英语句子有长在短，有简有繁，从现象看，似乎千 变万化，难以捉摸，但从实质看，可以发现其内在联系， 找出其共同规律。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种 基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基 本句型，是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下： 基本句型一： Ｓ +Ｖ （主＋谓） 基本句型二： Ｓ +Ｖ +Ｐ （主＋系＋表） 基本句型三： Ｓ +Ｖ +Ｏ （
主＋谓＋宾） 基本句型四： Ｓ +Ｖ +IO +Ｏ（主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾） 基本句型五： Ｓ +Ｖ +Ｏ +Ｃ（主＋谓＋宾＋宾补）
此句型的句子有一个共同特 点，即句子的谓语动词都能表达 完整的意思。 这类动词叫做不及物动词， 后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状 语从句等。
1. Time 2. The moon 3. The man 4. We all 5. Everybody 6. I 7. They 8. He 9.He 10.They
flies. rose. cooked. eat, and drink. laughed? woke. talked for half an hour. walked yesterday is playing have gone
基本句型二 Ｓ +Ｖ +Ｐ（主＋系＋表）
此句型的句子有一个共同的特点：句子谓语动 词都不能表达一个完整的意思，必须加上一个表 明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语，才能表 达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词 分三类：状态系动词be(is /am /are/was/were), seem,appear,remain,stay,keep,prove（如：The rumor proved（=turned out) true. 这谣传结果是真 的。） 五大感官系动look,feel,smell,taste, sound；动态系动词get, grow, become,turn,go, grow, fall（进入某种状态如：ill,asleep)表示 变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表 的作用，其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。
1. This 2. The dinner 3. He 4. Everything 5. He 6. The book 7. The weather 8. His face
is smells(闻) fell looks is is became turned
an English dictionary. good. happy. different. tall and strong. interesting. warmer. red.
Ｓ +Ｖ +Ｏ（主＋谓＋宾）
此句型句子的共同特点是：谓 语动词都具有实义，都是主语产生 的动作，但不能表达完整的意思， 必须跟有一个宾语，即动作的承受 者，才能使意思完整。这类动词叫 做及物动词。
Ｓ 1. Who 2. She 3. He 8. He 5. They 6. Danny 7. I 4. He
Ｖ（实义动词） knows laugh at understands made ate likes want said
Ｏ(宾语) the answer? her. English. cakes. some apples. donuts. to have a cup of tea. "Good morning."
Ｓ +Ｖ +IO +Ｏ（主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾）
此句型的句子有一个共同特点：谓语 动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意 思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者， 另一个是动作的间接承受者。 通常这一间接承受者用一个介词来连 接，当动作的间接承受者在动作的直接承 受者之前时，这一介词往往被省略。
Ｓ 1. She 2. She 3. He 8. He 5. I 6. I 7. I 4. He
Ｖ（及 物） passed cooked brought bought showed gave told showed
ｏ（多 指人） him her husband you her him him me
Ｏ（多指物） a new dress. a delicious meal. a dictionary. nothing. my pictures. a hand. how to run the machine. that the bus was late.
Ｓ +Ｖ +Ｏ +Ｃ（主＋谓＋宾＋宾补）
此句型的句子的共同特点是： 动词虽然是及物动词，但是只跟 一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思， 必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾 语，才能使意思完整。
Ｓ 1. We 2. They 3. They 4. They 5. What 6. We 7. He 8. I
Ｖ（及物） Ｏ（宾语） keep painted call found makes saw asked saw the table the door supper the house him him me them
Ｃ（宾补） clean. green. dinner. dirty. sad? out. to come back soon. getting on the bus.
? 1.They work hard. 主 + 谓 ? 2.The flower is dead. 主+系+表 ? 3.Plants need water. 主+谓+宾 ? 4.He gives me some seeds. 主 + 谓 + 直宾 + 间宾 ? 5.We should keep the plants in the shade. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补 ? 6.Many animals live in trees. 主 + 谓
除了基本句型的成分不变外，通常是在这些成分的前 面或后面增加一些修饰语而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是 单词（主要是形容词、副词和数词），也可以是各种类型 的短语（主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语）。下 面以基本句型五（v+o+o.c）为例： We found the hall full. 我们发现礼堂坐满了。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师，在听一个重要报告。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report made by a comrade from the People's Daily on current affairs in East Europe. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师，在听人民日报的 一位同志作有关东欧局势的重要报告。
不同的动词使用的句型也不尽一样，因此在学习动词时，应 掌握动词的类型。以 get 为例：
SVP He's getting angry. SVO He got through the window. S VO You'll get a surprise. SVOC He got his shoes and socks wet. He got himself into trouble. S V O C He got her a splendid present. S V IO DO
I found the book easily.
I found the book easy.
I have to do something. 我得做点事。 I have something to do. 我有点事做。
1.We heard Mary singing an English
主语 谓语 宾语 补语 状语
2.Lily sang a song beautifully which she
learned from her English teacher when we passed her home on our way home.
Josephine Tesauro, left, active and healthy at 92, is part of a study trying to determine why some people age better than others, even when they are
Even though there may be a tendency in some rare families to live extraordinarily long, the genetic influence that emerged from the studies of twins was significantly less than much of the public and many scientists think it is.
1.Whom would you rather____ the car? —My father. A. have fix B. have to fix C. had fix D. have to be fixed 2.Was it 8 o’clock ___you heard someone____ at the door? A.when;knocking B.when;knock C.that;knocking D.that;knock 3.Was it in the room___ Mr. John lived____the exhibition was held? A.that;that B.where;where C.that;where D.where;that 4.—Is ________ you want to say? —Yes,________ that’s all I know. A.all what;yet B.which all;unless C.that all;× D.all that;so
5.Was it not until 1920___ regular radio broadcasts began? A.while B.which C.that D.since 6.___the house Mr Zhang has been broken into? A.When was it that B.When has C.Has D.Had 7.Did____ she was chosen make her very happy? A.what B.that C.which D.it 8.Was it at the air battle on June 8,1994,_____ was led by captain Johnson,________ Peter lost his life? A.when;that B.that;who C.which;that D.which;when
9.---Would you tell me ___you want your tea, with sugar or milk? ---Sugar, please. A.whether B.when C.what D.how 10.At last the soldiers reached ____the locals called the Golden Triangle. A.what B.which C.as D.one 11. “We’ll make public schools ____can be.”said the president in the speech. A.what they B.what it C.that they D.all it 12.The art center is ___used to be a factory, ____ millions of tractors were made. A.what, where B.where, where C.what, which D.where, which
13.The thought of going home to his family was all __kept him happy while he was working abroad . A.that B.what C.those D.which 14. I am ashamed, sir, that I wasted the many hours _____ I should have studied in class. A. while B. as C. once D. when 15. Teachers should create an environment_____ children are taught how to solve problems of learning by themselves. A.why B.where C.which D.whose
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