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高考英语语法复习动词词义辨析


高考英语语法复习动词词义辨析

动词辨义主要指:1、形状相同的动词之间辨义。如:lie, lay; hanged, hung; rise, raise; sit, seat 等。 意义相近的动词之间辨义。 borrow, 2、 如: lend; speak, say, talk; hope, wish 等。3、动词与其它词形相近、意义相 似的词的辨义。如:ad

vise, advice; cost, worth; pass, past 等。4、意义 不同,但容易混淆的动词的辨义。如:explain, say; discover, invent, uncover; find, find out 等。5、某些常用动词的习惯用法的辨义。如: ask, give, call, make, find, get, keep, want, see, hear 等。6、某些常用动 词短语的辨义。如:give in, give up, turn on, turn off, turn down 等。 (一)易混动词 1、lay(放), lie(躺)与 lie(说谎) :这三个易混动词构成见下表: 放 lay laid laid laying 及物动词 躺 lie lay lain lying 不及物动词 说谎 lie lied lied lying 不及物动词 2、rise 和 raise:rise 是不及物动词,其过去式是 rose,过去分词是 risen,而 raise 是及物动词,是规则动词。 3、hear 与 listen to:hear 侧重点是听到,听见什么,而 listen to 是侧 重于听的倾向,但 hear 用于无意中的听见,而 listen to 却用于集中注 意力的听。 4、see, watch 和 look:see 用作看电影,剧目;watch 则用作看电视比 赛,而 watch 还有在旁观看之意。如:Are you going to play or only watch?;look 一般用作不及物动词,只是当盯着某人看时用作及物动 词,如:The little boy looked me in the face.(小男孩直盯着我的脸。 ) 5、wind 和 wound:wind 意为蜿蜒而行,其过去式与过去分词都是 wound,而动词原形 wound 意为伤害,其过去式、过去分词都是 wounded。 6、hang 的用法:hang 有两个意思:一为悬挂,是不规则动词,过去 式、过去分词都是 hung;二为绞刑,是规则动词,其过去式、过去 分词都是 hanged。 7、hear 的过去分词 born 与 borne:bear 作为出生讲有两个过去分 词 born,borne。只有当 be+born…短语后没有 by 介词短语时,才可 用 born。如:He was born in Shanghai. 而作它用时要用 borne。如:She has borne five children. 但如果作忍受讲,则一律用 borne。 8、sit 与 seat: seat 为及物动词时是作容纳讲, 只是表示一动作。 sit seat 如果表示就座时要用 be seated。 They were seated at their desks. 如: 或用 seat oneself, 比如:I seated myself in the armchair. 9、borrow, lend 与 keep:借入英文中用 borrow,借出用 lend,但 这两个词都是截止性动词或瞬间动词,不能用于长时间的动作,所以 我能借多久应用 keep。 10、win 与 beat:win 作胜、赢讲时其后应接,a game, an argument, a battle, a prize, a contest, a race, a bet,但不能接人,如果接人则有另 外的含意。如:I have won him. 即我已说服他了,我赢得他的好感。 而 beat 是及物动词为击败、胜过讲,直接接人、队。 11、steal 与 rob:steal 为偷。rob 为抢,其用法不同。steal 其后接 物+from+某人、某地,而 rob 其后接人+of+抢的物品。 12、fit 与 suit:fit 与 suit 均可作合适讲,但英文中却用在不同的

地方。 fit 用于尺寸大小的合适, suit 则多用于颜色式样的合适。 如 而 13、take, bring 与 fetch:英文中拿三个词,即拿来,拿去,去取 然后回来(即双程)。所以拿来,带来是 bring,拿去带走是 take,而去 取回来是 fetch。 14、shut 与 close:shut 与 close 有时是可以互换的,但有些地方则 不可这样做。如:在正式场合多用 close,而在命令,态度粗暴的场合 则用 shut。如:Shut your mouth!(闭嘴);又如:Shut up. 在指铁路、公路 交通关闭或停止使用的场合,则要用 close。 15、answer 与 reply:作为回答讲 answer 是及物动词,如作不及物 动词, 则意义不同, answer for, 如 意为向某人或向某事负责。 reply 而 作回答讲是不及物动词,后跟宾语时,要加上 to。 16、reach,arrive 与 get to:reach 当到达讲是及物动词,而当延伸 和拿得到、拿不到时讲,则是不及物动词。作到达讲时还有 get to, arrive(at/in)。 17、cost,spend 与 take:英文中花费有三个词 cost, spend, take, 但各有不同用法。cost 作 “花费”讲,主语不能是人,而 spend 的主语 不能是物。如: she spent all his money on stamps.而 take 作花费讲时, 可用人也可用物做主语。更多的用法是用形式主语 it,如 It takes me three hours to finish this work. 18、lost, gone 与 missing:作补足语时意为丢失、不见了,可以用 lost, gone,但要用 miss 时则不能用 missed, 而要用 missing. 19、have on, wear, put on 及 dress:作穿衣服讲的动词分为状态和 动作两种。have on 与 wear 作穿着状态讲;但 have on 不用进行时态, 而 wear 则常要用进行时态。put on 是动作,但 dress 既可用作状态, 又可用作穿衣动作,但用作状态时要用其过去分词作形容词如:He was dressed in a b1ue suit 作动作讲时,其后不要接衣物而要接反身代 词或表示人、物的名词,如:I dress my children in the morning every day. 20、begin 与 start begin 与 Start 均可作开始讲,并无多少区别,同样可接不定式或 动名词,但在下面的场合多要用 Start:1)机器的开动发动;2)旅途的 开始。如:we shou1d have to start early because there was a lot traffic in the street。 21、allow 与 permit allow 与 permit 其后直接接动作时要用动名词, 如接人后再接动词 则要用不定式,所以用在被动语态时一定要用不定式。如:People are not allowed to spit. 22、find 与 found find 找到的过去式和过去分词都是 found,而 found 是动词“建立” 的原形,其过去式和过去分词是 founded,founded,如:The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. 23、speak, say, talk 与 tell 英文中讲有 4 个词,speak, say, talk, tell,但其中 speak, talk 多用作 不及物动词,但 speak 后加语言名词时则用作及物动词,如:Please speak English。而 say 与 tell 是及物动词,其中 tell 常用作接双宾语, 如:Tell me a story。但也有些特定的习惯用法,如:在作讲实话,讲

谎言, 表示时间常用单宾语而不能换其它词, My watch was broken. 如: It couldn’t tell time correctly。在书信、便条、海报上写着英文应为 It said …。在作辨别不同讲时是 tell,如:Can you tell me the difference between the two?而讲别人好坏话时用 speak,如:The father always speaks well of his son.。 24、excuse me 与 sorry excuse me 用于来打拢对方前以提醒对方注意的提示语,而 sorry 则表达因作了某事向对方道歉。 25、care for 与 care to do care for 其后要接不定式时则要省去 for 或换用名词, Would you 如: care for a cup of tea?但 care for 作照顾讲时与 look after 相同。 26 、 与 名 词 易 混 的 动 词 有 : advise(v.), advice (n.); accept(v.), except(prep.); pass(v.), past(prep.); bathe(v.), bath(n.); breathe(v.), breath(n.); choose(v.), choice(n.); succeed(v.), success(n.); 27、意义相近的动词:ring 摇铃,打铃,电话铃响,strike 专指敲 钟,打几点,撞击;suggest 提出实验性或推测性的建议,advice 表示 对经验不足人的一种忠告;look 由视觉得出的印象,seem 暗示一定 根据的判定,appear 外表印象而实际或结果并非如此;stay 停留,逗 留,remain 遗物,某物被取走一部分后剩余部分;discover(发现) 找到早已存在但未被人所了解的东西,invent(发明)研制出不存在 的东西;remember 记忆起以前经历或知道的事,remind 提醒某人做 某事。 28、动词 + 副词 + 介词:catch up with, look forward to, come up with, keep up with, go in for, look down on, get on with … 29、动词 + 介词 to 的词组有:come to, stick to, object to, agree to, turn to, attend to, belong to, devote to, reply to … 30、 in 相结合的动词有: 与 give in, hand in, bring in, drop in, succeed in, take in, check in, engage in, fill in, trade in … (二)动词短语 动词短语是指动词和介词、副词或名词的习惯搭配。有关动词短 语的测试点主要涉及结构上选用恰当的搭配词, 不同搭配含意上的辨 异及不同短语的辨异。需掌握以下要点: 1、根据动词短语的不同特点,掌握其运用规律。 (I)动词+副词(不及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们 都已离去,哈里出现了。 (2)动词+副词(及物) Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关 掉。 注意: ①如果宾语较长, 就应避免把副词同动词分开。 She turned 如: off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。 ②如果宾语是人称代词, 只能放在动词和副词之间。 She gave them 如: away. 她送掉了它们。 (3)动词+介词(及物) I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。 注意:①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。②动词短语可以

放在句子或从句末尾。如:She's got more work than she can cope with. 她的工作多得使她应付不了。 (4)动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。 注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三 种搭配都是及物的, 如变成被动语态, 不可漏掉介词。 this way both In grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉 after) 这样一 来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。 2、熟悉同一动词和不同介词或副词、不同的动词和同一介词或同一 副词搭配在意义上的差异。 (1)同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上的差异。如:①hear from 收到…的来信,hear of 听说。 ②look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找。 (2)同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上的差异。如:①ring back 回电话, ring off 挂断电话, ring up 打电话 ②put away 放好, put on 穿, 上演, put up 挂起,举起。 (3)不同动词和同一介词搭配时,在意义上的差异。如:look for 寻 找, call for 去取(某物), 去接(某人), ask for 请求, wait for 等候, send for 派人去叫。 (4)不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上的差异。如:①break out 发生,爆炸, carry out 进行,开展, go out 熄灭, hand out 分发, let out 放出, look out 当心, sell out 卖完, set out 出发, take out 取出, work out 算出。②break down 出毛病, come down 落下来, get down 下车, take down 取下, write down 写下。 练习、动词词义辨析 1.I can hardly ____ the difference between the two words. A. point B.speak C.say D.tell 2.I ____ you will write me back soon. A. wish B.hope C.want D.need 3.I asked him to ____ me a few minutes so that I could have a word with him.A. spend B. spare C.save D. share 4. Father will not ____ us to touch anything in his room when he is away. A. have B.let C. agree D. allow 5.I learned to ____ a bicycle as a small boy. A. ride B. drive C. operate D.run 6.I can ____ you to the railway station in my car. A. send B.pick C.ride D.take 7.If no one ____ the phone at home, ring me at work. A. answers B. returns C. replies D. receives 8.1 don't know the restaurant, but it's____ to be quite a good one. A.said B.told C.spoken D.talked 9. These boxes are too heavy for your mother, you'd better____ them for her.A. bring B. carry C.take D. fetch 10. There was a fight in the street yesterday. Three people were seriously ____.A. hurt B. killed C. broken D.cut 11. Careless driving ____ a lot of highway accidents.

A. affects B. gives C. causes D. results 12. I've____my umbrella in the office and I'll have to fetch it. A. forgot B.left C. remained D.lost 13 .The doctor says a few days' rest in a quiet place will ____ you a lot of good.A. make B.do C.give D.get 14. His heart ____ fast when the teacher asked him a difficult question. A. beat B.hit C. jumped D.ran 15. The cooking chicken ____ very good. A. smells B. feels C. sounds D. tastes 16. Most children stay at home until they ____ school age. A. get B.come C. reach D. arrive 17. A single mistake here could ____ you your life. A. pay B.take C. spend D.cost 18. The boy works hard. I____ him to succeed in the exam. A. like B. expect C. think D.need 19. We ____ each other the best of luck in the examination. A. hoped B. wanted C. expected D. wished 20. I'm afraid Mr Brown isn't in. Would you like to____a message? A.give B.leave C.carry D.take 21. Do you know the girl ____ a red coat? A. dressed in B. had on C. wore D. put on 22. The assistant suggested Mary ____ the blue skirt. A. buying B. bought C. to buy D. could buy 23. Our teacher suggested Wang Lin ____ to America for further study. A. should send B. would be sent C. sending D.be sent 24. Old Mr Jackson insisted ____ to the Friendship Hospital. A. on being sent B. to send C. on sending D. being sent 25. The father insisted that their son Tom ____ clever enough to study music.A. be B. should be C.was D. would be 26.I ____ the television set for 1,500 yuan. A. bought B.paid C.cost D. spent 27.I ____ play football than basketball. A. would rather B. had better C. like better D. prefer 28. - What are you doing? - I'm looking____ the children. They should be back for lunch now.A.after B.at C.for D.up 29. The sports meet will be ____ till next week because of the bad weather.A. put off B. put away C. put up D. put down 30.I really don't want to go to the party, but I don't see how I can ____ it. A. get back from B. get out of C. get away D. get off 31. Readers can ____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.A. get over B. get in C; get along D. get through 32. Many foreigners ____ the Great Wall as the World's Seventh Wonder. A. look at B. look for C. look around D. look on 33.1 can' t hear clearly. Please ____ the radio ____ a little. A.tum;on B.tum;off C.tum;down D.tum;up 34. Thirty people were expected, but only twenty - four ____.

A. turned in B. turned up C. turned to D. turn up 35. The child is running a high fever. We must____ a doctor at once. A. send in B. send out C. send for D. send up 36. I'm going to a pop concert with Tom. He'll ____ me at eight and we'll go there togethe;A. call for B. call in C. call on D. call up 37. It is often easier to make plans than it is to ____. A. carry on them B. carry out them C. carry them on D. carry them out 38. Your composition must be ____ after class. A. handed to B. handed out C. handed in D. handed over 39. A new school was ____ in the village last year. A. held up B. set up C. sent up D. brought up 40. - When did the plane ____? -At 2 o'clock. A. take off' B. take up C. take away D. take place 41. ____! There's danger ahead. A. Look at B.Look up C.Look on D.Look out 42.Let's____ to clean the house. It's too dirty. A.set about B.set out C.set off D.set down 43.I used to ____ my teacher when I was in Beijing. A. call in . B. call at C. call for D. call on 44. He ____ from his family and settled down in America. A. broke away B. broke out C. broke up D. broke in 45. He had to ____ his father's business after his death, though he didn't really want to continue it. A. carry out B. pick up C. set up D. carry on 46. The robbers had no trouble in ____ the bank, but when they came out ,the police were waiting for them. A. breaking out B. breaking into C. breaking up D. breaking away from 47. Autumn is coming. The farmers are busy____ the crops in the fields. A. moving in B. sharing in C. handing in D. getting in 48. All the students ____ their holidays to take part in planting trees. A. gave out B. gave in C. gave up D. gave away 49. He was always the last to leave in order to clean up the workroom and ____ the tools.A. put away B. take away C. push aside D. look after 50.____ this article and tell me what you think of it. A. Look up B. Look on C. Look into D. Look through 语法复习:动词词义辨析 1~5 DBBDA 6~10 CAABA 11~15 CBBAA 16~20 CDBDB 21~25 AADAC 26~30 AACAB 31~35 CDCBC 36~40 ADCBA 41~45 DBDAD 46~50 BDCAD


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