinese words always have their special meaning according to certain background and context. In most cases readers can only get the right understanding by thinking over them and making some researches. Here Welay translated this word completely according to the literal meaning, and made the whole sentence lose its original power. 11 文献(子曰:“夏礼,吾能言之,岂不足征也……文献不足故也。”) ○ Ku Hungming: the literary monuments Ames & Rosemont: documentation and men of wise James Legge: the records and wise man “文献” appears in ancient book as early as in 《论语 八佾》. According to Zhu Xi, wen (文) refers to ancient codes and records and xian (献) is wise men3. The meaning of this term is different from that that in modern Chinese which only refers to valuable documents or literature. Therefore, special attention should be paid to them to avoid the tendency of
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mistaking two monosyllable words as one bi-syllable word in translating ancient Chinese work. We can see that Ku Hungming’s translation disregarded xian as part of the meaning of “wen xian (文献)”, leading to meaning loss in translation. The other two translations explained each character apart and made a satisfactory production. In fact, many ancient Chinese words undergo great changes through time such as “智力” “妻子”and “国家”. Hence, it requires the translators reflect on the meaning of the monosyllable words in translation owing to the distinctive feature of characters in classic Chinese. From the two examples above, we may say that the understanding of words is an essential part in understanding the whole sentence or even paragraph though words are the minimal linguistic units. Actually, most of the difficulties arise from the understanding of words. Therefore, correct understanding of words is the basis for further understanding of the sentences and paragraphs. 12 子曰:“父母之年,不可不知也,一则以喜,一则以惧。” ○ Welay: The Master said, ―It is always better for a man to know the age of his parents. In the one case such knowledge will be a comfort to him; in the other case, it will fill him with a salutary dread.‖ The “喜” and “惧” have their own reference according to the context here: be happy because of the long-lived parents; be fear because they are aged. But we should understand the sentence’s meaning based on the sentence structure and the context. So the translation should be supplemented to explain what the comfort is and why people would be dread. 13 子曰:“默而知之,学而不厌,诲而不倦,何有于我哉?” ○ Legge: The Master said, ―The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied: --- which one of these belong to me?‖ Waley: The Master said, I have listened in silence and noted what was said, I have never grown tired of learning or wearied of teaching others what o have learnt. These at least are merits which I can confidently claim. Ames & Rosemont: The Master said, ―To quietly preserve in storing up what is learned, to continue studying without respite, to instruct others without growing weary --is this not me?‖ In this sentence “ 何有于我哉 ?” is a rhetoric question, and this structure is quite commonly used in ancient Chinese. Here, Confucius used it to reflect himself. This sentence just means: “(of all these) which one have I accomplished?”
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From the several translations above, we can say that Legge’s translation of this sentence is better for he has almost got the correct meaning. However, he applied a state verb “belong”, which is not very in accord with the original text. Ames and Rosemont’s translation used rhetoric question, but the meaning is completely different from the original text. Waley’s translation doesn’t reflect the sentence structure — rhetoric question, and can not convey the meaning and the tone of the sentence. Therefore, the sentence structure is also a lion in the way of translation. Special sentences bring up great difficulties in understanding the original sentences for the translators. So translators should also pay attention to the sentence structures. 14 八佾(孔子谓氏八佾舞于庭:“是可忍也,孰不可忍也!”) ○ In this passage, “八佾(yi)” is very difficult to understand because it is a culture-loaded word. And it is related to the social system of ancient China. Actually it is a cultural term which refers to the ancient ceremonial music and dance. One row or one line is called one yi (佾). Eight rows was the amount allowable only to the highest rulers. If readers don’t know this they can’t understand why Confucius complains that it was usurpation for Ji, a lower-level aristocrat, to use eight rows to dance in ceremony. So for these culture-loaded words, the translators should know ancient Chinese culture first, or it will be very difficult to understand the original text, let alone transmit them into another language. B. Difficulties in Translating Cultural Elements After getting a correct understanding of the source language, the translators should try to express them in the target language and hope to create the same feeling in the target readers’ part as on the source language readers. However because of the differences of culture, social system, religion, etc, it is very difficult, sometimes, to find an equivalent expression in the target language. There are mainly two kinds of situations: zero equivalence and semantic difference. Here are examples for each situation: 15 子曰:“君子谋道不谋食。” ○ James Legge: The Master said, ―The object of superior man is truth. Food is not his subject.‖ Ku Hungming: Confucius remarked, ―A wise and good man is occupied in the search for truth; not in seeking for a mere living.‖ Ames & Rosemont: The Master said, ―Exemplary person (junzi 君子) make their plans around the way (Dao 道) and not around their sustenance. Dao is an important term in Chinese philosophy, which is always used in a broad sense. It
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is indefinable and can be apprehended only in its infinitely multiple aspects. In Confucianism, it seems to cover the total truth about the universe and man, moral principle, the doctrine and so on. The above translators take effort to work it out but the versions are still not satisfactory. Since Dao has so wide a range of connotation in the text, it is impossible to find its exact counterpart in English. In no way can this concept be completely conveyed by any English word such as “the way” and “truth”, etc. And we call this kind situation “zero equivalence”. Therefore, any attempt to render it with its meanings would only lead to under-translation and the loss of its cultural connotation. The word “凤凰” appeared two times in The Analects. Once in Chapter 9, where the Master said, “凤鸟不至,河不出图,吾已矣夫!”; The other in Chapter 18 where Ji Yu met Confucius and sang, “凤兮凤兮!”. Ji Yu knew well of the Confucius’ moral accomplishment, here he compared the Master to the divine bird, advising him to stop seeking office and retire from the chaotic world. Many translators adopted “phoenix” for “凤” , and only Legge translated it into “Feng” or “Feng bird”. But it is difficult for the foreign readers to grasp the ideas of such kind of translation, not to mention the deep metaphorical meaning embodied in the sentence. Because according to the myth, the phoenix was believed to be a divine bird whose emergence portended great tranquility for the empire. However the word “phoenix” has quite different ideas in western counties. It is said that phoenix is a divine bird which was burned to death then it resurrected from the ash and it represents resurrection in the western countries. So the words “凤” and “phoenix” will conjure up completely different images in the source language readers and the target language readers. Because of the semantic difficulties it is hard for us to find an equivalent expression in the target language.

III. Strategies Applied to the Cultural Transmission in The Analects
From what have been discussed above, cultural transmission plays a crucial role in translation as a bridge between different cultures. Therefore the strategies applied in the cultural transmission should be the focus. The author, in the following part, makes an attempt to summarize the translation strategies by some translators of The Analects. A. Note Note is the primary choice in most cases for explanation of cultural information on Chinese classics. It includes footnotes, annotation, side note and additional notes etc. Many explanatory materials in the form of footnotes, glossaries and extended introduction will be
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included. The purpose of providing that background information is to engender in the target language readers a deep respect for the source culture. The main advantage of this strategy is that the original cultural information can be fully preserved. Since it can make the implicit cultural information to the target readers, it is a good way to convey cultural information. Here is an example. “《诗》云:‘如切如磋,如琢如 磨’”, Arthur Waley translated it into “The saying of the songs, as thing cut, as thing filed, as thing chiseled, as thing polished.” and then provide a detailed explanation of the meaning of the verses and the content of 《诗》 in the footnote. The main problem of this strategy is that it may interrupt the readers’ reading and detract their attention to the note. Despite, it is still an indispensible strategy for conveying cultural information in Chinese classics because of its effectiveness for disseminating Chinese culture to Western countries. It can also help the target language readers to appreciate the text almost the same as the source language readers. B. Paraphrase Literal translation is not enough sometimes due to cultural differences. Some cultural expressions in source language have no equivalent expression in target language, and in this case, paraphrase may work well. Because paraphrase is not to translate source language word-for-word, but to explain the sense of the original words or phrases. It can not convey the whole cultural message of source language to target language and therefore causes the losing of the original cultural information, but it can bring about a high degree of elocutionary analogy. For example, “《关雎》乐而不淫,哀而不伤。” Some translators have paraphrase “关雎” into “wooing and cooing (the first song in the Book of Poetry)” which can easily make the reader know the content of Guan Jv. However, a problem raises, the target readers will not know the Chinese name of this song and more detailed information about it. C. Transliteration with Brief In-text Explanation Transliteration is necessary in translating the Chinese classics, especially words concerning names and terms. It means providing words directly in the translation to make the source language easily understood by the readers. It has the advantages to ensure uninterrupted reading on the readers’ part. Take “南子” for example, it is translated into “NanZi, the concubine of Duke Ling” by Simon Leys, and “ the beautiful but ill-famed Princess NanZi. ” Another example is the translation of “凤凰”, because of the deep and metaphorical meaning , it is not proper to translate it just as “phoenix”. So many translators translate it into “feng bird, a divine bird whose emergence portended great tranquility for the empire.” And in “子曰: ‘参 乎!吾道一以贯之。’” ,“道” is translated into “Dao, the way of things done.”
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However, it can only provide limited information for the target readers to understand the text but not sufficient for readers to get a full knowledge of the source culture. Therefore, it’s hard to get a full understanding of the embodied meaning. D. Generalization and Specialization Generalization refers to that the target language uses an expression which is more general and less specific than the source language expression. And the strategy is often used if the omitted details are not so important. For example, the translation of “瑚琏” into “a precious ritual vase” and the translation of “士” in “士而怀居, 不足以为士也” into “scholarly officials” are easy for the target readers to understand the meaning of the whole sentence. But it causes cultural information loss and prevents the readers from knowing more about the source culture. Specialization refers to that the target language uses an expression which is more specific than the source language expression. Some basic concept words, like “仁”, “礼”, “道”, “小人” and “君子”, appeared many times in The Analects, and the meaning of each word is quite rich. So, many translators think that there is almost no fixed expression in English. Then translators should choose a suitable word for them according to the specific context. For example, 16 子曰:“人能弘道,非道弘人。” ○ Legge: The Master said, ―A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man.‖ 17 子曰:“君子谋道不谋食。” ○ Legge: The Master said, ―The object of superior man is truth. Food is not his subject.‖ According to different contexts, Legge applied specific words “principle” and “truth” for the same Chinese character “道” to help target language readers get a clear understanding. E. Contextual Amplification This strategy means adding details to the cultural connotation of the words. The words supplied are unsaid words in the source text, which are self-evident to the source text readers but strange to target readers. For example, Ames and Rosemont have translated “凤鸟” in “凤 鸟不至, 河不出图” into “auspicious phoenix”. Here, “auspicious” is a word to explain “凤鸟”. Evidently, “凤鸟” is a symbol of auspicious thing in China. However, the “phoenix” doesn’t conjure up this image to the target readers. Because in western countries phoenix is said to be a divine bird which was burned to death and then it resurrected from the ash. 18 子曰:不在其位,不谋其政。 ○ The master said, ―He who holds no rank in a state does not discuss its politics.‖ And Waley added “who, in a state” to his translation, which makes the subject much
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clearer. This method can make the target readers easily understand the meaning of the sentence. However, it can’t provide more cultural information. Therefore, the target language readers can’t get a complete understanding of the source text or even get puzzled because of the cultural differences. F.Coinage Due to cultural differences, sometimes, the translators can’t find a correspondent word in the target language, and the literal translation may conjure up different images. At this time, some creative translators may try to coin a new word to substitute the word in the source language. For example, when translating “君子”, the other translators have used “gentlemen” , “superior man” etc. to replace it. But some translator also attempt to coin a new word “intelligentleman” to translate “君子”. It is a creative may, however, this outlandish neologism will probably make the target language readers think of something related to “gentleman” and “intelligent”. Thus it can never provide an answer to problems of translations in an area like moral philosophy, where a deep knowledge of the culture is necessary before one can understand all the implications of the terms used. G. Free Translation + (PinYin, Chinese Character) The translation strategy used by Ames and Rosemont is quite different from the traditional strategies. First they have free translated the conceptual words, “ 仁 ” into “authoritative conduct” ; “礼” into “observance of ritual propriety”; “君子” into “exemplary persons”; “德” into “excellence” and then added PinYin and Chinese character in brackets behind the translation whenever they appear in the text. For example, they translate “仁” into “authoritative conduct (Ren, 仁)” . What’s more, they presented a philosophical introduction intended to help the readers escape reading The Analects with a Western bias. In essence, their translation put the text into the source cultural context. The Analects translated in this way may be dry for the average foreign readers to read. However, appreciation of the cream of Chinese culture outweighs at any rate the time-consuming reading.

IV. Necessity to Retranslate The Analects
Walter Benjamin once points out that translation is the afterlife of the original work. Translators of different generations approach the same source text in a synchronically selective but diachronically progressive way, equipped with prejudices which vary with the passing of time. The interpretation and translation of the source text by different people at different times in fact constitute the effective history of the source text. Composed more than two million
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years ago, The Analects is complicated and not easy to understand to modem readers, not only in terms of its language but the history, culture and social conventions, and the like. Translators at different historical stages, confined by diverse objective and subjective factors, produced distinct translations. Retranslation is necessary due to the changes time. With time goes by, there emerge new interpreting methods, new understanding point of views, new modern language characteristics and new expectation of the reader, all of which determine the necessity of The Analects’ retranslation. What’s more, because of the difficulties in understanding and in translating, there are always some unsatisfactory details in each translation version of The Analects. In addition, only time tested excellent works could appeal to readers of various generations. In the multi-cultural world today, the understanding of different culture and ideology is realized directly or indirectly by translation. By retranslating, the Chinese classic can gain its new life like phoenix’s rebirth from the fire. With arduous efforts made by different translators, The Analects advances at different historical ages. This moral treasure has been shared by people all over the world and Confucianism won’t face the situation of dying out. Thanks to the multiple translations and retranslation, this splendid Chinese canon remains its vitality and far-reaching effects in the target culture.

Conclusion
At present translation study had turned to culture-oriented study from a mere linguistic undertaking. Translation is a language-culture dealing activity and translation can spread and promote cultural communication among peoples and deepen their relations. The study of this paper makes some tentative efforts to analyze the cultural transmission and come up with several ways to realize cross-culture communication to help the readers get a genera idea of The Analects. It is really a tough task to reproduce what is included in the source text,because of differences of cultural backgrounds in one aspect or another. So in the translation of The Analects translators should pay more attention to the cultural transmission to make the foreigners understand Chinese more easily. However, many strategies applied to the cultural transmission in The Analects have both merits and disadvantages, which give rise to further studies. The author of the thesis can only explore this issue from a very limited angle. And earnestly hopes more profound researches on this issue will be carried out in the future.

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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计)

Notes
1.

李泽厚, 论语今译(北京: 北京出版社, 1998)49. Raymond Dawson, Confucius (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982) 74. 朱 熹, 论语集注(长沙: 岳麓书社, 1990)106. 梁海波, “论语英译中的文化误读” , 唐山职业技术学院, 2002 (2) 177.

2. 3. 4.

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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计)

Bibliography
Ames, Rosemont. The Analects of Confucius: A philosophical Translation. New York: Ballantine Publishing Groups of Random House, 1998. Bassnett, Lefevere. Translation, History, and Culture. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1990. Eugene A. Nida. Language and Culture. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2001. Newmark, Peter. Approaches to Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2001. Dawson, Raymond. Confucius. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982. Waley, Arthur. Translation. The Analects. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2005. 胡伟华.实用英汉翻译教程.西安:西北工业大学出版社,2006. 梁海波.论语英译中的文化误读.唐山职业技术学院,2002 (2). 李 游. 典籍的多元阐释与跨文化建构 — 以 《论语》 文化成分的翻译为例 (硕士论文) . 西南交通大学,2007. 刘重德. 《论语》两个英译本的比较研究.英汉语比较与翻译.青岛:青岛出版社,1998. 李泽厚.论语今译.北京:北京出版社,1998. 彭丽元.论语境化的翻译(博士论文).湖南师范大学,2005. 朱 熹.论语集注.长沙:岳麓书社,1990.

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内江师范学院本科毕业论文(设计)

Acknowledgements
I am very grateful to all my teachers of Neijiang Normal University, to whom I owe much my knowledge in the English language. But my most sincere gratitude goes to my tutor, Mr. Xiao Qiang for his insightful criticisms, invaluable help and constant encouragement throughout the composition of my paper. This paper would never have been finished without his gracious patience and conscientious guidance. I also owe the completion of this paper to my classmates and roommates, who have shown great friendship to me during the four years of my undergraduate study. Meanwhile, I would like to dedicate this paper to my parents whose love means the strong support in my life.

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