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英语外研版选修7 Module 6《The World's Cultural Heritage-Grammar》课件 外研版选修7


虚拟语气和状语从句

语法

㈠虚拟语气 1. 在suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request insist, recommend 等动词后的宾语从句中,用虚拟语气.
I suggest we (should) set off tomorrow morning.

我建议咱们明天早上就出发.
He insisted that we should take up the matter at the meeting.

他坚持 我们在会上谈这个问题.
The commander ordered that all civilians (should) be withdrawn immediately.

司令官命令撤退所有的平民.

注:suggest作“暗示,表明”讲,宾语从句不用虚拟“暗示,表明” 讲, 宾语从句不用虚拟语气.

His expression suggested he was very angry. insist 作“坚持说,坚持认为”讲时,不用虚拟语气.例如:

All the doctors in the hospital insisted that he was badly wounded and that he (should) be operated on at once.

2.在it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was proposed, it is necessary, it is important等结构后的主语从句,用虚拟语气.

It is important that we (should) study both Chinese and English well when we are young.

年轻时学好汉语和英语对我们来说很重要.
It is requested that every teacher in our class should give a performance at the party.

我们班级的每一位老师都得在晚会上表演节目.

3.在suggestion, proposal, order, plan, motion, recommendation 等名词后面的表语从句或同位语从句,用虚拟语气.

At the meeting, only Mr Li supported my motion that we (should) set up a special board to examine the problem.

会议上, 只有李先生支持我组建一个特别委员会来研究这个问题.
The suggestion that senior students (should) have classes at weekends was turned down.

关于高中学生周末上课的建议被拒绝了.

4.wish 后的宾语从句.

表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用过去时;
a. I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我真希望知道这个问题的答案.(事实上不知道)

表示过去未能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用had + 过去分词;
b. I wish I had not wasted so much time.

我真希望没有浪费这么多的时间. (事实上已经浪费了) 表示将来不太实现的愿望, 从句的谓语用would +动词原形.
c. I wish you would go with us tomorrow. 但愿你明天和我们一起去.(你去的可能性也不大).

5. if only 后的句子

表示现在没有实现的愿望, 动词用过去时; 表示过去没有实现的愿望,动词用had +过去分词; 表示与将来事实相反的假设, 谓语动词使用would+动词原形, could+动词原形或虚拟语气过去时,常译为“要是…就好了.”
If only I could learn English well in one day.

要是能在一天内把英语学习好就好了.(事实上做不到)
If only I had not been late for the interview.

要是我面试没迟到就好了.(事实上迟到了)
If only Simon would reply to my letter.

要是西蒙能给我回信就好了.(事实上不会回信)

6.would rather 后的从句.

表示现在的愿望,动词用过去时; 表示过去的愿望, 动词用had +过去分词.
I would rather she were not present.

我宁可她不在场.(事实上她在场)
I would rather he had told me the truth.

我宁可他告诉我事实真相.(事实上他没有告诉我真相.)

7 It is (about/high) time 后的定语从句.

表示该做某事而没有做,从句的谓语用过去时.

It is time that we went home.

我们该回家了(实际没走)
It is high time that you went to bed.

你早该睡觉了.

㈡ 状语从句
1.地点状语从句.
1)此类状语从句通常有从属连词where, wherever 引导. 从 句可位于主句之前,也可位于主句之后.如: I found the books where I left them.
Wherever he happens to be, John can make himself at home. 2)地点状语从句在句首时常兼有抽象条件的意味. Where there is a will, there is a way. Wherever there is a smoke, there is fire.

2.条件状语从句
引导此类从句的从属连词有: if , unless, so(as) long as,(只要)
in case, on condition that, supposing that/suppose that (假设) provided that/ providing that (倘若)

一般情况下,当主句时将来时的时候, 从句要用一般现在时. 如:
Do not come unless I call you .

注意: 引导的从句中的谓语动词只能是肯定式, unless且不能引导虚拟语气条件句.

I will lend it to you as/so long as handle it with care. In case there is a fire, what will you do first? You can go swimming on condition that you don’t go too far from the river bank. I’ll go swimming providing/provided my wages are paid. Suppose/Supposing that we can’t get enough food, what shall we do ?

3. 让步状语从句

引导此类从句的从属连词有: although, though, even if, even though, while, as, whether---or---, no matter+疑问词和疑问词+
ever 1) although 和 though 尽管,虽然 He is unhappy though /although he has a lot of money. Although/Though it was raining hard, yet they went on playing football. Clever though you may be, you cannot do that. though 引导的从句不仅可以用于自然语序,也可用于倒装语序. He said he would come; he didn’t , though. 还可用作副词,意为“可是,然而”, 置于句末。

2)even if 和even though 即使,纵然

两者都有退一步设想的意思,可通用。 从句中即可用陈述语气,也可用于虚拟语气。如:
Even though /if it is raining , we’ll go there. We won’t be discouraged even if /though we fail ten times. Even if I were busy, I would go.

4.as尽管, 虽然 as 引导的让步状语从句用于书面语, 比though, although 引导的从句更有表现力,语气更强.as引导的从句一般放在主 语之前, 且必须使用倒装语序, 即将从句中的表语、状语或动 词原形置于句首. 若表语是名词,前置时要省略冠词.如: Child as he is, he knows a lot. Smart as she is , she studies hard.

Much as like it, I won’t buy it, for it’s too expensive.
Try as he might , he could not find a job.

5.while 虽然 while引导的让步状语从句常位于句首, 相当于although, though

While we don’t agree on the matter, we continue to be friends.
While the Internet is bridging the distance between people, it may also be breaking some homes or will cause other family problems.

6. whether---or---不管—还是--- , 疑问词+ever=no matter +疑 问词不管--- , 无论---

Whether you believe it or not, it is true. Whatever (No matter what) you say, I won’t believe you. Don’t let them in, whoever (no matter who) they are However (No matter how) expensive it may be, I’ll take it.

注意: whoever, whatever, whomever, whichever 还可以 引导名词性从句.此时它们不能与no matter+ 疑问词互换. 如:
You can take whatever you like.

Whoever leaves last should lock the door.


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