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复合句、虚拟语气、倒装句


复合句
复合句(Complex Sentence)分为并列复合句和从属复合句,并列复合句是有并 列连词:and、or、but 连接;从属复合句由一个主句(Principal Clause)和一个或 一个以上的从句(Subordinate Clause)构成。用疑问词作引导词,主句是全句的主 体,通常可以独立存在;从句则是一个句子成分,不能独立存在。从句不能单独 成句,但

它也有主语部分和谓语部分,就像一个句子一样。所不同在于,从句须 由一个关联词(connective)引导。 根据引导从句为主不同大大可分为:主语从 句、表语从句、宾语从句、定语从句、状语从句等。 复合句可分为: 1).定语从句(The Attributive Clause); 2).状语从句(The Adverbial Clause); 3).名词性从句(The Noun Clause) 定语从句 定语从句的定义 定语从句在句子中作定语,用来修饰一个名词、名词词组或者代词。 先行词和引导词 被修饰的名词、名词词组或代词叫做先行词; 在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫做引导词。 引导词分为“关系代词”和“关系副词”。 关系代词和关系副词 关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which, as。 关系副词有:when, where, why。 注意:关系副词里面没有 how。 如果要修饰方式,用 that 或 in which 引导,或者不用引导词。 I don’t like the way (that, in which) he eyed me. 我不喜欢他看我的那个样子。 关系代词:who 关系动词 who 在从句中主要作主语,在非正式语体里 who 还可以作从 句中的宾语。 He is the man who wants to see you.

He is the man who I saw in the park yesterday. 关系代词:whom He is the man (whom) I saw in the park yesterday. (whom 在从句中作宾语) 关系代词:whose whose 用来指人或物,(只能用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换)。 They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. Please pass me the book whose cover is green. (of which the cover/the cover of which) 关系代词:which(1) which 指物,在从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时在非正式语体中可以省 略。 They needed a plant which didn't need as much water as rice. The farm (which) we visited yesterday is located in the suburb of Beijing. 关系代词:which(2) 当在 which 和 that 面前进行选择的情况下,一般情况下要选 which: 1.在非限制性定语从句中通常用 which 作引导词, 而不能用 that 做非限 制性定语从句的引导词。 2. 修饰整个主句。 I never met Julia again after that, which was a pity. 3. 修饰谓语部分。 He can swim in the river, which I cannot. 4. 介词 + which They are all questions to which there are no answers. 关系代词:that(1) that 多用来指物,有时也可以用来指人;在从句中作主语或宾语。指物 的时候多用 that,也可用 which。 It’s a question that(which) needs careful consideration. (指物,作主语。)

Who is the man that is reading a magazine under the tree? (指人,作主语。) The girl (that) we saw yesterday is Tom’s sister. (指人,作宾语,可省略。) 关系代词:that(2) 在以下的情况中,只能用 that 作引导词,而不能用 which 作引导词。 1. 先行词为 all , everything, anything, nothing, little 等不定代词时。 All(that) she lacked was training. 2. 先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 This is the best film that I have ever seen. 3. 先行词被序数词和 the last 修饰时 4. 先行词中既有人又有物时 They talked about the teachers and the schools that they had visited. 5. 主句是含有 who 或 which 的特殊疑问句,为了避免重复时 状语从句 地点状语从句 地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever 引导。 Where I live there are plenty of trees. Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 方式状语从句 方式状语从句通常由 as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though 引导。 1) as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这时 as 从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…", "就像",多用于正式文体,例如: Always do to the others as you would be done by. 你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。 As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。 Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。 2) as if, as though

两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与 事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。 汉译常作"仿佛……似的","好像……似的",例如: They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. 他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓 语用虚拟语气。) He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。) It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。) 说明:as if / as though 也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词 短语,例如: He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 原因状语从句 比较:because, since, as 和 for 1) because 语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答 why 提出的问 题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用 as 或 since。 I didn't go, because I was afraid. Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey. 2) 由 because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗 号,则可以用 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for。 He is absent today, because / for he is ill. He must be ill, for he is absent today. 目的状语从句 表示目的状语的从句可以由 that, so that, in order that, in case 等词引导, 例如: You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 结果状语从句

结果状语从句常由 so… that 或 such…that 引导,掌握这两个句型,首 先要了解 so 和 such 与其后的词的搭配规律。 比较:so 和 such 其规律由 so 与 such 的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名 词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容 词 many, few, much, little 连用,形成固定搭配。 so foolish, such a fool so nice a flower, such a nice flower so many / few flowers, such nice flowers so much / little money, such rapid progress so many people, such a lot of people ( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名 词性的,只能用 such 搭配。) so…that 与 such…that 之间的转换既为 so 与 such 之间的转换。 The boy is so young that he can't go to school. He is such a young boy that he can't go to school 条件状语从句 连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。. if 引导的条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。非真实条件句已 在虚拟语气中阐述。 unless = if not. Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired. If you are not too tired, let's go out for a walk. 让步状语从句 though, although 注意: 当有 though, although 时,后面的从句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用 Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 3) ever if, even though. 即使 We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad. 4) whether…or- 不管……都 Whether you believe it or not, it is true. 5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀 ever" No matter what happened, he would not mind. Whatever happened, he would not mind.

替换:no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however 注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。 (错)No matter what you say is of no use now. (对)Whatever you say is of no use now. 你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say 是主语从句) (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given, (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么 吃什么。 比较 while, when, as 1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。 Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me. 2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用 when 引导这个从句, 不可用 as 或 while。 When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. 3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用 as,不用 when 或 while。 As the day went on, the weather got worse. 日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏。 比较 until 和 till 此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时",动词 必须是延续性的。否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续 性或非延续性都可 以。 正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中 的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。 肯定句: I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。 Waittill I call you. 等着我叫你。 (在肯定句中可用 before 代替 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.) 否定句: She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock. Don't get off the bus until it has stopped. 1)Until 可用于句首,而 till 通常不用于句首。

Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。 2)Until when 疑问句中,until 要放在句首。 ---Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候? --- Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 (1)Not until …在句首,主句用倒装。 Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is. 直到 19 世纪初,人类才知道热能是什么。 Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到我开始工作,我才认识到了我已蹉跎了几多岁月。 (2) It is not until… that… 10 表示"一…就…"的结构 hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than 和 as soon as 都可以表示 "一…就…"的意思,例: I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 注意:如果 hardly, scarcely 或 no sooner 置于句首,句子必须用倒装结 构: Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.

名词性从句
宾语从句(The Object Clause) · 宾语从句 在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。宾语从句的引导词和主语 从句的引导词相同。宾语从句可以作及物动词的宾语,作短语动词的宾语, 介词的宾语。 · 宾语从句:及物动词的宾语 Everybody knows that money doesn't grow on trees. · 宾语从句:短语动词的宾语 Please go and find out when the train will arrive. · 宾语从句:介词的宾语 I am interested in what she is doing. · 宾语从句:否定的转移

I don't suppose you're used to this diet. 我想你不习惯这种饮食。 I don't believe she'll arrive before 8. 我相信她 8 点之前不会到。 表语从句(The Predicative Clause) · 表语从句 在句子中起表语作用的从句叫做表语从句。表语从句的引导词和主语 从句的引导词相同。 What the police want to know is when you entered the room. This is what we should do. That's why I want you to work there. as if, as though, because 也可用来引导表语从句。 She seems as if she had done a great thing. It is because you eat too much. · 虚拟语气:表语从句 主语是 idea, notion, proposal, suggestion, request 等名词时,作表语从句 的动词为原形动词或 should+原形动词。 My suggestion is that we (should) go and help him. Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible. 同位语从句(The Appositive Clause) · 同位从句一般跟在某些名词如 answer(答案),hope(希望),fact(事实), belief (信仰),news(消息),idea(主意;观念),promise(承诺),information(信 息), conclusion(结论), order(命令), suggestion(建议), problem(问题), thought (想法)等后面。例如: I had no idea that you were here. She told us her hope that she would become a pianist. He made a promise that he would never come late. · 同位语从句:whether whether 可以引导同位语从句, 而定语从句不能用 whether 作为引导词。 He hasn’t made the decision whether he will go there. I have small doubt whether he is suitable for the job. · 同位语从句:what what 可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用 what 作为引导词 I have no idea what he is doing now. · 同位语从句:how

how 可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用 how 作为引导词 It’s a question how he did it

虚拟语气
1. 真实条件状语从句与非真实条件状语从句 条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真 实条件句表示的是假设或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。 eg: If he doesn’t hurry up, he will miss the bus. 如果他不快点,他将错过巴士。 ( 真实) If he is free, he will ask me to tell stories. 如果他是空闲的,他会要求我讲故 事。(真实) If I were you, I would go at once.如果我是你,我马上就会去。 (非真实, 虚拟语气) If there were no air, people would die. 如果没有空气,人就会死亡。(非真 实,虚拟语气) 用法及动词形式 从句 与现在事实相 反 与过去事实相 反 对将来情况的 主观推测 If If did had done 主句 should/would/could/might+do should/would/could/might+have done should/would/could/might+do should/would/could/might+do

if+主语+were to do if+主语

+should+do 2. 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可以省略,这时 条件从句要用倒装语序,即将 were, should, had 等词置于句首,这种多用 于书面语。 如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果他懂一些电脑知识的话,我们已经聘用他来这里工作了。

3.非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在副词、介词短语、 上下文或其他方式表示出来,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句,在多数情况下, 条件会暗含在短语中,如 without…., but for….等 如: But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。 We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him. 我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。 虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)的其他用法 用在 wish 后的宾语从句 a、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式 eg. I wish I had your brains. 我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你) b、表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词:had+done eg:.I wish I had known the truth of the matter. 我希望我原来知道这件事的真相。(事实:原来不知道) (注:if only 和 as if/as though 也有相同用法) 用在目的状语从句中 1.在 for fear that, in case, lest 引导的从句中,若用虚拟语气时,从句 谓语为:should + 动词原形。并且 should 不能省略 She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍,以防盗贼的进入。 He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。 其他用法 1、一想要(desire)二宁愿(prefer)三命令(order. command)四建议 (advice. suggest. propose)五要求(demand. require. request. desire.insist) 中,无论主句谓语动词为何种时态,从句的谓语动词都用:“should + 动词 原形”或只用“动词原形”。 如:

He suggested that we (should) take the teacher’s advice. He insisted that we (should) take the teacher’s advice. He demand that we (should) take the teacher’s advice. He ordered that we (should) take the teacher’s advice. 2、表情绪.观点的形容词或名词也要用虚拟语气.如:necessary、 important、 impossible、 natural、 strange、 surprising、 funny、 right、 wrong、 better、a pity 等。 句型:It is.......that +主语从句,从句的谓语动词都要用 should+原型 或只用动词原型。 3、 在 even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中,可用虚拟语气, 主句、从句的结构与 if 所引导的条件从句结构相同。如: Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲自来也不知该怎么办。(事实:他没来) Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不了他。(事实:华佗不在世) 4、 在 whatever, whichever, whenever, whoever, wherever, however, no matter wh-word 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为: 指现在或将来: may +动词原形。 如: We will finish it on time no matter what may happen. 不管发生什么事,我们都要按时完成。 We will find him wherever he may be. 无论他在哪里,我们都要找到他。 I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不管他来的多么晚,我都会等他。 指过去: may +完成式 。 如: You mustn’t be proud whatever great progress you may have made. 不管你取得了多么大的进步,你也不能骄傲。 We must respect him no matter what mistakes he may have made. 不管他犯过什么错误,我们必须尊敬他。 5、一般 would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从句常 表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望,故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构 为: 过去 had + 过去分词 现在 过去时(be 用 were ) 将来 过去时(be 用 were ) 如:

I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。 I’d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 We’d rather you went here tomorrow. 我们倒想你明天去那儿 6、虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中,表示:“早该做某事了”时,定语从 句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气的结构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形,即从句用虚拟过去 式。 如 It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。

英语倒装句(Inversion) 主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序: 一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序(Natural Order); 二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序(Inverted Order)。 而倒装语序中又有完全倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion) 完全倒装(Full Inversion):又称"全部倒装",是指将句子中的谓语动词 全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。 部分倒装(Partial Inversion):指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词 倒装至主语之前,而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动 词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞 的需要而进行的倒装。 前一种情况,倒装是必须的,否则就会出现语法错误;后一种情况,倒装是 选择性的,倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。 表示强调 倒装句最突出、最常见的修辞效果就是强调,其表现形式如下: 1.only +状语或状语从句置于句首,句子用部分倒装 。 例子: Only in this way can you solve this problem. 只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。 Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake. 只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。 2. hardly,in no way,little,scarcely,seldom,never,no more, no longer,not , not only, no sooner, not only … (but also),not until… 等具有否定意义的词 或词组位于句首,句子用部分倒装。 例子: No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 我刚到家就下起了雨。 Seldom do I go to work by bus. 我很少乘公共汽车上班。 Not until twelve o'clock did she go to bed last night . 她昨晚十二点才上床睡觉。

3. so / such...that 结构中的 so 或 such 位于句首可以构成部分倒装句, 表示强调 so /such 和 that 之间的部分。 例子: So unreasonable was his price that everybody startled. 他的要价太离谱,令每个人都瞠目结舌。 To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out. 她的彩排进行得那么长,以致于那两个演员都走出去了。 以上各例都用倒装语序突出了句首成分,其语气较自然语序强烈,因而 具有极佳的修辞效果。 承上启下 1.为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用"so+be 动词(助动词、 情态动词)+主语"或"neither/nor + be 动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语" 的倒装句式。 其中第一个句式表示"与前面所述的肯定情况相同",第二个句式表示" 与前面所述的否定情况相同"。 例子: A:His brother is(not) a college student; B:so is mine.(nor is mine .) A:他弟弟(不)是大学生,B:我弟弟也是。(我弟弟也不是。) A:He used to have his further study abroad; B:so did I.(neither did I.) A:他曾去国外深造过。B:我也去过。(我也没有。) A:One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; B:so can his wife.(neither can his wife .) A:我的一个朋友会说三门外国语。 B:他的妻子也会。 (他的妻子也不会。 ) 2.倒装可把前一句说到的人或物,或与前一句有联系的人或物在下一句 紧接着先说出来,从而使前后两句在意思上的关系更加清楚,衔接更加紧密, 起到承上启下的作用。 例子: They broke into her uncle's bedroom and found the man lying on the floor, dead. Around his head was a brown snake. 他们破门进入她叔叔的卧室,发现他躺在地板上死了。一条棕褐色的蛇 缠在他头上。 We really should not resent being called paupers. Paupers we are, an d paupers we shall remain. 我们确实不应因为被称作穷光蛋而愤愤不平。我们的确是穷光蛋,而且 还会继续是穷光蛋。 制造悬念,渲染气氛

在新闻或文学创作中,有时为了内容的需要,或是为了强调,作者常常运 用倒装来制造悬念,渲染气氛。 如朗费罗(Longfellow)《雪花》中的一节: Out of the bosom of the Air, Out of the cloud-folds of her garments shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Over the harvest-fields forsaken, Silent, and soft, and slow, Descends the snow. 它来自天上。 叠叠乌云抖衣裳, 静悄悄,不慌张, 绵绵雪花降; 落在光秃秃的棕色树林, 和收割过的孤寂田野上。 在这一节诗里,诗人就富有创意地运用了倒装。在前五行中,诗人堆砌了 七个状语,状语连续出现而主语和谓语却迟迟未露,造成一种悬念效应。全节 读罢,读者才对诗歌的主题恍然大悟,因而收到了不同凡响的艺术效果。 平衡结构 英语修辞的一个重要原则是尾重原则,即把句子最复杂的成分放在句尾 以保持句子平衡。在语言使用中为了避免产生头重脚轻、结构不平衡的句 子,我们常采用倒装语序。 1. 以作状语的介词短语开头:当主语较长或主语所带修饰语较长时,为 了使句子平衡,常将状语置于句首,句子用完全倒装语序。 例子: (1) To the coal mine came a com-pany of PLA soldiers with orders from A. the headquarters to rescue the trapped miners. B. A company of PLA soldiers came to the coal mine with orders from the headquarters to rescue the trapped miners. 一个连队的解放军战士来到了那座煤矿,奉司令部之命解救受困的矿 工。 (2) On the ground lay some air conditioners, which are to be shipped to A. some other cities. B. Some air conditioners lay on the ground, which are to be shipped to some other cities. 地上放着一些空调,等着用船运到其他城市去。

例句(2)包含一个非限制性定语从句,B 句未倒装,则从句的先行词 与引导词 which 中间被状语分隔开,不易于理解,而 A 句倒装使得先行词 air conditioner 与引导词 which 的关系一目了然。 从例句中可看出, 采用倒装语序的 A 句结构平衡稳妥,读起来自然流畅, 而采用自然语序的 B 句结构零乱, 读起来也别扭。因而,在主语较长时就应 采用倒装语序以取得理想的表达效果。 2. 以表语开头的句子:有时为了把较长的主语放在后面,须将表语和谓 语都提到主语前。 例子: Such would be our home in the future. 我们家就将是这个样子。 3. 以副词 here , there 开头的句子,也采用完全倒装来保持句子平衡。 例子: Here is the letter you have been looking forward to. 你盼望已久的信在这儿。 使描写生动 有时为了使叙述或描绘更加生动形象,增加语言效果,可将表示方向的 副词(如:down, up, out, in, off, on, away 等)或拟声词(bang, crack 等)置于句 首,句子采用全部倒装的语序(主语为人称代词的句子除外)。 例子: Up went the rocket into the air. 嗖地一声火箭就飞上天了。 Down jumped the criminal from the third floor when the policeman pointed his pistol at him. 当警察把手枪瞄准那个罪犯时,嘭地一下他就从三楼跳了下去。 Boom went the cannon! 轰隆一声大炮开火了! Bang came another shot! 砰!又是一声枪响! 以上句子简洁明快 ,生动逼真地描述了有关动作 ,令我们一览此类倒 装的风采。但这种倒装句的修辞功能在语段中可以体现得更为清楚。 “Stop thief! Stop thief!” There is a magic cry in the sound. The tradesman leaves his counter, ... Away they run, pell—mell, helter—skelter, yelling—screaming, ... “Stop thief ! Stop thief !” The cry is taking by a hundred voices, ... Away they fly, splashing through the mud, up go the window, out run the people. ( Dickens )

作者在第一段和第二段中分别用副词 away, up 和 out 位于句首引出四个 倒装句 Away they run , Away they fly, up go the window , out run the people 。 从而制造出一种紧张、急促的气氛 ,生动地刻画了一个紧张、混乱的捉贼场 面。 倒装是英语中一个重要的修辞手段。倒装句的使用丰富了我们的语言 表达,了解并掌握倒装句各种句式的用法 , 不仅会提高我们对英语语言的 欣赏能力 , 对英语表达能力的提高也将大有裨益。因此,写作中适当用一些 倒装句式定会使文章表达更生动、有力。

CET4 辅导:四级阅读理解真题长难句分类解析(1) 1.主语拉长 一般来讲,汉语主语比较简短。相比之下,英语中主语一旦拉长,就会增加 读者的理解难度。 解牛方法:有效分解主谓成分,断开之后各个击破。例如: The streams, lakes, meadows(草地), mountain ridges and forests that make t he Poconos an ideal place for balck bears have also attracted more people to t he region. (2005.6) 首先,把原句子分解为两个简单独立的句子: (1)The streams, lakes, meadows(草地), mountain ridges and forests that m ake the Poconos an ideal place for balck bears 溪流、湖泊、草地、山脉、森林, 使得 Pocono 成为黑熊理想的栖息地 (2)have also attracted more people to the region. 吸引了越来越多的人们 来到这里。 其次,句子整合翻译: 溪流、湖泊、草地、山脉、森林,这些不仅使得 Pocono 成为黑熊理想的栖息 地,而且吸引了越来越多的人们来到这里。 2.分词短语打头,句子呈现三段(或三段以上)的长句式 分词短语(包括现在分词和过去分词)做状语,这一句式比较常见,读者阅读 时由于要区分短语和主语之间的逻辑关系,所以理解上有难度。并且分词短语本 身往往由于掺入了插入语成分,理解上就更为困难。 解牛方法:理清主动和被动关系。一般来说现在分词与主语之间是主动关系; 而过去分词与主语之间是被动关系。 例如: Operating out of a century-old schoolhouse in the village of Long Pond, Pe nnsylvanis, the Conservancy’s Bud Cook is working with local people and busi ness leaders to balance economic growth environmental protection. (2005.6) 翻译:在宾西法尼亚州的朗庞德村庄有一栋上百年历史的校舍,大自然保护

协会的成员巴德-库克就在这里办公,他与当地人民和商业领导合作,以努力平 衡好经济发展与环境保护之间的关系。 ☆注意:介词短语位于句首类似分词短语形式。例如: In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, m any Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement a nd economic success, for possible answers. (2005.1) 翻译:有一段时间,美国的儿童学业表现不尽如人意,许多人于是转向日本, 想从中寻求可能的解决办法,因为日本不仅经济实力强,而且学术成就也很高。 ☆特别注意不定式 to 位于句首表目的,一定是考试重点。例如: 原文:To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather ski lls such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. (2005.1) 翻译:为了使孩子能在一年级和以后有良好的表现,日本的学校并不教授阅 读、写作、和算数,而是教孩子们诸如毅力、注意力和群体合作能力等技巧。 考题:In Japan’s preshcool education, the focus is on A. preparing children academically B. developing children’s artistic interests C. tapping children’s potential D. shaping children’s character 3.多个谓语动词连用 简单句之所以简单是因为成分单一便于读者理解。而四级阅读理解中,出题 人为增加阅读难度, 就会把几个谓语动词放在一个句子当中。但是无论局势如何 变化,英语句子本身就犹如一棵大树,只能有一个主干起支撑作用,其他起辅助 作用。 解牛方法:遇到多个谓语动词连用情况要分清主句谓语动词和从句的谓语动 词。剔除细枝末节之后,句子也就好理解了。例如: Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being abl e to tell if the cause is a cold or flu(流感) may make a difference in how lo ng the misery lasts. (2005.1)

解析:此句是由 but 引导的并列句。前面一句话容易理解,谓语动词是 spell, 关键看后一句话。but 引导的句子黑体下划线是主语,该句子真正谓语动词是 m ay make,如下面所示: but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu(流感) may make a differ ence in how long the misery lasts. 翻译:喉咙发痒、鼻塞、浑身酸痛都令人痛苦,但是能够确定造成这种痛苦 的根源是普通感冒还是流感,对这种痛苦能折磨你多就会起关键作用。 4.举例作为插入语(显著词 such as; for example; including etc.) 插入语主要起补充或说明的作用,我们在进行快速阅读的时候通常会把它省 略,即忽略不看。但是,笔者在这里要提出的一点是,如果根据文章问题回原文 定位句子时, 如果定位的关键句子包含了以上插入语中的任何一种形式,则答案 往往就在此处。例如: 原文: Finally, other people may give us instrumental support—financial aid, material resources, and needed services—that reduces stress by helping us resol ve and cope with our problems. 考题: Helping a sick neighbor with some repair work is an example of A. instrumental support B. informational support C. social companionship D. the strengthening of self-respect (1)Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat ty pically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. (200 5.1) 翻译:普通感冒患者的一些典型症状,如鼻塞、流鼻涕、喉咙发痒,发作比 较缓慢,成人和青少年患者一般不会有发热症状。 (2)And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat an d body aches come on suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms. (2 005.1) 翻译:一般来说,流感症状包括发烧、发冷、喉咙发痒、浑身疼痛,比普通 感冒的症状来得突然和猛烈。 ☆注意:举例有时可以换成短语,如介词短语、不定式短语等等;还可以换 成有两个破折号引起的插入语成分。例如:

It is 37 years later. Stokoe—now devoting his time to writing and editing b ooks and jounals and to producing video materials on ASL and deaf culture—i s having lunch at a café near the Gallaudet campus and explaining how he sta rted a revolution.(2004.6) 时间过了 37 年。 现在 Stoloe 致力于撰写和编辑关于美国手语和聋哑人文化的 书籍和杂志,以及制作相关的录像材料。


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