状语从句在句中作状语， 修饰主句中的动词、 形容词或副词等。 状语从句放在主句之前时， 常用逗号分开;放在主句之后，一般不用逗号。状语从句按其意义和作用可分为时间、原因、 地点、条件、让步、目的、结果、方式、比较等 9 种。 1.时间状语从句 时间状语从句表示主句动作发生的时间，主要由 when，while，as ; before, after;
till (until); once, by the time, as soon as, no sooner ... than 和 hardly ... when 及名词词组 the moment 等引导。 1) when“在……的时候”; while “在……期间”; as “正当……的时候” when 意为“在……的时候” ，强调“特定时间” 。 When spring came, he felt like a trip. When he was eating his breakfast, he heard the doorbell ring. 说明：连词 when 在状语从句中还有如下几种含义： ①表示突然发生的事，含义为“ （正在……时）忽然”。 I was just coming along to see you when I ran into Wilson. I had been working a couple of months when I had a letter from Jane. ②表示过早发生某事，意为“ （还没……）就” 。此含义有时可用 before 代替。 I hadn’t been reading for half an hour when I heard steps outside. 我刚读了不到半个小时就听到外面有脚步声。 I had been there little more than a week when I set to work in earnest. ③表示“在……的情况下” ，常可译为“虽然” ， “既然” ， “如果” 。 She refuses help when (although) she has many friends. Why do you walk when (since) you have a car? How can I help them to understand when (if) they won’t listen to me. ④后接虚拟结构，含义为“本可以，应该……” 。 He stopped trying when he might have succeeded next time. They were playing when they could have been working. while 意为“在……期间” ，从句用持续性动词，表时间的一段，而不是一点。 While he was eating his breakfast, he heard the doorbell ring. We must strike while the iron is hot. 说明：连词 while 在状语从句中还有如下几种含义： ①意为“然而，但是” ，表示前后对照，说明两种情况相反 Tom is very outgoing, while Jane is shy and quiet. Some people waste food while others haven’t enough. ②意为“虽然，尽管” （多放句首） ，从句和主句主语多为同一人或物。
While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you. While forbidden fruit is said to taste sweeter, it usually spoils faster. 虽然有人说禁果的味道更甜，但它腐烂得也更快。 ③意为“只要” 。参看 while 引导条件状语从句。 as 意为“正当” ，强调同一时间里两个相继发生或变化的情况，或两个动作一前一后，有时有 “随着……”的含义。 As he was eating his breakfast, he heard the doorbell ring. (强调同一时间） As I was going out, it began to rain.(强调两个动作先后发生） As spring warms the good earth, all flowers begin to bloom. (as 有“随着”的含义） 2) before “在……之前” ，after “在……之后”强调事件的先后关系 before 表示两件事的先后关系。主句为肯定句，before 引导的从句动作后发生;主句为否定句， before 引导的从句动作先发生。 I started my meal before he arrived. (从句动作后发生） He didn’t arrive before I returned. (从句动作先发生） 说明：在不同的结构中，连词 before 在状语从句中有如下几种含义。 ①意为“…………（之后）才” ，此结构主句常用肯定式，强调主句内容持续的色彩。 It will be ten years before we meet again. 要 10 年后我们才能再见面。 It was evening before we reached that little town.傍晚时分我们才到达那个小镇。 ②意为“ （不久）…………就” ，用“...not long before”这一结构，强调时间的短暂 It won’t be long before you regret.不久你就会后悔的。 It wasn’t long before he told me about this affair. 不久他就把这事告诉我了。 ③意为“不等/没有……就” 。从句常用肯定形式。 （有时从句用过去完成时，但仍表示主句的动 作先发生。 ） She offered me a cup of tea before I sat down. 没等我坐下她就给我端上一杯茶。 I left university before I’d taken the final exams. 我没有参加期末考就退学了。 ④意为“刚…………没多久就…………” ， “刚…………不到（多少时向）就…………” 。主句常用否 定的过去完成式，表示过早发生某事。句中的 before 有时可用 when 代替。 I hadn’t waited long before he came.我刚等候不久他就来了。 They had not been married a month before/when they quarreled. 他们刚结婚不到一个月就吵架了。 after 引导状语从句，用于表示主句和从句两个动作的先后关系：
I found the letter long after he had gone away. After we had finished tea we all sat on the grass. 为表示两个动作紧接着发生，从句可用过去时代替过去完成时： After she finished her work, she hurried to the nursery to pick up her child. I told them the news after you left, 3) till/until，since, once, by the time till 与 until 常可换用。但 until 可用于句首，till 不能用于句首。 ① till/until 意为 “直到” ， 用于主句为肯定句的表持续的谓语动词， 如 live， last, stand, stay, wait, work 等时，表示主句的动作延续到从句所表达的动作发生为止，意为“一直到…………时” 。 He worked until it was dark.他一直工作到天黑。 She stood there until he had passed out of sight.她站在那儿直到 再也看不见他。 In British law the accused is presumed to be innocent until he is proved to be guilty. 在英国的法律中，被告的罪状在被证实之前 他被推定是无罪的。 说明：若主句为肯定句的非持续动词，只用 before,表示时间上“先于” 。 He applied three times before he was finally admitted to the university. He made a mistake, but he corrected the situation before it got worse. ② till/until 用于主句为否定句的表非持续的谓语动词，如 begin，become, get up, reach, start 等时，until 表达的一般是“主句动作的起点” 意为“直到……才” ， “在……之前（不） ” 。 He did not get up till his mother came in. 直到母亲进来时他才起床。 No man really becomes a fool until he stops asking questions.人要是不再发问，就会变得愚蠢。 Do not start until I give the word. 接到我的命令前不要动身。 说明: 主句为否定的非持续动词，until 与 before 均可使用，但含义略有区别： He didn’t arrive until I returned.他直到我回来才到达。 He didn’t arrive before I returned.在我回来之前他尚未到达。 ③It was not until…that…是“not until”的强调形式，不用倒装。 It was not until he saw his mother that he realized how old she had become. 直到看见母亲，他才意识到母亲已经变老了。 It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs. 直到读了你的信，我才明白事实的真相。 since 意为“自从……以来” ，用于表示时间，要注意以下几点： ① since 从句后常用一般过去时， 通常为非持续性动词， 表示主句(现在完成时或现在完成进行 时)动作的起始点： Electricity has been widely used since it was discovered. I have been looking forward to meeting you ever since Martin told me. ②当主句用 it 表示“自从……以来已经有多少时间”时，谓语动词常用一般现在时,有时也可用
将来时。since 从句用过去时。 It is three years since we entered the university. Next Tuesday it will be six years since I came to Shanghai. ③若主句用现在完成时,since 从句中的动词为持续性动词或状态动词的一般过去时，则表示 since 从句动作的完成或结束。 He has had several jobs since he was a student at Beijing University. 自从北京大学毕业后，他已经干了好几种工作了。 The house has been in bad repair since they lived in it. 自从他们搬出之后，这房子一直没有很好维修。 ④若主句也用现在完成时，since 从句中的动词是持续性动词或状态动词的现在完成时，表示 since 从句的动作或状态延续到说话时刻： She has seldom been out since she has been ill. 自从她得病以来很少出门。 I have often heard from him since he has lived in Shanghai. 自从他入住上海以来，我经常听到他的消息。 once 意为“一……就” ， “只要” ，可以同时表时间和条件。 Once you see her, you will find what I say is true. Once you understand the rule，you will have no further difficulty. Once a good beginning is made，the work is half done. by the time 意为“到……时” ，后接的句子用现在时，主句通常用将来完成时;后接的句子用一 般过去时，主句通常用过去完成时。 By the time he arrives, we will already have left California. By the time he arrived, we had already left California. 4) as soon as, instantly, immediately, directly, presently 表示从句动作一发生，主句动作随即发生，通常译为“一…… 就……” 。as soon as 最普通， instantly 语气最强，presently 最弱。 As soon as I finish the work, I’ll go to see you. Immediately the button was pressed, the mine exploded. Directly I had done it , I knew I had made a mistake. 5) no sooner ... than 和 hardly ... when,意为“刚……就…… ” 表示 “刚……就……” 时， 主句中的动词一般用过去完成时， 从句用过去时。 若把 no sooner， hardly 提到句首，主句须倒装。hardly 可换用成 scarcely,连词 when 可换用成 before。 The sun had no sooner started to shine than it was clouded over again. I had hardly sat down when he stepped in.
Hardly had I entered the room when I heard a loud noise. No sooner had she sat down than the phone rang. The day had scarcely broken before he got up to work. 6)用下列 time 词组引导，表某一特定时刻发生或存在的情况: the first time, the last time,next time, every time, each time, any time I thought her nice and honest the first time I met her. Every time I went to his house, he was out. Next time I see you, I will show you my new dress. 说明：the first time = when...for the first time. I thought her nice and honest when I met her for the first time. 7)用下列名词词组转化成时间连词引导从句， 表示两个动作紧接着发生， 可译为 “一……就……” ： the moment, the second, the minute, the instant, the day, the month, the week, the year, the morning, the afternoon She came to the scene the moment she heard the news. I recognized her the instant I saw her. The day her husband died，she gave birth to a son. 高中时间状语从句练习题一 1. I learnt her hard-working and kind _______ I got to know her in the bookstore. A. first time A. when; that A. before B. for the first time B. until; when C. until C. the first time C. when; then D. that C. Hardly; than D. No sooner; then D. by the first time 2. It was not _______ he took off his dark glass ____I realise who he was. D. until; that 3. It was 19 years _______ Mandela, the former president of South Africa, was set free from prison. B. since 4. _______ had the bell rung _______ the students took their seats. A. Hardly; when A. when A. when A. after B. No sooner; when C. unless C. unless C. when D. as D. until D. since C. quickly D. even if D. shortly 5.We walked along the beach for nearly three hours _______ we saw a boat on the sea. B. before B. before B. before 6.The two brothers quarreled and quarreled _______ they felt sleepy and went to bed. 7. It was quite a long time _______ I made it out what had happened. 8. We sent the injured to the First-aid Centre_______ the accident happened. A. immediately A. when B. hurriedly C. after 9. It seemed only seconds ________ the boy finished washing his face. B. before
10. Hardly had he reached the school gate ________ the bell rang. A. while B. when C. as D. as soon as C. after D. when C. While C. before D. than D. when C. graduates D. is to graduate D. Until D. as D. once 11. I recognized you ________ I saw you at the airport. A. the moment A. while B. as B. while C. before B. When B. after C. as C. since 12. He was about to go to bed ________ the doorbell rang. 13. ________I listen to your advice, I get into trouble. A. Every time A. the moment A. when A . as 14. The children ran away from the orchard______ they saw the guard. 15. No sooner had I arrived home _____ it began to rain. B. while B. before 16. Several weeks had gone by _____ I realized the painting was missing. 17. He will have learned English for eight years by the time he _____ from the university next year. A. will graduate A. as A. If B when B because B. will have graduated C though C when D while D where C. will not be ; know D. is; know 18. It is said that an American starts a speech with a joke, _______ a Japanese seldom. 19. They kept trying ________ they must have known it was hopeless. 20. It _____ long before we ____ the result of the experiment. A. will not be; will know 21. –What was the party like? A. after B. before B. is; will know C. when D. since D. is arriving C. He had not; then D. Not had he; when --Wonderful. It’s years _____ I enjoyed myself so much.
22. The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she_____. A. will arrive B. arrives C. is going to arrive 23. _____ got into the room _____ the telephone rang. A. He hardly had; then A. as A. as A. when B. then B. that B. how B. Hardly had he; when D. when D. if D. what 24. No sooner had he finished his talk _____ he was surrounded by the workers. C. than C. during C. where 25. Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially _____ father was away in France. 26. I remember _____ this used to be a quiet village.
II. Fill in the blanks with proper conjunctions. 1. she got the pay, she put it away in the bank. I caught sight of a tailor’s shop. 2. I was wandering through the street
3. He was drinking juice 4.
the rest of us drank whisky. we came to a fisherman’s a ship passed there and saved him. village.
you read the poem a second time, the meaning will become clearer to you.
5. We walked along the seaside about two hours 6. The sailor stayed on the lonely island 7. It was eight years 1-15: CDAAB DBABB
the Chinese people drove off the Japanese aggressors. ADAAD
16-26: BCDCC before until
DBBCA A before
As soon as when while When
1. _____ last week, she lived a quiet and happy life in that area. A. Not until the earth-moving machines came B. The earth-moving machines came C. Until the earth-moving machines came D. Then came the earth-moving machines 2. —____ when has the country been open to international trade? —1978，I suppose. A. Since C. From B. In D. After
3. No sooner had rescue forces reached the disaster area____ they got down to saving those buried beneath the debris. A. when C. than B. then D. until B. for an instant D. in the instant B. For the first time D. At the first time B. before D. D. since B. while B. before
4. You see the lightning____ it happens, but you hear the thunder later. A. the instant C. on the instant A. The first time C. At first A. after C. when A. when C. until
5. ____ they visited the Science Museum, they showed great interest in everything they saw.
6. How long do you think it will be____ we can find a new water source.
7. We were beginning to discuss____ suddenly a great earthquake happened.
(C； A； C； A； A； B； A)
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