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初中被动语态及其相关练习题


一、被动语态概述 语态是动词的一种形式,用以说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。英语的语态共有两种: 主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者, 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受 者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般来说,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语 态。汉语往往用“被” 、 “受” 、 “给”等词来表示被动意义。 如:He opened the door. 他打开了这扇门。 (主动语态) The door was opened. 这扇门被打开了。 (被动语态) 二、被动语态的构成 被动语态由“助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。被动语态的时态变化只改变 be 的形 式,过去分词部分不变。疑问式和否定式的变化也如此。 1、被动语态的时态较常见的八种,现以动词 clean 为例列表说明: 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 例 Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 例 All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. 3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时 例 A new cinema is being built here. 4) was/were done 一般过去时 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. 5) had been done 过去完成时 例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing. 6) was/were being done 过去进行时 例 A meeting was being held when I was there. 7) shall/will be done 一般将来时 例 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 8) shall/will have been done 将来完成时 例 The project will have been completed before July. 2、被动语态的句式变化: 以一般现在时和动词 invite 为例,列表说明被动语态的句式变化: 3、含有情态动词的被动语态 情态动词的被动语态结构为:情态动词+be+过去分词; 其时态及句型的变化仅由情态动词完成, “be+过去分词”部分不变。 如:Tables can be made of stone. 桌子可由石头制造。 Tables could be made of stone at that time. 那时桌子可由石头制造。 (一般过去时) Can tables be made of stone? 桌子能用石头制造吗?(疑问句) 三、被动语态的用法: 1、不知道或没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者时。 如:The bridge was built last year. 这座桥是去年建造的。 He was elected chairman. 他被选为主席。 2、当更加强调动作的承受者时。此时动作的执行者由 by 引导置于谓语动词之后,不需 要时可以省略。 如:The room hasn't been cleaned yet. 房间还没有打扫。

The tiger was killed by him. 老虎被他杀死了。 3、当动作的执行者不是人时,多用被动语态。 如:The window was blown by wind. 窗户被风吹开了。 The whole village has been washed away by the flood. 整个村庄都被洪水冲走了。 4、表示客观的说明常用“It is + 过去分词”句型。 一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等 可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that 从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.” 。有: It is said that?据说,It is reported that?据报道,It is believed that?大家相信,It is hoped that?大家希望, It is well known that?众所周知, It is thought that?大家认为, It is suggested that?据建议。 例 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. ) 如:It is said that Lucy has gone abroad. 据说露茜已经出国了。 It is believed that he is a spy. (=He is believed to be a spy.) 大家相信他是个间谍。 四、主动语态变为被动语态 转换图示: 1、主动语态变为被动语态的步骤: (1)将主动句的宾语变为主语: 注意:如果主动句的宾语是代词,需将其由宾格变为主格。 如:Tom killed him. → He was killed by Tom. (2)将动词改为“be+过去分词” 。 注意: They held a meeting yesterday. → A meeting was held by them yesterday. 开会了。 (3)将主动语态的主语改为 by?放在谓语动词后。 注意:如果原主语是代词,则应由主格变为宾格。 如:He sang a song. → A song was sung by him. 他们昨天

2、主动语态变为被动语态的注意事项: (1)主动句中的主语如果是 people, we, you, they, somebody 等含糊地表示“人们” 、 “大家”的 单词,变为被动句时,通常删去“by?” ,但原主语被强调时除外。 如:They set up this hospital in 1975.→This hospital was set up in 1975. 这所医院建于 1975 年。 Only he can finish the job. →只有他能完成这项工作。 The job can be finished only by him.这项工作只能由他来完成。 (2)含有双宾语,即直接宾语和间接宾语的句子,每个宾语都可变为被动语态的主语, 即其被动语态有两种形式。但多以间接宾语作主语。 如:Jack told us the truth.杰克告诉了我们真相。 We were told the truth by Jack. The truth was told (to) us by Jack. 五、动词的主动形式表示被动之意

以主动形式表示被动之意的动词多为连系动词,如:look,feel,smell 等。 下列动词没有被动式:happen,cost,have 如:An accident was happened yesterday.(×)昨天发生了一起事故。 An accident happened yesterday.() The flower smells sweet.这花闻起来很香。 The watch looks good.这表看起来很好。 This book sells well.这本书畅销。 六、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义 1.英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write, wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式表达被动意义,主语 通常是物。 例 This kind of cloth washes well. 注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。 试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病) The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因) 2. 表示 “发生、 进行” 的不及物动词和短语, 如: happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢? 3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词 feel, sound, taste, book, feel 等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Your reason sounds reasonable 七、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义 在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义。 1.在 need,want,require, bear 等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含 义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The house needs repairing(to be repaired) .这房子需要修理。 2.形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The picture-book is well worth reading( .=The picture-book is very worthy to be read. ) 3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名 词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. (to do 与 things 是动宾关系, 与 I 是主谓关 系。) 试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式的被 动语态作定语表明 you 不是 post 动作的执行者。) 4. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是 动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有 nice, easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting 等。 例 This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作 to work out 省略了 for me). 5. 在 too? to?结构中, 不定式前面可加逻辑主语, 所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。 例 This book is too expensive (for me) to buy. 6. 在 there be?句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动式作定语,重 点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。

例 There is no time to lose(to be lost) . (用 to lose 可看成 for us to lose;用 to be lost, 谁 lost time 不明确。 ) 7. 在 be to do 结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动, 被动表被动。然而,由于古英 语的影响,下列动词 rent,blame,let 等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Who is to blame for starting the fire? 八、介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用, 含被动之义, 其意义相当于该名词相应动词 的被动形式,名词前一般不用冠词。 1. “under +名词”结构,表示“某事在进行中” 。常见的有:under control(受控制), under treatment(在治疗中), under repair(在修理中), under discussion(在讨论中), under construction(在施工中) 。 例 The building is under construction( is being constructed). 2. “beyond+名词”结构, “出乎??胜过??、范围、限度” 。常见的有:beyond belief (令人难以置信), beyond one’s reach(鞭长莫及) ,beyond one’s control(无法控制) , beyond our hope.我们的成功始料不及。 例 The rumour is beyond belief(=can’t be believed) . 3.“above+名词”结构, 表示“(品质、行为、能力等) 超过??、高于??” 。 例 His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough. 4. “for+名词”结构,表示“适于??、为着??” 。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租) 等。 例 That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold). 5. “in+名词” 结构, 表示 “在??过程中或范围内” 常见的有: in print (在印刷中) , in sight(在 视野范围内),等。 例 The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed) 6. “on+名词”结构, 表示“在从事??中” 。常见的有:on sale(出售),on show(展出), on trial(受审) 。 例 Today some treasures are on show in the museum (= are being showed). 7. “out of+名词”结构;表示“超出??之外“,常见的有:out of control (控制不了), out of sight (超出视线之外) ,out of one’s reach(够不着), out of fashion(不流行)等。 例 The plane was out of control (can’t be controlled). 。 8. “within+名词”结构, “在??内、不超过??” 。 例 He took two days off within the teacher's permission 一.选择填空 1. In some countries , tea ______ with milk and sugar. A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. served 2. Great changes _____ in my hometown since 1980. A. have been taken place B. took place C. have taken place D. were taken place 3. The new type of car is going to ______ in three years. A. turn out B. be turned out C. has turned out D. have been turned out 4. The woman murdered her friend and ______ to ______. A. was sentenced , death B. sentencing , die

C. sentenced , death

D. sentenced , die

5. -Do you like the skirt ? -It _______ soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 6. Are you still here ? You were here an hour ago . Who ________ for ? A. are you waiting B. did you wait C. were you waiting D. do you wait 7. _____ to know Professor Zhang. A. He said B. I said C. He is said D. It says 8. -I want to sit at the table near the window. -Sorry , ______ already. A. it took B. it takes C. it is taking D. it has been taken 9. The letter _______ three days ago and it ______ yesterday. A. had post , had arrived B. was posted , arrived C. posted , arrived D. had been posted , was arrived 10. He told me that the final examination _______ next Thursday. A. is given B. will be given C. would have given D. would be given 11. Water ______ into ice. A. will changed B. must be changed C. should change D. can be changed 12. Plays ______ twice a month in that theatre. A. put on B. are put on C. was put on D. often put on 13. The birds _______ fly away last Saturday. A. let to B. is let to C. was let D. were let to 14. A strange sound ______ yesterday evening. A. was heard B. hears C. heard D. is heard 15. A beautiful bike _______ him by his classmates. A. sent to B. will sent to C. was sent to D. will be sent for 16. Miss Chen ______ just ______ to speak at the meeting. A. has …been asked B. has been …asked C. Have been … asked D. have …been asked 17. Meat _______ out in this shop . We can _________ now. A. have been sold , get nothing B. has been sold , get nothing C. has been sold , get some D. have been sold , get some 18. The new play _______ in theatre now . Why don’t you go in and see it ? A. is being shown B. is showing C. is shown D. shows 19. Can you tell _______ ? A. when did it happen B. when was it happened C. when it happened D. when it was happened 20. ______ the job ______ by Lucy or by John ? Tell me the truth , please. A. Has … finished B. Has …being finished C. Is …finish D. Has …been finished 二. 用所给动词的适当时态和语态填空 1. When _____ the first man-made satellite _______ (send) up into space ?

2. Last year vegetables ____ (grow)in the garden by Tom and he _____ (sell)them himself. 3. She ______ (help) him with his homework tomorrow evening. 4. How many magazines ______ (can borrow) in your library every week ? 5. John ______ (hear) to go upstairs two hours ago. 6. -Who ______ (save)her father ? -He ______ (save)by that policeman. 7. The doctor ______ (send for) because his grandpa was ill. 8. Mooncakes ______ (make) by his mother every year. ______ your mother _____ (make) mooncakes for you every year ? 9. Some toys ______ (buy) as a presents for these children last Monday. 10. _____ paper ______ (make) of wood ? 三. Correct these sentences. (改正下列句子) 1. This house built 100 years ago. 2. Football plays in most countries of the world. ___________________ 3. Why did the letter send to the wrong address? ___________________ 4. A garage is a place where cars repair. ____________________ 5. Where are you born? ____________________ 6. How many languages are speaking in Switzerland? _______________ 7. Somebody broke into our house but nothing stolen. _______________ 8. When was invented the bicycle? ____________________ 四. 填空(完成被动语态填空) 1. They often clean their classroom after school. (改为被动语态) Their classroom _____often ______ by them after school. 2. Li Lei gave Tom a new pen last week. (同上) A new pen _____ _______ _____ Tom last week. 3. A lot of people in China can speak English now. (同上) English ______ ____ ______ by a lot of people in China now. 4. I have learned English for about two years. (同上) English ______ ______ ______ for about two years. 5. They will publish these story-books next month. (同上) These story-books _____ _____ _____ next month. 一. 1-5 BCBAC 6-10 ACDBD 11-15 DBDAC 16-20 ABACD 二. 1. was sent 2. were grown , sold 3. will help 4. can be borrowed 5. was heard 6. saved , was saved 7. was sent for 8. are made , Does …make 9. were bought 10. Is …made 三 2. Football is played in most ? 3. Why was the letter sent to … 4. where cars are repaired 5. Where were you born ? 6. How many languages are spoken … 7. …but nothing was stolen.

8. When was the bicycle invented ? 四. 1. is cleaned 3. Can be spoken 2. was given by 4. has been learned


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