短文改错是集语法知识与语言技能为一体的综合性英语试题，旨在考查学生对语言的评 价与校正的能力以及对词汇、语法和语篇三要素的把握能力。它是专门针对考生们平时学习英 语过程中，尤其是写作练中常犯的又是较为普遍的错误而设计的。短文改错这种题型对同学们 来说有一定的难度，要想做好并不容易。本文结合高考试题，对题中的常见错误加以分析，从 中找出命题者设置错误
的规律并介绍一些解题技巧。 一、常见错误类型 (一) 名词方面的错误 名词方面的错误多指名词单复数形式的误用，可数名词与不可数名词的错误，名词所有格 中“’s”的误置等。例如: 1.(01 春季)I used to love science class—all of them—biology, chemistry, geography, physics. 2.( 02) they want me to devote all my time to my studies so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. 3.There are around one hundred woman workers in this factory. 4.Do you know he is a friend of John? 5. (2006 全国) He had no ideas that the kitchen was not for guests. 6. (2006 四川) In summer, the sea under the blue skies is even more beautiful. (二) 谓语动词方面的错误 这类错误主要为现在时态与过去时态的误用；主动语态与被动语态的误用；主谓一致等。 例如: 1. (2006 全国) We had guests last night who have not stayed in a B&B hotel before. 2. (2006 安徽) Anyone can borrow books if he or she wish. 3. (2006 四川) We hung a sign on the front door that was read: “We’re having dinner ...” 4. (2006 山西) Here are the information about Manchester University. 5. (2006 陕西) I’ll send my friend Charlie to meet you at the airport when you arrived. 6. (2006 安徽) ... but you are not permit to take them out. 7. (2006 四川) “I just want to know what the sign say.” 8. (2006 山东) What may surprise you are that I’m going to ... (三) 形容词、副词方面的错误 这类错误多指误用形容词修饰形容词，误用副词修饰名词，误用形容词修饰动词，误用形 容词或副词的原级、比较级和最高级以及误用带-ly 的副词与不带-ly 的副词等，特别注意根据 上下文该用比较级而未用的“暗中比较” 。例如: 1. (2006 全国) They came back lately and had some tea. 2. (2006 天津) ... you always gave me specially attention ... 3. (2006 重庆) ... they fly down immediate and catch them without delay. 4. (2006 江西) Yes, it is clearly that your life in your country is quite different from ... 5. (2006 陕西) I know you are particular interested in Human Rights. 6. (2006 辽宁) Last year, my English teacher proved to be the more popular in our school. 7. (2006 浙江) I hope that you think about my request and visit us as soon as possibly. 8. (2006 山东) We could chat about the good older days. (四) 连词方面的错误 短文改错中出现连词就要判断连词用的是否正确，是否符合句子意思；连接的是词还是句
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子，是否符合逻辑关系。此外如果是平行结构就要注意前后时态、语态、词性一致问题。平行 结 构 常 借 助 于 并 列 连 词 and, or, but, not only…but also…, …not…but…, either…or…, neither …nor…, as well as 等。注意 though 不与 but 连用，because 不与 so 连用等。 1. (NMET 2006) It started to rise higher again. So it was still too close to the water. 2. (2006 天津) I became very active but made new friends. 3. (2006 重庆) My hometown is a pretty city, so people there are kind and polite. 4. (2006 重庆) While they find fish come to the surface, they fly down immediately. 5. (2006 陕西) Both your aunt or I look forward to seeing you again. 6. 2.(2011) I bought my ticket but turned around to pick up my bag from the floor. (五) 代词方面的错误 这类错误主要包括形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词的误用；关系代词、连接代词的误 用；代词主格与代词宾格的误用；代词单数与代词复数的误用；各个不定代词之间的误用；反 身代词与代词宾格之间的误用；代词的指代错误；定语从句中多用代词等。 1. (2006 全国) ... the men threw away most of his clothes to save themselves. 2. (2006 江西) ... your life in your country is quite different from me. 3. (2002 春季) when he bought a chocolate cake, he put them in a secret place that I couldn’ t find. 4. (2006 四川) That night, we sat down to what they thought would be a pleasant, uninterrupted ... 5. (2006 安徽) You may keep the books for weeks so that you can have enough time to finish it. 6. (NMET 2006) I just smiled to me and thought ... 7. (2006 天津) On the first day of camp, you came up to myself while I was sitting alone. 8. (2006 福建) Everybody sleeps in tents, that is very exciting. (六) 介词方面的错误 这类错误多指漏掉介词、多用介词或介词与其他词语搭配的错误等。例如: 1. (NMET 2006) The crowd waiting for to greet them in England was very surprised ... 2. (NMET 2006) He was looking for a glass the cupboard. 3. (2006 重庆) After autumn arrives, the city looks as an old man with leaves ... 4. (2006 广东) ... he can no longer expect others to pay his food, his clothes ... 5. (2006 四川) On the front door stood a five-year-old boy from across the street. 6. (2006 浙江) Could you share your experience for us? (七) 冠词方面的错误 这类错误多指 a(n)与 the 的误用，a 与 an 的误用。有时也表现为:单数可数名词前面该用冠 词的地方缺少冠词，不该用冠词的地方多了冠词。例如: 1. (NMET 2006) An American and a Frenchman decided to cross the sea between France and England in the balloon in 1784. 2. (2006 辽宁) ... the popular teacher is at same time the one who should be strict with ... 3. (2006 广东) And if he breaks the law of society ..., he may go to the prison. 4. (2006 福建) ... so we will have plenty of spare time to visit the area and have a fun. 5. (2006 重庆) As everyone knows, it is famous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. (八) 非谓语动词方面的错误 这类错误多指 v-ing 与动词不定式之间的误用,现在分词与过去分词之间的误用等。例如: 1. (2003 全国)Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper.
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2. (2006 天津) I just want to thank you for helping me becoming a different person. 3. (2006 福建) How about join us? The camp is at the foot of a small hill. 4. (2006 陕西) I’ll send my friend Charlie meet you at the airport. 5. (2006 四川)After learn the basics of the subject, nothing else seemed very practical to me . (九) 逻辑方面的错误 行文逻辑错误主要指根据语境判断表示肯定还是否定含义，以及动作或时间顺序的逻辑错 误。比如文中 not 的有无；here 与 there 混用；动词 come、go 与 leave 的误用；before 与 after 动作先后顺序的颠倒等。例如： 1.( 95 全国) Uncle Ben will also go back for Christmas. 2.(2008 安徽) She looked at it and started to laugh, “How are you laughing?” I asked. “Because they’re dog biscuits!” She said. 3. (2011 全) I was going to visit a friend here and after that I would go to Xiamen for a long holiday. (十) 短语、句型固定搭配错误 主要考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的固定搭配；副词、动词的固定搭配；及物动词后多 介词或副词以及不及物动词后少介词；英语中的一些固定句型与习惯搭配等。例如: 1. My teacher advised me to keep my diary. 2. In my surprise, he did very well in his previous job. 3. I thought that was dull to watch a game… 二、解题技巧 要想做好“短文改错”题，不妨试试分成“四步走” ，遵循“四原则” ，实施“四查法” 。具 体做法如下: (一) 分成“四步走” 1. 通读全文，了解大意。注意语篇结构和行文逻辑。不能在不了解文章大意的情况下，逐 字逐行地进行修改。 2. 先易后难，缩小范围。在通读全文的过程中，可以先把文中明显的错误找出来改正，然 后再根据具体语境，仔细分析判断，将注意力集中在较难的句子上。 3. 把握句意，逐行判断。可依据“动词形，名词数，注意形和副；非谓动词细辨别，习惯 用法要记住；句子结构多分析，逻辑错误须关注”的口诀行事。 4. 再次通读，复查验证。把大部分错误改正之后，如果还有拿不准的地方，就应再次通读 全文，并利用语感来做最后的判断。 (二) 把握“六个一致” 1、主谓一致； 2、时态与语态的一致； 3、代词先后指代一致； 6、全文写作逻辑语义一致。 4、名词数的一致； 5、平行结构中的一致；
名词数、动词形，形副互混辩分明； 冠词错误常出现，代词前后易错乱； 介词多用错与少，连词转折与平行； 逻辑错误偶尔有，认真阅读别遗漏。
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1. (2011· 全国新课标卷） My summer travel started terribly . I was at the Shanghai Railway Station buy a ticket to Hang Zhou. I was going to visit a friend here and after that I would go to Xiamen for long holiday. I bought my ticket but turned around to pick up my bag Form the floor and then I realized that someone had stolen it. Luckily I had all my money on my pocket, but the only clothes I had was those I had on. It felt very strange to travel without any luggages. When I finally arrived at my friend he lent to me lots of clothes. I feel very happy that I could change my clothes at last. 2.(2012 浙江卷) Two years before, I traveled to Brazil and I rented for a car. Unfortunate, I had an accident and hit another car, and I needed to stay in a hospital for at least two week. 1 called my parents, so I did not tell them what had happened. I knew that they will be worried about myself because I was so farther away, and that my mother would not sleep if she knew. Therefore, I told them interested stories and how I was enjoying Brazil .As a result, nobody knew truth. I still think that it was the right thing to do. 3. (2012 陕西卷) My father and I stayed at the South Lake Hotel for a week when we visit Beijing last month. It is in the downtown area, but it is easy to go to anywhere from the hotel by public transport. We lived in a comfortably double-room with a big bath. What I liked best were the free high-speed Internet connection in the room. I checked my email messages every day. I also shared for my friends many photos taking in Beijing. The food was wonderful with reasonable prices, and we enjoyed several local dish. It is such great hotel that I would recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing
4. (2012 全国新课标)
I learned early in life that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. From the time I was about four until I was about six, I destroyed each of my toy. I was happy when the toys worked, but when things did wrong, I got angry and broke it. For a while parents bought me new toys. But before long they began to see which was happening. When I tear apart my fifth birthday toy train, my father said, "That's it. No more toys to you." My punishment lasted a year. Meanwhile, I found out that with more patience I must make my toys to last. My attitude changed from then on. 5. (2012 重庆卷) Dear Grandpa, How are you those days? I have been missing you very much after I went to college a year ago. Whenever I think of the old days, I feel very happily. I still remember when I was child, you always held me in your arms and told me stories till I fall asleep. We often went to the fields to enjoy the pleasant view there. You told me the name of different plants and their characteristics. Gradually, I became interesting in biology and chose to learn biology when I entered into the college. Now my friend Ann, together with me, are going to do field study and the findings will be use as materials for our research. Since we’ll do the study in our home town, I hope to see you by then. Yours, Daisy 6.(2013 辽宁卷） Mr. Johnson is a hardworking teacher. Every day, he spends too much time with his work. With little sleep and hardly any break, so he works from morning till night. Hard work have made him very ill. “He has ruined his healthy. We are worried about him.” That is which other teachers say. Yesterday afternoon. I paid visit to Mr. Johnson. I was eager to see him, but outside her room I stopped. I had to calm myself down. Quietly I step into the room. I saw him lying in bed, looking at some of the picture we had taken together. I understood that he missed us just as many as we missed him.
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7.(2013 浙江卷) Dear Diary, Here I am in the middle of a city, 350 miles far away from our farmhouse. Do you want to know why we move last week? Dad lost his job and as Mom explained, “He was lucky to find other one.” His new job meant I had to say goodbye to my classmate, my school, or just everything else I love in the world. To make matters bad, now I have to share a room with my younger sister, Maggie. Tomorrow is first day of school. I am awfully tiring, but I know I will never fall sleep. Good night and remember, you, dear diary, is my only souvenir from my past life and my only friend. 8. (2013 全国新课标) I hardly remember my grandmother. She used to holding me on her knees and sing old songs. I was only four when she passes away. She is just a distant memory for me now. I remember my grandfather very much. He was tall， with broad shoulder and a beard that turned from black toward gray over the years. He had a deep voice， which set himself apart from others in our small town，he was strong and powerful. In a fact，he even scared my classmates away during they came over to play or do homework with me. However， he was the gentlest man I have never known. 9.(2014 全国新课标) Nearly five years before, and with the help by our father, my sister and I planted Some cherry tomatoes(圣女 果)in our back garden. Since then- for all these year-we had been allowing tomatoes to self-seed where they please. As result, the plants are growing somewhere. The fruits are small in size, but juicy and taste. There are so much that we often share them with our neighbors. Although we allow tomato plants to grow in the same place year after year, but we have never had any disease or insect attack problems. We are growing wonderfully tomatoes at no cost!
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一． 1.class--classes 2.subject--subjects 3.woman--women 4.John—John’s 5. ideas→idea6. skies→sky 二． 1. have→had2. wish→wishes 3. 去掉 was 4. are→is 5. arrived→arrive 6. permit→permitted7. say→says 8. are→is 三． 1. lately→late2. specially→special 3. immediate→immediately4. clearly→clear 5. particular→particularly 6. more→most 7. possibly→possible8. older→old 四． 1. So→But2. but→and3. so→and4. While→When 5. or→and6. but---and 五 1. his→their2. me→mine 3. them--it 4. they→we 5. it→them6. me→myself7. myself→me 8. that→which 六． 七． 八． 九． 1. 去掉 for2. the 前面加 in3. as→like4. pay 后面加 for5. On→At6. for→with 1. the balloon→a balloon2. same 前加 the 3. 去掉 prison 前的 the4. 去掉 fun 前的 a 5. Famous 前加 a 1. talk--talking 2. becoming→become3. join→joining 4. meet→to meet 5.learn--learning 1.go--come 2. How ---Why 3. here---there
十． 1. keep a diary 是固定搭配，意思是“写日记”. 2.To one’s surprise 是固定搭配 3.此题考查 it 的功能，It + be + adj. + to do 为固定结构。 (2011· 新课标） ：1.buy→buying 2.here→there 3 long holiday→ a long holiday 4.but→and 5.on my pocket→in my pocket6.Ihadwas →I had were 7.luggages→luggage 8.my friend→my friend’s 9.去 lent 后 to 10.feel→felt (2012 浙江卷)：before→ago， rented （for 去掉） ，Unfortunate→Unfortunately ，week→weeks.，so →but will →would ，myself→ me ，farther→far ，interested →interesting ，knew∧ truth.加 the (2012 陕西卷) ：visit→visited，but→so/and，to 去掉，comfortably→comfortable，were→was .，for →with， taking→taken，dish→dishes，such ∧great 加 a， me→mine (2012 新课标)： little →less； toy→toys ； did→went 或者 did 后加 go ； it→them ； parents 前加 my； which →what ；tear→tore ；to→for；must→could/might ；去掉 last 前的 to 。 (2012 重庆卷)：76. these 77. since 78. happy 79. a 80. fell 81. names 82. interested 83. into 去掉 84. is 85. used (2013 辽宁卷） ：1.with→on; 2.so 去掉；3.have→has;4. healthy→health; 5.which →what; 6. a visit;7. her→his; 8.step→stepped;9.Picture→pictures;10. many→much (2013 浙江卷 )： 1.far 去掉 2.move → moved 3.other→ another 4.classmate → classmates 5.or → and 6.bad→worse 7.first 前加 the 或 my 8.tiring→tired 9.sleep→asleep 10.is→are. (2013 新课标)：1. holding →hold；2. passes →passed 3. much →well/ clearly 4. shoulder →shoulders 5. toward →to/ into 6. himself →him 7. and ∧he was strong 8. In a fact→In fact 9. during →when 10. never →ever (2014 新课标)： 71． before→ago 72． by→of73． year→years74． had→have75． As 后加 a76． somewhere →everywhere77． taste→tasty78． much→many 79． but 去掉或改为 yet80． wonderfully→wonderful
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