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英国文化概况试题及答案


英国文化概况试题及答案 参考课堂讲解的内容及课件) (参考课堂讲解的内容及课件)
一章 Land and People 考题 I. Different Names for Britain and its Parts: 1. The British Isles are made up of?________ A. two large islands and hundreds of small ones B. two large islands and Northern Ireland C. three large islands and hundreds of small ones D. three large islands and Northern Ireland 2. There are three political divisions on the island of Great Britain. They are_______ A. Britain, Scotland and Wales B. England, Scotland and Wales C. Britain, Scotland and Ireland D. England, Scotland and Ireland 3. The Commonwealth of Nations is an association of independent countries______ A. that have a large number of British immigrants B. that fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars C. that speak English as their native language D. that were once colonies of Britain 4 About a hundred years ago, as a result of imperialist expansion, Britain ruled an empire that had one fourth of the world’s people and ______of the world’s land area. A. one third B. one fifth C. one fourth D. two fifths 答案: Key: 1.A 2.B 3.D 4.C Chapter 1 land and people 1.What are the differences between Britain and the British Isles, Great Britain, England, the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth? The British Isles, Great Britain and England are geographical names, no the official names of the country, while the official name is the United Kingdom, but the full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The British Commonwealth is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain. 2. Describe the geographical position of Britain? Britain is an island country. It lies in the North Atlantic Ocean off the north coast of Europe. It is separated from the rest of Europe by the English Channel in the south and the North Sea in the east. 3.Whereabouts in Great Britain are mostly highland and lowland? The north and west of Britain are mainly highland, while the south and south-east are mostly lowlands. 4. Does Britain have a favorable climate? Why? Yes, it has a favorable climate, because it has a maritime type of climate---winters are mild, not too cold and summers are cool, not too hot. It has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year. It has a small range of temperature, too.

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5. What are the factors which influence the climate in Britain? Which part of Britain has the most rainfall and which part is the driest? The factors which influence the climate in Britain are the following three: 1) The surrounding waters balance the seasonal differences; 2) The prevailing south-west winds bring warm and wet air in winter and keep the temperatures moderate; 3) The North Atlantic Drift, a warm current, passes the western coast of the British Isles and warms them. The northwestern part has the most rainfall, while the south-eastern corner is the driest. 6. Describe the distribution of Britain’s population. Britain has a population of 57 million. It is densely populated, with an average of 237people per square kilometer. It is also very unevenly distributed, with 90%of the population in urban areas, 10% in rural areas. Geographically, most British people live in England. Of the total of 57 million people, 47 million live in England; 14 million live in London and Southeastern England. 7. What are the three natural zones in Scotland? The three natural zones in Scotland are: the Highlands in the north, the central Lowlands, and the southern Uplands. 8. What is the difference between the ancestors of the English and Scots, Welsh and Irish? The ancestors of the English are Anglo-Saxons, while the Scots, Welsh and rash are Celts. 9. What are the differences in character and speech between southern England and northern England? How do the Welsh keep their language and culture alive? The Welsh are emotional and cheerful people. The Scots are hospitable, generous and friendly. Irish are known for their charm and vivacity as well as for the beauty of their Irish girls. Throughout the year they have festivals of song and dance and poetry called Eisteddfodau. On these occasions competitions are held in Welsh poetry, music, singing and art and in this way they keep the Welsh language and Welsh culture alive. 10. What is the main problem in Northern Ireland? Hundreds of years ago Scots and English Protestants were sent to live in Northern Ireland. Since then there has been bitter fighting between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. The former are the dominant group, while the latter are seeking more social, political and economic opportunities. The British Government and the government of Ireland are now working together to bring peace to Northern Ireland. 第二章 Origins of the Nation Arrival and settlement of the Celts Basis of modern English race: the Anglo-Saxons The Viking and Danish invasions King Alfred and his contributions The Norman Conquest and its consequences 1 The earliest invasion of England is that by _____. A. the Iberian B. the Danes C. the Celts D. the Anglo—Saxons 2 the Celts religion was _____. A. Christianity B. Druidism C. Norman belief D. Roman Catholic 3 the Anglo—Saxons brought _____ religion to Britain.

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A. Christian B. Druid C. Roman Catholic D. Teutonic 4 The Anglo—Saxons established _____ system, whereby the lord of the manor collected taxes and organized the local army. A. salve B. feudal C. manorial(采邑制度) D. Capitalistic 5. The Anglo—Saxons created the _____ to advise the king, the basis of the Privy Council. A. Synod B. Witan(议会)C. Whit by D. Shirt court 6. ______ was known as “the father of the British navy”. A. Edward B. Balfe C. Canute D. Harold I 7. Christmas Day _____, Duke William was crowned in Westminster Abbey. A. 1056 B. 1066 C.1006 D. 1060 8. The Celts may originally have come from eastern and central Europe, now _____. A. France, Belgium and Spain B.France, Spain and southern Italy C. France, Belgium and southern Germany D. France, Spain and southern Germany 9. By the middle of the ninth century, _____ posed a threat to the Saxon kingdom of Essex. A. the Vikings and the Danes B. the Vikings and the Jutes C. the Jutes and the Danes D .the Danes and the Vikings (是不是和 A 一样呀?) 10. The battle of Hastings witnessed the death of ____ in October, 1066. A. Edward B. Testing C. Harold D. Harridan 11. In 597, ____ was the first Archbishop of Canterbury. A. Agricola B. Constantine C. St. Augustine D. Gregory I 12. The Saxons were originally from _____. A. northern Holland B.northern Germany C. south Norway D. south Germany 13. The Celts began to arrive about ____BC and kept coming until the arrival of the Roman. A.400 B. 500 C.600 D.700 14.The Celts came to Britain in ______main waves. A two Bothered C four D five 15. _____laid the foundations of English state. A Celts B the Anglo-Saxons C the Romans D the Normans 16. Alfred the Great was the King of ______. A Sussex B Essex C Essex D Mercia 17. On the Christmas Day of 1066, ________was crowned king of England. A. Edward B Harold C Edgar D William 18. When Edward, the Confessor died, the Witan chose ______as English King. A Duke William B Edith C Harold D Testing 19. Of the following four kings, ______ died most tragically. A King Edward B King Egbert C King Harold D King Alfred 20. In 1066 Harold and his troops fought against William’s army on Senlac field near _______. A London B Normandy C Stanford D Hastings 21. From which of the following languages was the suffix-caster or-orchestra in English place names borrowed? A Danish B Welsh C Latin D German 22. The Witan, the basis of the Privy Council was created by_______. A the Celts B the Anglo—Saxons C the Normans D the Romans

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答案: 选择 1c. 2B. 3D. 4C. 5B 6B. 7B 8 C 9 A 10 C 11 C 12 B 13D 14B 15B 16C 17D 18C 19C 20D 21C 22B 简答 1 How did the Celts invade Britain? The Celts invaded Britain in three waves: the Gaels, the Brythons and the Belgae. 2 How did the Anglo—Saxons invade England? The Anglo—Saxons invaded into Britain in three waves: Jutes, Saxon and Anglos. 3 Who began to invade England from the end of the 8th century? By the end of the 8th century, the Norwegian Vikings and the Danes Denmark began to invade England. 4 What is the significance of the Norman Conquest? The Norman Conquest ended the English history of being invaded. 5 Who formally brought Christianity to Britain? And when? Christianity was brought to Britain by St.Augustine in 597. 名词解释 1. Heptarch I t is a collective name for the seven Anglo—Saxon kingdoms from the 7th century to the 9th century. They are Kent, Essex, Sussex, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia and North Umbria. After the 9th century, the seven kingdoms were conquered one after another by the invading Danes. 2. Alfred the Great He was king of Essex, one of the seven Anglo—Saxon kingdoms. It was he who led the Anglo—Saxons to fight against the invading Danes and maintained peace for a long time. Alfred was not only a brave king at wartime, but also a wise king at peacetime. He encouraged education and introduced a legal system. He is known as “the father of the British navy.” 3. William the conqueror He was also known as William, Duke of Normandy In 1066, he led the Normans to cross the English Channel and conquered England .He became William the First. His reign marked the beginning of the full feudal system in England. 第三章 Shaping of the Nation(练习题一) (练习题一) 1. Under William's rule, the---- were at the bottom of the feudal system. A. barons B. freemen C. villains D. lawyers 2. William replaced the Witan, the council of the Anglo-Saxon king, with---A. the Grand Council B. the House of Lords C. the House of Corranons D. Parliament 3. William II was known as William----- because of his red complexion. A. Rufus B. the Conqueror C. the Confessor D. the Unready 4. Henry II was the first king of the ----dynasty. A. Windsor B. Tudor C. Malcolm D. Plantagenet 5. In Henry II ' s reign, a----- law was gradually established in place of the customs of the manor. A. local B. private C. civil D. common 6. The Great Council of Henry II drew up the Constitutions of--- in 1164 to increase the jurisdiction of the civil courts. A. Labourers B. Clarendon C. Oxford D. Cambridge

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7. The Great Charter was signed in and had---- clauses. A.1251, 63 B.1251, 73 C.1215, 63 D.1215, 73 8. In 1265---- summoned the Great Council, which has been seen as the earliest parliament. A. Henry B.the Pope C. Barons D. Simon de Montfort 9. The Hundred Years' war started in---- and was ended in , in which the English had lost all the territories of France except the French port of--- , A .1337 , 1453, Flanders B .1337 , 1453, Calais C.1346, 1453, Argencourt D.1346, 1453, Brest 10. In 1351, the English government issued a Statute of--- , which made it a crime for peasants to ask for more wages . A. Oxford B. Clarendon C. Labourers D. Magna Carta II Fill in the blanks 1. Under William, the------ system in England was completely established. 2. william replaced the---- , the council of the Anglo-Saxon kings, with the--- of his new tenants-in-chief. 3. The property record in William's time is known as---- , which was compiled in 4. ------was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. 5. In Henry II ' s day, the country was divided into---- circuits, and the---- system replaced old----ordeals by fire and water and old trials by battle. 6. ----' s grave became a place of pilgrimage in and beyond chaucer' s time after he was murdered. 7. In 1215, the baron’s charter, known as---- or----- was approved, which contained---- clauses. 8. In the Hundred Years' war, the French heroine ------- led the French to drive the English out of their country. By 1453, was the only part of France that was still in the hands of the English. 9. ---- was the deadly bubonic plague, which reduced England's population from four million to----- million by the end of the 14th century. 10. One of the consequences of the Uprising of 1381 was the emergence of a new class of--farmers. Answers: 1.C 2.A 3.A 4.D 5.D 6.B 7.C 8.D 9.B 10.C II 1. feudal 2. Witan, Grand Council 3 . Domesday Book, 1086 4. Henry II 5. six, jury, English, Norman 6. Thomas Becket 7. Mangna Carta, the Great Charter, 63 8. Joan of Arc, Calais 9. Black Death, two 10. yeomen III 1.Domesday Book It is a book compiled by a group of clerks under the sponsorship of King William the First in 1086. The book was in fact a property record. It was the result of a general survey of England. It recorded the extent, value, state of cultivation, and ownership of the land. It was one of the important measures adopted by William I to establish the full feudal system in England. Today, it is kept in the Public Records Office in London.

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2.lollards:罗拉德派 罗拉德派 they were poor priests and traveling preachers who were john wyclif's followers.they played an important role in the mental preparations for the peasant uprising of 1381.they preaching the equality of men before god. 3.Joan of arc:圣女贞德 圣女贞德 she was a national heroine of France during the hundred year's war,she successfully led the france to drive the English out of France. 4.The Black Death It is a modern name given to the dearly bubonic plague, an epidemic disease spread through Europe in the fourteenth century particularly in 1348-1349. It came without warning, and without any cue. In England, it killed almost half of the total population, causing far-reaching economic consequences. 1.What was feudalism like in England under the rule of William the Conqueror? Under the rule of William the Conqueror, the feudal system in England was completely established. According to this system, the king owned all the land personally. William gave his barons large estates in return for military services and a proportion of the land's produce. These estates were scattered all over the king. Then, the barons parceled out land to the lesser nobles, knights and freemen, also in return for goods and services. At the bottom of the feudal scale were the serfs. One peculiar feature of the feudal system of England was that all landowners must take the oath of allegiance not only to their immediate lord, but also to the king. 2. What were the contents and the significance of the Great charter? Contents: no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; no freeman should be arrested, imprisoned, or deprived of his property except by the law of the land; the Church should possess all its rights, together with freedom of elections; London and other towns should retain their ancient rights and privileges, and there should be the same weights and measures throughout the country. It was a statement of the feudal and legal relationship between the Crown and the barons, a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the power of the king. 3. Why and how did the English Parliament come into being? Henry III's many measures was brought matters between he and barons to a head. And the barons force the king to swear and accept the Provisions of Oxford. Simon de Montfort summoned in 1265 the Great Council to meet at Westminster, together with two knights from each country and two burgesses from each town, a metting which has been seen as that the earliest parliament. 4. What do you know about Wat Tyler's Uprising? The uprising broke out in Kent and Essex in 1381 and was led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw. Tyler led the mared villagers to occupy London. The king was forced to accept their demands. Most of the rebels dispersed and went home, while Tyler and other leader stayed on for more rights. Tyler was killed at a meeting with the king, who suppressed the Uprising brutally. Although the Uprising failed, it had great importance in English history. It directed against the rich clergy, the lawyers and the landowners. It effectively blew the serfdom, and a new class of yeomen farmers emerged, paving the way for the development of capitalism. 第三章 Shaping of the Nation(练习题二) (练习题二) 选择题 1. The Domesday Book was completed in________.

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A. 1085 B. 1086 C.1087 D.1088 答案: B 2. When William died in Normandy in 1087 he left Normandy to ________,and England to______. A. William Rufus; Robert B. Robert ;Henry C. Robert; William Rufus D. Henry; Robert 答案: C 3. The spirit of the Great Charter was the limitation of the powers of ______, keeping them within the bounds of the feudal law of the land. A. the Archbishop of Canterbury B the barons C the church D the king 答案:D 4. The barons forced the king of Henry 3 and his son Prince Edward to swear to accept the _____. A . Provisions of Oxford. B Provisions of York C Provisions of Westminster D provisions of Canterbury 答案: A 5 . Magna Carta was signed in _______ at a conference at ______. A. 1066; Runnymede B. 1215; Windsor C. 1215; Oxford D. 1215; Runnymede 答案: D 6. According to Magna Carta no tax should be made without the approval of______. A. the Witan B the king C the Grand Council D the Commons 答案:C 7 In 1265 Simon summoned the Great Council to meet together with two knights from each county and two ______ from each town. A burgesses B. bishops C. clergymen D. yeomen 答案: A 8 The Hundred Year's War lasted from _______to________. A. 1337;1450 B. 1337;1453 C. 1330; 1453 D. 1337;1455 答案: B 9 'Domesday Book' was compiled during the rule of ______. A William I B William II C Henry II D King Stephen 答案:A 10 The Black Death swept through England in the summer of _____without warning. A 1374 B 1348 C 1349 D 1350 答案:B 11 After the Hundred Year's War, power in England was in the hands of a number of rich and ambitious_________. A bishops B Merchants C nobles D royal family members 答案: C 12 The causes of the Hundred Years War were partly ______and Partly _______. A. political; military B political; economic C territorial; religious D territorial; economic 答案:D 13 The Hundred Years' War could be devided into _______outstanding stages. A two B three C four D five 答案:B 14 Under William's rule, the______ were at the bottom of the feudal system. ' A. barons B. freemen C. villeins D. lawyers 答案:C 15 William replaced the Witan, the council of the Anglo-Saxon king, with ______ A. the Grand Council B. the House of Lords C. the House of Corranons D. Parliament 答案:A 16 William II was known as William ______ because of his red complexion. A. Rufus B. the Conqueror C. the Confessor D. the Unready 答案:A 17 Henry II was the first king of the ______dynasty. A. Windsor B. Tudor C. Malcolm D. Plantagenet 答案:D

18 In Henry II ' s reign, a _______ law was gradually established in place of the customs of the manor. A. local B. private C. civil D. common 答案:D 19 The Great Council of Henry II drew up the Constitutions of ____in 1164 to increase the

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jurisdiction of the civil courts. A. Labourers B. Clarendon C. Oxford D. Cambridge 答案:B 20 The Great Charter was signed in ______ and had______ clauses. A.1251, 63 B.1251, 73 C.1215, 63 D.1215, 73 答案:C 21 In 1265 _____summoned the Great Council, which has been seen as the earliest parliament. A. Henry B.the Pope C. Barons D. Simon de Montfort 答案:D 22 The Hundred Years' war started in_____ and was ended in______, in which the English had lost all the territories of France except the French port of _____, A .1337 , 1453, Flanders B .1337 , 1453, Calais C.1346, 1453, Argencourt D.1346, 1453, Brest 答 案:B 23 In 1351, the English government issued a Statute of_____ , which made it a crime for peasants to ask for more wages . A. Oxford B. Clarendon C. Labourers D. Magna Carta 答案: C 一句话解释 1 Which system was completely established under William in English ? 答:The feudal system was completely established under William in English. 2 What book was Domesday Book? 答:This book was the result of a general survey of England made in 1085, and stated the extents, value, the population , state of cultivation, and ownership of the land. 3 What's the role of Simon's Parliaments? 答:It's role was to offer advice, not to make decisions. 名词解释 1 The Domesday Book。 。 答:This book, completed in 1086, was the result of a general survey of England made in 1085, and stated the extent, value, the population, state of cultivation, and ownership of the land. 2 the Black Death 答:The Black Death was the modern name given to the deadly bubonic plague, an epidemic disease caused by rat fleas. It spread through Europe in the 14th century. Particularly in 1347-1350. It reduced between one half and one-third of English population and caused a great economic loss. 3 the Great Charter 答:The Great Charter, also called Magna Carta, was the first famous political document to limit the king's powers in English history. It was signed in 1215 by King John. It contains altogether 63 clauses. 英国概况 4 Transition to the modern Age 1 The Wars of the Roses broke out shortly after_______. A the Black Death B the Watt Tyler's Uprising C the Hundred Year's War D the Glorious Revolution 答案:C 2 In the reform of the Church Henry VIII dissolved all of England's monasteries and nunneries because they were much more loyal to _________then to their English kings. A. the Pope B. Jesus Christ C. Roman Catholic D. the bishops 答案:A 3 Thanks to Mary, Protestantism and _________ were now forever synonymous in Britain.

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A. Catholicism B. prosecution C. the Reformation D nationalism 答案:D 4 For nearly thirty year, Elizabeth I successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers at the time,_________, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. A. Spain and Germany B. France and Spain C. Spain and Denmark D. France and Italy 答案:B 5 _________was regarded as the second Magna Carta. A. The Petition of Right B. The Provision of Oxford C. The Grand Remonstrance D. The Militia Bill 答案:A 6 The Renaissance began in north ______in the early ______century. A. France;14th B. Italy; 16th C. Italy; 14th D. England; 14th 答案:C 7 In December 1653, by an Instrument of Government, Oliver Gromwell became _______of the Commonwealth of England. A. Prime Minister B. King C. Lord Protector D. Emperor 答案:C 8.In foreign affairs. Henry VIII was aided by ________ , Archbishop and Lord Chancellor. A. Thomas More B. Thomas Becket C. Thomas Wolsey D. Martin Luther 答案:C 9 The Armada was defeated by England in ________. A. 1587 B. 1588 C. 1558 D. 1540 答案:B 10 After the Glorious Revolution came the Age of ______ , a monarchy with powers limited by Parliament. A. the Commonwealth B. the Federal Republic C. the Constitutional Monarchy D. the special monarchy 答案:C 11 Although the Wars of the Roses were waged intermittently for thirty years, ordinary people were _______affected and went about their business as usual. A. little B. a little C. much D. greatly 答案: A 12 It was during the reign of ______, the name Great Britain came into being in 1707. A. Elizabeth I B. Henry VIII. C. Charles I D. Anne 答案:D 13 The last battle of the Wars of Roses was at ---______in 1458. A. Hastings B. Bosworth Field C. Naseby D. Oxford 答案:B 一句话解释: 一句话解释: 1 What was Queen Mary know as? 答:She was known as " Bloody Mary". 2 Why do we call Mary Tudor Bloody Mary? 答 Because she at least burnt 300 Puritans as heretics. 3. Why were Puritans happy when James I came to the throne?

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答:Because James I came from Scotland and the Scottish Church was a pure Protestant Church with democratically elected officials. 4 Who supported the king during the war? 答: Many nobles and gentry supported the king. 5 What's the relationship between Elizabeth I' s England and France? 答:She managed to maintain a friendly relationship with France. 名词解释 1 Bloody Mary 答:Mary was Henry VIII' s daughter and she was a Catholic. After she became Queen, she persecuted many people for their Protestant religious views and some were put to death. As a result, people call her "Bloody Mary". 2. the wars of Roses 答:After the Hundred Year's War, in order to decide who would rule England, a war broke out between the House of Lancaster and the House of York, which were symbolized by the red and white roses respectively. The war lasted from 1455 to 1485. It is usually regarded as the end of English Middle Ages. 英国概况 第五章 Rise and Fall of the British Empire 选择题 1. _______was the forerunner of the Conservative Party. A The Liberal Party B. The Whigs C. The Tories D. The Labour 答案:C 2. The open filed system lasted till _________ century. A. 14th B. 15th C. 16th D. 18th 答案:D 3. The spinning jenny was invented by _________. A. John Kay B. James Hargreaves C. Richard Arkwright D. Samuel Crowpton 答案:B 4.The Physical Force Chartists was led by _______. A. William Lovett B. Feargus O’ Conour C. Attwood D. Engles 答案:B 5. The Suez Canal was built by ________ engineers. A. English B. French C. Dutch D. Portugal 答案:B 6. The Chartist Movement lasted from _______ to _________. A. 1840;1848 B. 1840;1845 C. 1836;1840 D. 1836;1848 答案:D 7.The People’s charter made in 1838 had _________points. A. 3 B 4 C.5 D. 6 答案:D 8.Canada was established as a dominion by_______. A. the 1736 Treaty of Pairs B. the Quebec Act of 1774 C. the Canada Act of 1791 D. the British North America Act of 1867 答案:D 9.The foundations of the welfare state, in Britain, were laid in _________. A. the 1940s B. the 1950s C. the 1960s C. the 1970s 答案:A 10.The Independent Labour Party was formed in _______, led by________. A. 1893; Mac Donald B. 1893; Keir Hardic C. 1906; keir Hardic D. 1922; Mac Donald 答案:B 11.Britain’s colonial expansion began with ________. A. James Cook’s discovery of Botany Bay B. the colonization of Newfoundland

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C. the establishment of the East India Company D. the Pilgrim Fathers’ settlement in the New World. 答案:B 12.The British East India Company was established in _______. A. 1600 B. 1700 C. 1840 D. 1848 答案:A 13.By 1900 more then ________of Africa had been colonized by European countries. A. 20% B. one-third C. 9/10 D. half 答案:C 14. After the Opium wars in 1840 the British troops occupied Hong Kong in _________. A. 1839 B.1840 C.1841 D.1842 答案:C 15.The Beatles,the popular band in 1960s, came from ________. A. London B. Birmingham C. Edinburgh D. Liverpool 答案:D 16. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries radicals were active in English Parliament spreading radical ideas whose common aim was thorough reform of the ________. A. political system B. religious system C. Parliamentary system D. hereditary monarchy 答案:C 17.At the general election of 1945 Winston Churchill was heavily defeated, because _____. A. he was old-fashioned B. people did not support his postwar policies C. he was not qualified as a prime minister in a peaceful age D. people wanted to forget about the war 答案:D 18.In the Industrial revolution, changes occurred earliest and quickest in ______. A. hardware B. textiles C. pottery D. chemicals 答案:B 19. Chartist Movement was officially launched at a great Birmingham meeting in _____, with The the aim of pressing the Parliament to accept the People’s Charter. A. 1836. B. 1838. C. 1840. D. 1842. 答案:B 20.The English Renaissance was largely _______. A. religious B. ideological C. philosophical D. Literary. 答案:D 一句话解释 1.What field did the Industrial Revolution firstly occur in? . 答:The Industrial Revolution firstly occurred in the filed of textile. 2. When did the Labour Party come to power for the first time? 答:In 1942 the Labour Party came to power for the first time. 3. What are the two major parties in Britain? 答:They are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. 4. What did Britain become after the Industrial Revolution? 答:Britain became the “workshop of the world”. 解释 1. Whigs and Tories . The Whigs was one of the two main political parties originating with the Glorious Revolution. The Whigs opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. In 19th century the Whigs became known as the Liberal party. The Tories was one of the two main political parties in the period of the Glorious Revolution. The Tories

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supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party. 2. Thatcherism Mrs. Thatcher’s policies were usually called Thatcherism. It included the return to private ownership of state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weakening of trade unions, the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order. 3. The welfare state It is a system of government by which the state provide the economic and social security of its citizens through its organization of health services, pensions and other families. This system is founded out of national insurance contribution and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service, national insurance and social security. 4.constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a country in which head of the state is a king or a queen. In practice, the Sovereign reigns, but does most rule. 5. Social security system Social Security System is a part of welfare system which is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need, providing financial help for those who are elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, widowed, bringing up children or on very low incomes. 第七章: 第七章:Government and Administration 选择题 1. The United Kingdom is governed in the name of _________, by_________. A. the king; His Majesty's Government B. the Queen; Her Majesty's Government C. the Sovereign; Prime Minister D. the Sovereign; His or Her Majesty's government 答案:D 2.__________is the "supreme governor" of the Church of English. A. The monarch B. The Archbishop C. The Archbishop of Canterbury D. The Roman Pope 答案:A 3. The United Kingdom is a _______state. A. unitary B. federal C. republic D. feudal 答案:A 4.The British monarchy can be traced back to at least ________century. A. the 7th B. the 8th C. the 9th D. the 10th 答案:C 5.In Britain the citizens aged _______ or over have the right to vote. A. 16 B. 18 C. 21 D. 30 答案:B 6.Local authorities in Great Britain raise revenue through _________. A. the council tax B. the income tax C. the capital receipts D. the personal contribution 答案:A 7.In Britain a candidate must be at least _______or over with the deposit of &_____.

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A. 20;500 B.21;500 C.20;800 D.18;400 答案:B 8.The House of Common is headed by________. A. the Prime Minister B. the Speaker C. the Lord Chancellor D. the Monarch 答案:B 9.By tradition, the leader of the majority party is appointed _________by the Sovereign in the United Kingdom. A. the Prime Minister B. Member of Parliament C. Lord of Appeal D. Speaker of the House 答案:A 10.The British Cabinet is presided by _________. A. the Prime Minister B. the Speaker C. the Lord Chancellor D. the Monarch 答案:A 11.The Social and Liberal Democratic Party is the combination of the Social Democratic Party and _________. A. the Conservative Party B. the Labour Party C. the Liberal Party D. the Green Party 答案:C 12.Which of the following about UK's monarchy is not true? A. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. B. There is no written constitution in the United Kingdom. C. Today the Queen holds the real power in UK. D. The continuity of the monarchy has been broken only. 答案:C 13.The leader of the House of Lords is ________. A. the Speaker B. the Monarch C. the Prime Minster D. the Lord Chancellor 答案:D 14.Northern Ireland is divided into _________districts. A. 20 B. 26 C. 36 D. 40 答案:B 15.Which of the following is not one of the members of the Lords Temporal? A. All hereditary peers and peeresses of England, Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (but not peers of Ireland). B. Lire peers created to assist the House in its judicial duties. C. Senior bishops of the Church of England. D. All other life peers. 一句话解释 1.How often is the general election held in Britain? . 答:In Britain the general election is normally held every five years. 2. What's the clerk of the parliament responsible for? 答:The Clerk of the Parliament is responsible for the records of proceedings of the House of Lords and for the text of Acts of Parliament 3. What did the term "parliament" originally mean? 答:The term "parliament" originally meant a meeting for parley or discussion. 4. What's the Speaker? 答:The Speaker is the head of the House of Commons. 5. What is the House of Lords made up of? 答:It is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal.

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6. What did the English Industrial Revolution begin with? 答:It began with the textile industry. 7. Which war was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king in Britain? 答:It is the Glorious Revolution. 8. What were the forerunners of the Liberal Party in Britain? 答:They are Whigs. 9. How many members are there in the House of Commons? 答:There are 651 members in the House of Commons. 10. What is the difference between the ancestors of the English and Scots, Welsh and Irish? 答:The ancestors of the English are Anglo—Saxons, while the Scots, Welsh and Irish are Celts. 11.What is the main function of the House of Lords in Britain? . 答:Its main function is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of making law. 名词解释 1. Constitutional Monarchy . 答:The British monarchy is known as constitutional monarchy. It means the monarchy's powers are limited by law and Parliament. The monarchy actually has no real power. Constitutional monarchy began after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. 2. the Privy Council 答:The Privy Council was formerly the chief source of executive power in the United Kingdom. It's origins can be traced back to the King's Council, which in the 13th century gave the Sovereign advice on the government of the country. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, it Gradually lost its importance. Much of its work was taken over by the Cabinet until the 18th century. Today it's role is largely formal, advising the Sovereign to approve certain government decrees, and issuing royal proclamations. 3. Social Security System 答: Social Security System is a part of welfare system which is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need, providing financial help for those who are elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, widowed, bringing up children or on very low incomes. 英国文化(练习题一) 第十章 英国文化(练习题一) 1. Compulsory education begins at 5 in Great Britain and four in Northern Ireland, when children go to---A. infant schools B. junior schools C. independent schools D. primary schools 2. About 90 per cent of the state secondary school population in the UK attend---A. independent schools B. public schools C. grammar schools D. comprehensive schools . 3. There are some --- universities, including the Open University. A.900 B.290 C.90 D.50 4. In Britain, children from the age of 5 to 16 can --- by law. A. receive completely free education B. receive parly free education C . receive no free education if their families are rich D. receive no free education at all

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5. Which of the following is a feature of British education as a whole? A. Education is chaotic. B. Education is highly centralized. C . Education is rather independent and enjoys a great deal of freedom . D. Education is very expensive. 6. There are about ---- daily and Sunday newspapers published in Britain. A.180 B.150 C.130 D.100 7. Which of the following is not quality newspapers? A. Fincacial Times B. The Sun C. The Guardian D. The Times 8. Which of the following is not the important weekly reviews? A. The Economist B. The New Statesman and society C.The Spectato D. Reader's Digest 9. --- is the most typically English of sports. A. Cricket B. Golf C. Tennis D. Horse-racing 10. The most famous art festival in Britain is---A. the Royal National Eisteddford of Wales B. the Llangollen Internationl Eisteddford C. the Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama. D. the Bath Festival of Musis II 1. Education in the UK is compulsory for all between the ages of---- (---- in Northen Ireland) and----. 2. In the past children in Britain were allocated to different secondary schools on the basis of selection tests known as---- , which was replaced by---3. The most famous public schools for boys are -----.--- , Westminster and Winchester. The Leading girls' public schools are and Cheltenham Ladies' College. 4. Education after 16 in the UK is divided into----- and---5. The most-known universities in Britain are---- and---- which date from the --- and --- centuries. 6. The national newspapers in Britain can be divided into national and national----. 7. National newpapers are also popularly divide into---.---- and ---papers on the basis of differences in style and content. 8.---- dominates the arwaves of Britain, using English and other languages. 9. The principal new agencies in Britain are---- , the Press Association and Extel Financial Ltd. 10. The most popular sport in England is--- , while---- is the most typically English. The home of golf is---11. London has over 100 theatres, half of which are in---12. There are several thousand libraries in Britain which include the "---- " libraries, libraries of other universities and learned institutions, and the---- libraries. answers I 1.A 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.C 6.C 7.B 8.D 9.A 10.C

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II 1.5, 4, 16 2. eleven-plus, comprehensive schools 3. Eton, Harrow, Roedean 4. further education, high education 5. Oxford, Cambridge, 12th, 13th 6. dailies, Sundays 7. quality, popular mid-market 8. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 38 9. Reuters 10. football cricket, Scotaland 11. the West End 12. copyright, public 1.What do you know about state schools and "public schools" in the UK? About 90 percent of the state secondary school populations in Great Britain attend comprehensive schools. These take pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and provide a wide-ranging secondary education for all or most of the children in a district. Many of Britain's public schools are private-run and long-established and have gained a reputation for their high academic standards, as well as their exclusiveness and snobbery. 2. What distinguishes the Open University from all other British Universities? The Open University is a non-residential university. It offers degree and other courses for adult students of all ages. It uses a combination of specially produced printed texts, correspondence tuition, television and radio broad casts and audio/video cassettes. There is a network of study centers for contact with part-time and counselors, and with fellow students. 3. What are the differences between quality papers and popular papers? Quality papers and directed at readers who want full information on a wide range of public matters, while popular papers appeal to people wanting news of a more entertaining character ,presented more concisely. 4. Which sport is regarded as typically English? Cricket is the most typically English of sports. 第九章 英国概况 Social Affairs 1 The Church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in __________ without the consent of Parliament. A. the Bill of Rights B. the Provisions of Oxford C. the Constitutions of Clarendon D. the Book of Common Prayer 答案:D 2 The position of the Church of Scotland was defined in the Treaty of Union, 1707, and further safeguarded by the Church of Scotland Act, ______. A. 1921 B. 1922 C. 1923 D. 1924 答案:A 3 The Salvation Army is served by 1,800 officers (ordained ministers) and runs more than _____ worship centers.

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A. 500 B. 1,000 C. 1,500 D. 2,000 答案:B 4 The Free Church do Not include ____. A the Methodist Church B the Church of England C the Baptists D the United Reformed Church. 答案:C 5 ____ is not among the Anglican Churches A The Church in Wales B The Church of Ireland C The Episcopal Church in Scotland D The Baptists. 答案:D 6 At Christmas, the home is decorated with the following except _____. A. colorful paper chains B. leaves of holly and mistletoe C. a young fir-tree D. firecrackers 答案:D 7 Easter is traditionally associated with the following except ____. A. the resurrection of Christ B. the eating of Easter eggs C. the custom of giving presents D. the coming of spring 答案:C 8. ______is the largest of the Free Churches. A. The Baptists B. The Methodist Church C. The Roman Catholic Church D. The Church in Wales 答案:B 9.Established Churches in Britain are ______. A. Church of England and Church of Wales. B. Church of Wales and Church of Scotland C. the Anglican Churches. D. Church of England and Church of Scotland. 答案:D 10.______is more important than Christmas to Scots. A. Whit Sunday B. New Year’s Day C. April Fools Day D. Easter 答案:B 一句话解释 1 What are the two established churches in Britain? They are the Church of England in England and the Church of Scotland in Scotland. 2 How many provinces does the Church of England have? The Church of England has two provinces: Canterbury and York. 3 When were the first women priests ordained in Britain? They were ordained in March 1994. 4 Who founded the Salvation Army in the East of London in 1865? William Booth, a great follower of John Wesley, founded the Salvation Army.

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5 Where do the people in London go to see the Christmas decorations? They go to Oxford Street, Regent Street and Piccadilly to see the Christmas decorations. 6 What is the National Day in Britain? The birthday of the British Monarch is a National Day in Britain. 7.What does Guy Fawkes Day come From? Guy Fawkes Day comes from the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. 8. What is the most important established Church in Britain? It is the Church of England. 9.What was the Gunpowder Plot of 1605? It was the most famous of the Catholic conspiracies. 名次解释 1 Established Churches Established churches are those legally recognized as official churches of the State. 2 Church of England Church of England is the most important established church in Britain. It is legally recognized as official church of the state. It is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and must promise to uphold it. The church is also linked with the State through the House of Lords, in which the two archbishops and some other bishops have seats. It was two provinces: Canterbury and York. 3 The Salvation Army It was founded by William Booth in the East of London in 1865, who was a follower of the Methodist Church. Within Britain, the Salvation Army is second only to the Government as a provider of social services. 4 Bank Holidays Bank Holidays also called official public holidays. The term goes back to the Bank Holidays Act of 1871, which owes its name to the fact that banks are closed on the days specified. 5 Easter Easter is the chief Christian festival, which celebrates the Resurrection of Christ, on the first Sunday after the first full moon that coincides with, or comes after, the spring equinox (March 21st). 6 Remembrance Sunday Remembrance Sunday also called Armistice Day. It’s the important patriotic festival and on the Sunday nearest to November 11. On this Sunday, the dead of both world wars are remembered in special church services and civic ceremonies. The royal members and many important statesmen would lay wreathes to them. 7 Boxing Day December 26th is called Boxing Day because it was formerly the custom to give “Christmas boxes”, or gifts of money, to servants and tradesmen on this day. 英国部分 第十章 Cultural Affairs(练习题二) 选择题 1 There are over ________nursery and primary schools and nearly _______secondary schools with a total student population of over 9 million in Britain. A. 25.000 5000. B. 5000 25.000. C. 5000. 2500 D 5000. 2500. 答案:A

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2 In Britain there are some _______universities including the Open University. A 90. B 100. C. 110. D.120. 答案:A 3 About_______ of the secondary school population in Great Britain attend comprehensive schools. A. 70% B 80% C. 90% D. 100% 答案:C 4 First degree courses are mainly full time and usually last ________years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A.3 B. 4 C. 5 D 6 答案:A 5 The usual age for transfer from primary to secondary schools is _______ in England, Wales and Northern Ireland。 A.14. B.13. C.12. C.11. 答案:D 6 About _______daily and Sunday newspapers are published nationwide in Britain. A. 100 B. 110. C. 120. D. 130. 答案:D 7. Which of the following is NOT the important regional morning paper in England? A .The Daily Record. B. The Northern Echo. C. The Sunday Mercury. D. The Eastern Daily Press. 答案:A 8.Of monthly magazines,________ has the highest circulation. A. Economist B. Reader’s Digest C. Spectator D. Scotsman. 答案:B 9.Of the following four sports, _______ has the longest history. A. cricket B. golf C. football D. rugby. 答案: A 10 The Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama takes place for a period of _____. A. 2 to 3 weeks B. 3 to 4 weeks C. 4 to 5 weeks D. 5 to 6 weeks 答案: B 11. David Hare’s trilogy does not include _________. A .Racing Demon B. The Phantom of Opera C. Murmuring Judges D. The Absence of War 答案:B 12.______ is the home of golf. A. England B. Scotland. C. Wales D. Ireland. 13. Copyright Libraries are those which ________. A. are the Libraries of universities and learned institutions. B. are public libraries. C. are entitled to receive a free copy of every book published in the United Kingdom. D. are of other universities and learned institutions. 答案:C 14.Each year ______ hosts the London Film Festival.

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A. the National Film Theatre. B. the National Film archive. C. the National Opera Theatre. D. the National Ballet Theatre. 答案:A 15.The state-run BBC is financed from ______. A. the Government B. the sale of television license. C. commercial activities. D. both B and C. 答案:B 16 The most famous arts festival in Great Britain is held in ______. A. London B. Llangollen C. Edinburgh D. Stratford. 答案:C 17. _______ Does NOT belong to popular dailies. A. Ness of the World B. Daily Mirror C. Daily Star D. The Sun 答案:A 一句话解释 1.When was Reuters founded? 答:Reuters was founded in 1851 by the German Julius Reuter. 2. Where did bulk of expenditure on education come from? 答:The bulk of expenditure on education comes from public funds. 3. What is the most typically English of sports? 答:Cricket is the most typically English of sports. 4. What is the oldest golf club in the world? 答:The oldest golf club in the world is the Honorable Company of Edinburgh Golfers. 名次解释 1 Reuters 答:The principal news agency in Britain is Reuters, based in London. It was founded in 1851 by the German, Julius Reuter. It is now a publicly owned company, employing over 11,000 staff in 80 countries. It has more than 1,300 staff journalists and photographers. The company serves subscribers in 150 countries, including financial institutions; commodities houses; traders in currencies, equities and bonds; major corporations; government agencies; news agencies; newspapers; and radio and television stations. 2. Open University 答:Higher education in Britain is not compulsory and students would have to pay fees, but the government would give students financial help if they need the help. There are about 90 universities in Britain and the most famous ones are Oxford and Cambridge. There is also the Open to all to become students, mainly adult students. 3. the Beatles 答:In the early 1960s a new cultures-the Liverpool, or Merseyside, “beat”, emerged in Britain. The people responsible for this new pop culture were four Liverpool boys who joined together in a group and called themselves the Beatles. Unlike the famous solo stars that had their songs written for them, the Beatles wrote their own words and music. They wrote not only of love, but of death and old age, poverty and daily life. The Beatles had a close personal relationship with their audiences, and they expected them to join in. As they developed, their song became more serious. They finally won the affection and admiration of people of all ages and social backgrounds.

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