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高中英语语法专题 名词性从句讲解与练习


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一对一个性化学科优化学案
鹰击长空—基础不丢
一、概述 在复合句中具有名词的性质的作主语、 表语、 同位语、 宾语的从句叫名词性从句。 因此, 我们把主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句和宾语从句这四种从句统称为名词性从句。 It is a fact that English is be

ing accepted as an international language. (主语从句) The trouble is that she has lost his address.(表语从句) They have no idea at all where he has gone.(同位语从句) Do you remember how he came?(宾语从句) 二、主语从句(subject clauses) 1、概述 在复合句中起主语作用的从句叫主语从句。引导主语从句的词有从属连词、关系代词、 连接副词等。 引导主语从句的关联词有从属连词 that、 whether, 关系代词: who, what, which , whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever;关系副词:when, where, how, why, however, whenever, wherever 等。 That you don’t like him is none of my business. What he said is true. Whether the football game will be played depends on the weather. 2、从属连词 that,whether 引导的主语从句。 从属连词 that,whether 在主语从句中的作用只是引导主语从句,它们在从句中不担任成 分,不能省略。 Whether she will come or not is still a question. That they will go is certain. Whether she's coming or not doesn't matter too much. 3、it 作形式主语引导主语从句。 如果主语从句太长,为避免句子结构头重脚轻,我们可用 it 作形式主语,而把主语从句 放在主句谓语部分之后。That 引导的主语从句可用 it 代替,that 不可省略。 用作 it 作形式主语的结构: (1)It is/was +形容词+that 从句 It’s natural that… It’s a pity that… 很自然?? 遗憾的是?? It’s obvious that … 显而易见?? It’s a fact that …事实是??
Believe in yourself!

(2)It is/was +名词+that 从句

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(3)It +不及物动词+that 从句 It seems that… 似乎?? (4)It is/was +过去分词+that 从句 It’s reported that… 据报道?? It's strange that he didn't come yesterday. 4、由关系代词引导的主语从句。

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It turns out that…结果?? It’s believed that… 据认为??

It is a pity that she has made such a mistake.

关系代词 who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 等, 引导 主语从句时,它们分别在从句中担任主语、宾语或定语,不能省略。 Whoever leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. What you have done might do harm to other people. What he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. Who made the long distance call is not important. 5、关系副词引导的主语从句。 连接副词有 when, where, why, how, however, whenever, wherever 等引导主语从句时,它们 在从句中担任状语,不能省略。此类主语从句可以转换为以 it 作形式主语的句子。 Why he didn't come here is not clear to anyone. Where she has gone is not known yet. When they will start has not been decided yet. 三、表语从句 1、概述 用作表语的从句叫作表语从句, 它位于主句中的连系动词之后。 引导表语从句的词有从属 连词 that、 whether、 as though(if); 关系代词 who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 等;关系副词 when, where, why, how, however, whenever, wherever 等。 可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。That 引导表语从句时,在口语中可 以省略。 The trouble is that we are short of money. That is why stone walls are used instead of fences around New England fields. At that time, it seemed as if I couldn't think of the right word anyhow. 2、由从属连词 that,whether 引导的表语从句。 that 在引导表语从句时无词义,而 whether 有词义,意为“是否” 。这时主句的主语常常是 些抽象名词, 如 question(问题), result(结果), chance(可能性), suggestion(建议), idea(想法), reason(理由)等。表语从句对主句主语进行说明、解释,使主语的内容具体化。 The trouble is (that) she has lost his money. The question is whether we need more ice cream
Believe in yourself!

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3、由关系代词引导的表语从句。

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关系代词 who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 等引导 表语从句,在句中作主语、宾语、表语,关系代词不能省略。 The question is which of us should go. The problem was who could do the work. That's what he is worrying about. 4、由关系副词引导的表语从句。 Go and get your coat. It's where you left it. That is how mice ruin many stores of grain every year. 5、由连词 because,as if/as though 等引导的表语从句。 It looked as if it was going to snow. That's because we never thought of it. 四、同位语从句 1、概述 用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。 它一般跟在抽象名词 fact, idea, news, belief, thought, truth, doubt, suggestion, instruction, reason, question 等之后, 对这些名词进行说明或解释。 引导同位语从句的词除连词 that,whether 外,还有关系代词 what, which, who, 以及关系副 词 how,when,where,why 等。 It is a fact that smoking is a danger to health. I have no idea what you mean. 2、由从属连词 that,whether 引导的同位语从句。 Information has been put forward that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. I didn't receive the news that the meeting had been put off.我没有听到会议被推迟的消息。 3、由关系代词引导的同位语从句。 The question who should be the first has not been settled. You can have no idea what he said. 4、由关系副词引导的同位语从句。 I have no idea when he will be back. They usually write exact instructions how the music is to be played. 五、宾语从句(object clauses)
Believe in yourself!

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1、概述

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用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。 宾语从句的位置与陈述句基本结构中的宾语相同。 宾语从 句可以由从属连词 that whether、if,关系代词 what, who, whose, which 和关系副词 when、 where、how、why 等引导。 He said he wanted to go to town. I hope you'll be better soon. He asked me whether she was coming. 2、作动词宾语 (1)由从属连词 that 引导的宾语从句。that 引导宾语从句时,只起引导词作用,在句中不 做成分,在口语和非正式文体中常省去。 I think (that) he'll be right in a few days. I wish (that) she would understand me. (2)由关系代词 what, who, whose, which 引导的宾语从句,在句中作成分,即主语、宾语、 表语和定语,关系代词在句中不能省略。 A computer can only do what you have instructed it to do. Do you know whom they are waiting for? He asked whose dictionary it was. He can't tell which method they will use for the experiment. (3)关系副词 when,where,how,why 等引导宾语从句。 关系副词 when,where,how,why 既有疑问意义,又起连接作用,而且在宾语从句中充 当各种状语,分别表时间、地点、方式、原因。在句中不能省略。 Please tell me when we shall discuss our plan. I don't know where we are going to have the meeting. Will you tell me how I can get to the station? Do you know why he said that? (4)由从属连词 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句。 I don't know whether (if) you are willing to help me.我不知道你是否愿意帮我。 (5)动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。 动词如:advise, ask, inform, promise, question, remind, show, teach, tell, warn 等,宾语从句前 可以有一个间接宾语,这个宾语有时可以省略,有的不能省略。 He has informed me when they are to discuss my proposal. (me 不可省略) She promised (us) that she would give us more help later on. (us 可省略) 3、作介词宾语 It depends on whether he is coming or not. I was curious as to what we could do next. 4、作形容词宾语。
Believe in yourself!

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No one can be sure what man will look like in a million years. I am not certain whether I have met him before. 5、it 充当形式宾语,真正的宾语---宾语从句后置。

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正如我们常用 it 充当形式主语代替主语从句一样,我们也常用 it 用作形式宾语代替宾语 从句,把真正的宾语从句后置。在这种结构中 that 不可省略。有下列几种情况: (1)在 believe, consider, declare, estimate, fancy, feel, find, guess, hear, imagine, know, make, prove, reckon, think, understand 等动词接复合宾语(宾语+宾补)时,要用 it 作形式宾语。 We find it difficult that we should finish the work on time. She thinks it wrong that he didn't answer the phone. (2)用于“动词+宾语+介词短语”的句型中。 Keep it in mind that you have to be home by ten o’clock. We took it for granted that he would come. 6、否定转移 如果主句的谓语动词是“think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, reckon, imagine 等,主语是第一人称的一般现在时态,其后的宾语从句如含有否定意义,一定要把 否定词移到主句谓语上,从句谓语动词用肯定形式。 I don’t think he can do it better than me. I don’t believe he treated the child like that. 7、时态的呼应与语序。 在宾语从句中只能用陈述句语序,时态呼应上要遵循以下三条原则: (1)如果主句谓语是一般现在时或将来时,宾语从句的谓语可根据意思的需要使用任何一 种时态。 Can you make sure where Alice has put the gold ring? They have no idea at all where he has gone. (2)如果主句谓语是一般过去时,宾语从句要用表示过去的某一时态。 He said he would come to see us the next day. I wanted to know whether he had been to Beijing. (3)如果宾语从句是表示客观事实、真理等,不管主句是什么时态,宾语从句一律用一般 现在时。 Dick asked Lucy how old she is. The teacher said the sun rises in the east. 六、高考考点 考点(1) 引导名词性从句的连接词 1. 常见的连接词如下: ① that。that 从句为一个句意完整的陈述句,that 不能省略,没有具体的汉语意思,不
Believe in yourself!

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充当句子成分。

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②whether。whether 从句来源于一般疑问句,whether 不能省略,意为“是否”。 注意: if 只可以连接动词(discuss 除外)后的宾语从句。 即: 确定意思是“是否”的前提下, 名词性从句的连接词优先选用 whether。 ③ 特殊疑问词。特殊疑问词引导的从句来源于特殊疑问句,特殊疑问词不能省略,意思为特 殊疑问词本来的意思,在从句中充当句子成分。 2.名词性从句中难点、重点的连接词: ①where 可表示抽象意义,“……的地方,……点”;when 可表示“……的时候”。 ② what 引导名词性从句时,可视上下文理解为 the +名词+that…如:what=the thing that/anything that…;what=the place that…;what=the time that…;what=the person that… 固定句型:A is to B what C is to D 小结:名词性从句不完整时,如缺主语、宾语、表语时,用 what 引导。 ③ whoever 引导名词性从句时,whoever=anybody who… whatever 引导名词性从句时,whatever=anything that… whichever 引导名词性从句时,whichever=any+名词+that… Whoever (=Anybody who) breaks the law will be punished. 考点(2) 名词性从句中的语气 ① 在 It is necessary/natural/important/strange…+that 从句中, 从句中的谓语动词用“should +原形动词”表虚拟语气,且 should 可省略。 ② 表示“建议、命令、要求”意义的动词,后接 that 从句时,从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟 语气,即“should+原形动词”,且 should 可省略。 ③ 表示“建议、要求、命令、想法”意义的名词,后接 that 从句时,从句中的谓语动词要 用虚拟语气, 即“should+动词原形”, should 可以省略。 这类名词有: advice, command, decision, demand, determination,order,preference,proposal,request,requirement 等。 考点(3) 名词性从句中的时态 主句时态为过去时,从句时态为过去的某一时态;主句时态为现在时或将来时,从句时 态视具体情况而定。 考点(4) 形式主语和形式宾语 it

主语从句作句子主语,为平衡句子结构,避免头重脚轻,用 it 作形式主语;同理,宾 语从句作宾语,为平衡句子结构,避免句子中间臃肿,用 it 作形式宾语,使句子瘦身。it 所代替的真正的主语从句或宾语从句则放在句子的最后面。 考点(5) 引导词 that 与 what 的区别 what 既有引导主语从句的作用,同时又在从句中作句子成分(主语、宾语、表语等),这 时 what 相当于 all that/everything that 等,常译成“所……的(东西、事情、话等)”;而 that 只 起连接作用,本身无实际意义,在从句中也不充当任何句子成分,但 that 引导的主语从句放 在句首时,不能省略 that。如:
Believe in yourself!

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What we can't get seems better than what we have. That a new teacher will come to teach us geography is true.

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可以攻玉—经典例题
1. ________________(令球迷欣喜的)was that the young player performed extremely well in the table tennis tournament. (delight) 2. The news ____________(房价将要下跌)has caused many people to sell their houses at lower prices. (fall) 3. When the news came_________________, he decided to serve in the army. (break) 当战争爆发的消息传来, 他决定去参军. 4. ________________by one company doesn't necessarily mean that you have no way out to support yourself. (lay) 你被一个公司解雇并不一定意味着你没有出路来养活你自己.

突飞猛进—过手训练
1. __________________________ ought to turn off the lights. (whoever) 最后离开房间的人应该关灯。 2. It is still unknown _______________________________ to visit her sick father. (set) 她是否能省出点时间去看望她生病的父亲还不清楚。 3. It will make a difference if we realize ____________________ to live life to the fullest. (important) 如果我们意识到充实生活是多么重要的话就会有所作为。 4. ______________________________ is that they are all independent. (common) 他们所拥有的共同之处是他们都很独立。 5. ________________________________ is that it offers more personal services. (what) 使这家商店不同的是它提供了更多的个人服务。 6. Language experts hold the view ______________________________ the development of language. (influence) 语言专家认为网络语言对语言的发展有很大的影响。 7. Tom, don’t you realize that is _______________________? (be) 汤姆,难道你没有意识到这就是你的错误所在吗? 8. Water, which seems so simple and common is ________________________. (make) 看似简单而普通的水却是使生命成为可能的东西。
Believe in yourself!

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装修后,我们的教室不再和过去一样。

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9. After decoration, our classroom is not ___________________________. (what) 10. Mary wrote an article on ______________________ to win the game. (fail) 玛丽写了篇关于我们这场比赛没有赢的原因的文章。 11. These wild flowers are so special that I will do _______________ . (save) 这些野花如此特别,我将竭尽所能地去挽救他们。 12. Choosing the right dictionary depends on __________________. (what) 正确地选择字典取决于你要用它做什么。 6. We’ll never know ________________________ for us in the ten years to come. (what) 我们永远不会知道在即将到来的 10 后年我们的生活会发生什么。 7. He spoke proudly of his part in the game, without mentioning ____________________.(what) 他自豪地说出他在比赛中发挥的作用却没有提他的队友们所做的。 8. That morning Jim asked me ___________________________ with my parents the night before. (argue) 那天上午吉姆问我, 我和父母在前一天晚上争论什么。 9. To get a full appreciation of________________ we must turn first to some recent human inventions, (mean) 要透彻理解这句话的意义,我们应先回顾一下人类最近的几项发明。 10. ______________________as men has been proved by a study. (word) 女性用的词汇是男性的两倍,这已经得到了一个研究的证实。 11. Smart phones enable workers to keep in contact in______________ impractical before.(think) 智能手机让上班族们有更多他们以前认为是不现实的方式保持联系。 12. A great sense of balance is 站在瑞士球上需要很好的平衡感。 13. The stability of a society depends on 14. the extremes of human behavior. (respond) 一个社会的稳定取决于该社会对人们的极端如何作出回应。 is that the continue presence of water allows the earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas. (believe) 很多科学家相信, 由于地球上长期有水存在, 使地球得以把有害气体和酸性物质溶解在海洋 里。 15. You can hardly imagine ____________ in such a short time! (progress) 你简直难以想象他在这么短的时间内取得了多么大的进步! 16. Stop dreaming up getting and get down to your work, (belong) 不要幻想得到不属于你的东西,赶紧开始干活吧。 17. I was close to being killed the other day when a car passed me at _______________________. (dangerous) 前天,当一辆小车以我认为危险的速度开过时,我差一点被撞死了。 18. I was about to give up when an idea I could work with my to stand on a Swiss Ball. (take)

Believe in yourself!

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roommate Tim. (occur) 正打算放弃时,我突然想到我可以和我的室友 Tim 一块干。

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19. ________________about the city was its traditional culture and morden architecture.(impress) 这个城市给我们印象最深的是她的传统文化和现代建筑风格。 20. It has been announced that _____________________ in the exam will be graded zero. (catch) 已经宣布任何在考试中被抓住作弊的人将被记零分。 21. ________________________________to the conference surprised us, since he was an important figure in this field after all. (invite) 他没有被邀请参加会议很让我们吃惊,毕竟他是这一行业的重要人物。 22.__________________________ is that they are both good at math but weak in English. (common) 他们的共同点是他俩都擅长数学但英语薄弱。 23. Building a well-being and harmonious society is_________________________. (struggle) 我们一直努力奋斗的就是建设一个和谐的小康社会。

Believe in yourself!


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