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高中英语同位语从句讲义及练习


同位语从句讲义及练习 一、理解同位语从句的含义,把握同位语从句的实质 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用 that, whether,what, which, who, when, where, why, how 等词引导,常放在 fact, news, idea, truth, hope, problem, information, wish,prom

ise, answer, evidence, report, explanation, suggestion, conclusion 等抽象名词后面, 说明该名词的具体内容。 换言之, 同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容上为同一关系,对其内容作进一步说明。 例:The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 他们比赛获胜的消息很快传遍了整个学校。 析:they had won the game 说明 The news 的全部内容,因此该句为同位语从句。 二、正确运用同位语从句的引导词,准确把握同位语从句 1.如同位语从句意义完整,应用 that 引导同位语从句。(即 that 不充当任何成分, 只起连接作用,不可省略) 例:The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross the river at once.将军下达了战士们立即过河的命令。 析:the soldiers should cross the river at once 是 the order 的全部内容, 且意义完整,因此应用 that 引导同位语从句。 2.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"是否"的含义,应用 whether 引导同位语从句。 (if 不能引导同位语从句) 例:We'll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will be held on time.我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举行的问题。 析:the sports meeting will be held on time 意义不完整,应加"是否"的含义 才能表达 the problem 的全部内容,因此应用 whether 引导同位语从句。 3.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"什么时候"、"什么地点"、"什么方式"等含义, 应用 when, where, how 等词引导同位语从句。 例 1:I have no idea when he will be back. 析:he will be back 意义不完整,应加"什么时候"的含义才能表达 idea 的全部 内容,因此应用 when 引导同位语从句。 例 2:I have no impression how he went home, perhaps by bike.

析:he went home 意义不完整,应加"如何"的含义才能表达 impression 的全部内容, 因此应用 how 引导同位语从句。 4.当主句的谓语较短,而同位语从句较长时,同位语从句常后置。 如:The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city. 三、把握同位语从句和定语从句的区别,明确同位语从句和相似从句的界限 同位语从句和定语从句相似,都放在某一名词或代词后面,但同位语从句不同于定语 从句。同位语从句对名词加以补充说明,是名词全部内容的体现,且名词和同位语从句的引 导词均不在从句中作成分; 定语从句说明先行词的性质与特征, 与先行词是修饰与被修饰的 关系,且名词和定语从句的引导词均在从句中作成分。 区分时可以在先行词与与从句之间加一个系动词 be,使之构成一个新句子, 如果句子通 顺且符合逻辑,则为同位语从句,反之,则为定语从句。 如:The report that he was going to resign was false. 因为 the report was that he was going to resign 句意通顺,所以,that he was going to resign 是同位语从句。 例 1: 1)Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as

析: 答案为 B。 more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities 是 Information 的内容,且 Information 不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。应将 该句区别于: 2)It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities,this is the information ____ has been put forward. A. what B. that C. when D. as

析:答案为 B。that has been put forward 为 information 的修饰性定语,且 information 在从句中作主语,所以该句为定语从句。 例 2:She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her mouth.(MET91) A. it B. which C. this D. that

析:答案为 B。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知,该句为非限制性定语从 句,先行词为 a terrible noise,且它在从句中作主语。应将该句区别于: I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly. A. it B. which C. this D. that

析: 答案为 D。 is crying loudly 是 the terrible noise 的内容, the terrible she 且 noise 不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。 巩固性练习: 1. The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that B. what C. why D. which

2. The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability. A. hat B. what C. which D. why

3. The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. A. what B. that C. why D. when

4. His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down. A. which B. that C./ D. it

5. I have no idea ____ he will start. A. when B. that C. what D./

6. I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which

7. The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A. when B. which C. what D. that

8. The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A. which B. whether C. that D. what

9. The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease. A. that B. as C. of which D. which

10. He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that D. when

Keys: 1-5 AABBA 6-10 BDCAA 同位语从句和定语从句的三点区别 同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面: 1. 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是 idea,fact,news,hope,belief,suggestion,proposal,word,thought,doubt,truth,possibi lity,promise,order 等有一定内涵的名词?而定语从句的先行词可以是名词?代词?主句的 一部分或是整个主句?如: The possibility that the majority of the labour force will work at home is often discussed. (同位语从句) We are not looking into the question whether he is worth trusting. (同位语从句) Word came that he had been abroad. (同位语从句) Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 我们的队赢了,这让我们很高兴?(定语从句) The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room. 你找的那位医生在房间里面?(定语从句) His mother did all she could to help him with his study.他妈妈尽她的最大努 力帮助他的学习?(定语从句,代词 all 作先行词?) 2. 从性质上区别 定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是 从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴。如:

The news that our team has won the game was true. 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息 是真的?(同位语从句,补充说明 news 到底是一个什么消息?) The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的?(定 语从句,news 在从句中作 told 的宾语?) I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. 我 许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有?(同位语从句,补充说明 promise 到底是一个什么 诺言?) The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出了一个令她 的孩子们高兴的许诺?(定语从句,promise 在从句中作 pleased 的主语?) 3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别 有些引导词如 how, whether, what 可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句?如: That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这 个问题还没有考虑?(同位语从句) I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么事?(同位语从句) 引导词 that 引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用 which 代 替),并且作宾语时常常省略?that 在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不 能省略,也不能用 which 来代替?如: The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了?(同位语从句,是对 order 的具体解释,that 虽不作成分,但不能省略?) The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小 组?(定语从句,是名词 order 的修饰语,that 在从句中作 received 的宾语,可以省略?) 1.The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all. A.that B.what C.why D.which

2.The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability. A.that B.what C.which D.why

3.The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. A.what B.that C.why D.when

4.His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down.

A.which

B.that

C./

D.it

5.I have no idea ____ he will start. A.when B.that C.what D./

6.I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A.if B.that C.whether D.which

7.The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A.when B.which C.what D.that

8.The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A.which B.whether C.that D.what

9.The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease. A.that B.as C.of which D.which

10.He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A.whether B.where C.that D.when

Keys: 1-5 AABBA 6-10 BDCAA


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