Module9 Unit 2 Witnessing time
Period 1 Teaching aims and demands:
1. To let students discuss historic sites and get them interested in famous historic sites. 2. To practice student
s’ spoken English
Welcome to the unit
Difficult and key points:
1. 2. To practise students’ spoken English Names of historic sites.
Step 1 Brainstorming 1. Can you name some famous Chinese historic sites you are familiar with? The Forbidden City (Imperial Palace); The Summer Palace, or Garden of Ease and Harmony ;The Ming Tombs; The ruins of Yuanmingyuan 2. Nowadays many historic sites have been damaged, leaving only part of the ruins. Do you think it is necessary to rebuild them? Step 2 Sharing information Group work. Look at the four pictures at page 1. Let’s study them one by one and try to discuss some questions in groups of four. Picture 1 When was the Colosseum built? (In the 1st century BC) What was it used for? (It was an amphitheatre or arena that was used for displays of combat and wild-beast shows.) How big is it? (It was designed to hold 50,000 spectators.) Picture 2 What is Suzhou famous for? (It is famous for its splendid scenery, especially its classical gardens.) Have you visited the classical gardens there? If so, what did you see? Of all the gardens, which impressed you most? (The Lingering Garden impressed me most. Before I visited the garden, I couldn’t help wondering why it was given that name. Only then did I understand the real meaning. Everyone was so fascinated by the beautiful scenery there that they lingered in the garden and were reluctant to leave.) Picture3 Where was the temple complex built? (In Cambodia) When was it built? (In the early years of the 12th century.) Why was it built? (It was built to honor the Hindu god Vishnu.) Picture 4 When and where was the Cathedral built? (In Moscow between 1555 and 1560.) Do you know anything special about the Cathedral? (The Cathedral consists of nine individual churches, each of which is crowned by a unique tower. The central tower is surrounded by eight-point light for mankind.) What do you feel when seeing the church? Are the towers in harmony with each other? Step3: Discussion: 1. Do you know anything about the historic sites in the pictures? 2. Do you think it is a good idea to rebuild historic sites that have been damaged or destroyed?
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Why or why not? 3. Which modern buildings do you think will be famous in 1,000 years? Sample answers: 1. Of all the four historic sites, I know the classical gardens of Suzhou best. I have been to Suzhou twice and paid a visit to the classical gardens. They are so well designed and built that they look really natural. Of all the gardens, the Humble Administrator ’s Garden, the Lingering Garden, the Master-of-Nets Garden and the Mountain Villa are the most famous. Whenever you are there, you’ll be fascinated by Suzhou’s splendid scenery. It is no wonder that Suzhou is called the earthly paradise. 2. In my point of view, it is a really good idea to rebuild historic sites that have been damaged or destroyed. Historic sites reflect the history and culture of a particular period, which helps people remember what has happened before so that they will not forget the past. Besides, rebuilding historic sites may promote local tourism. In turn, this may improve the local environment and preserve its natural beauty. In conclusion, I strongly recommend historic sites be rebuilt. 3. I think that the National Stadium in Beijing for the 2008 Olympics will be famous in 1,000 years. There’s no doubt that the venue will be a landmark in the city of Beijing. Not only can it accommodate a maximum of 100,000 spectators, but also its nest-like appearance from the outside reminds people of getting back to nature. That’s why people gave it the nickname, “the Bird Nest”. Your first sight of the design will surprise you. It’s so unique that you cannot take your eyes off it. Step4: Homework: Prepare the Reading part.
Words and expressions
While the pace of change in the modern world gets faster and faster, people are becoming more and more aware of the need to preserve the world’s cultural heritage. 1) while conj. ① during the time that, or at the same time as: 当…..时候，在此期间 I read it while you were drying your hair. While I was in Italy I went to see Alessandro. I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner. "I'm going to the post office." "While you're there can you get me some stamps?" ② while (although) despite the fact that; although: 虽然 While I accept that he's not perfect in many respects, I do actually quite like the man. While I fully understand your point of view, I do also have some sympathy with Michael's. ③ while compared with the fact that; but: 而，但是 He gets fifty thousand pounds a year while I get a meagre twenty! Tom is very extrovert and confident while Katy's shy and quiet. I do every single bit of housework while he just does the dishes now and again. noun. while (lenghth of time) 一会儿 （一点）时间 a while a length of time: You were there quite a while (= a long time), weren't you? "When did that happen?" "Oh, it was a while ago (= a long time ago).
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I haven't seen him for a while (= for a long time). I'll be fine in a while (= soon). 2) aware adj. [after verb] ① 明白，意识到，觉察到 [+ that] I wasn't even aware that he was ill. Were you aware of the risks at the time? She was well (= very) aware that he was married. I suddenly became aware of (= started to notice) him looking at me. ② 感兴趣的，见闻广博的 to be ecologically/politically aware n. awareness [U] Public awareness of the problem will make politicians take it seriously. Environmental awareness has increased dramatically over the past decade
Period 2 Reading
Teaching aims and demands:
The Acropolis now
1. To get students to know the general history of Acropolis, the damage done to the Acropolis and the ways undertaken to preserve this historic site. 2. To teach students how to recognize reference markers , 3. To improve students’ reading comprehension.
Difficult and key points:
1. To get students to know the general history of Acropolis, the damage done to the Acropolis and the ways undertaken to preserve this historic site. 2. The Reading strategy
Step 1: Lead-in Let’s enjoy some pictures, which country or city can you think of when seeing the pictures? (Athens, the capital city of Greece) Have you ever been there? Then do you know what the greatest symbol of Athens is? Step 2: Fast reading for general ideas Go through the passage as quickly as possible and try to find answers to the three questions in part A. Just focus on and identify the information needed to answer these questions. Answers A 1. In the 5th century BC 2. It was made of marble. 3. UNESCO Step 3: Detailed reading for important information 1. Let’s read the passage a second time and complete Parts C1 and C2 on page 20. 2. Listen to the tape and try to complete Part D and Part E. 3. Read the text again and choose the best answers according to the text: 1. Which of the followings was not a Greek invention? A. The Western alphabet. B. Roman alphabet. C. Architecture. D. Marathon 2. Why was the Acropolis built on the hill called the Sacred Rock in the centre of the city? A. To associate ancient Greek civilization with the capital city of Athens. B. It was constructed at a high altitude above the city in honour of Athens. C. Because there are three main temples to Athens. D. Because it was convenient for everyone to get to and could be seen from every past of the city.
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3. In which year did the Acropolis receive a World Heritage listing from UNESO? A. 1835 B. 1975 C. 1987 D. 2004 Keys: CDC Step 4: Post-reading activities 1. Pair work: Please introduce the causes of the damage done to the Acropolis and the ways to protect it to other group members, with the help of the chart in Part C2 Discuss the following question: Why do you think it is necessary and important to preserve World Heritage sites?...... 2. Let’s come to Part F. Work in pairs and share your opinions with each other. 3. Please do Parts A1 and A2 on page 110 in Workbook to practise using some words and phrases. Step 5: Language points: 1. No one has had a greater impact on Western civilization than the ancient Greeks.(page 18,lines 1-3) 古希腊人对西方文明的影响无人可及。 impact noun [C usually singular; U] 影响，冲击 1）The impact of the crash reduced the car to a third of its original length. The bullet explodes on impact (= when it hits another object). 2）a powerful effect that something, especially something new, has on a situation or person: The anti-smoking campaign had had/made quite an impact on young people. impact verb 对...发生影响 to have an influence on something Falling export rates have impacted (on) the country's economy quite considerably. 2．They were responsible for many advances in philosophy, science, mathematics, art, architecture, theatre, politics and sport. 古希腊人在哲学、科学、数学、艺术、建筑、戏剧、 政治学和体育方面取得了很多进展。(page 18, lines 3-6) responsible 1) responsible (blame) adj 有责任的，应负责任的 be responsible for sth/doing sth Who is responsible for this terrible mess? Last month's bad weather was responsible for the crop failure. 2) responsible (duty) adj be responsible for sb/sth/doing sth Paul is directly responsible for the efficient running of the office. Her department is responsible for overseeing the councils. be responsible to sb/sth 对自己的行动向上级或主管负责 In Australia, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers are responsible to the House of Representatives. 3) responsible (good judgement) adj 可信赖的， （人）负责任的 having good judgment and the ability to act correctly and make decisions on your own: a hardworking and responsible employee Let's stay calm and try to behave like responsible adults. Many big companies are now becoming more responsible about the way they operate. 反义词 irresponsible. responsibility n [C or U] 职责，义务 [+ to do] It's her responsibility to ensure the project finishes on time. She takes her responsibilities as a nurse very seriously.
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Terrorists have claimed responsibility for (= stated that they caused) yesterday's bomb attack. The minister took/accepted full responsibility for (= admitted that he was to blame for) the disaster and resigned. have responsibility Who has responsibility here? Jenny, you have responsibility for clearing up the room after the class. He has no sense of responsibility. responsibly adv 负责任地 3.The Western or Roman alphabet is a Greek invention, as is the marathon, which is a long distance race named for a Greek messenger who ran from Marathon to Athens to report a victory at the battle of Marathon in 490BC.西方字母表或罗马字母表是希腊人的发明。 马 拉松比赛也是，这种长跑是为纪念一位希腊信使而命名的. (page18, lines 6-11) 1) as ⑴ as (COMPARISON) She'll soon be as tall as her mother. I can't run as fast as you. skin as soft as a baby's It's not as good as it used to be. ⑵ as (FOR THIS PURPOSE) prep 担任…，作为；如同… She works as a waitress. I meant it as a joke. It could be used as evidence against him. ⑶ conj ① (BECAUSE) 因为…,由于 As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel. You can go first as you're the oldest ② (WHILE) 当….时候；一面…一面 I saw him as I was coming into the building. He gets more attractive as he gets older ③ (ALTHOUGH) 虽然，尽管 Angry as he was, he couldn't help smiling ⑷ As+ be or do+subject（通常后接 be 或 do +主语) 也一样 she’s unusually tall, as are both her parents. He’s a doctor, as was his wife before she had children. as 常用词组 act as sth (JOB) phrasal verb 担任，充当 He was asked to act as an advisor on the project. look on/upon sb as sth phrasal verb 把某人看作 We looked on her as a daughter. I've lived there so long I look on the town as my home. as to/for 至于，就…而言 As to where we'll get the money from, we'll talk about that later. as it is /was 事实上 We were lucky not to be injured in the train accident. As it was, the first and the last car were smashed. as it comes （UK） 随便 "How do you like your coffee?" "Oh, as it comes." as far as sb /sth is/are concerned As far as I'm concerned, feng shui is a load of rubbish as/so far as I know 就我所知 He isn't coming today, as far as I know. as follows 如下（ 用来列举） The winners are as follows - Woods, Smith and Cassidy. as good as 几乎 The decorating is as good as finished - I just need to finish off the painting. (it's) just as well (that) 幸好, 无妨
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2) name…for.. name noun ① [C] 名，名字，姓名 Please write your full (= complete) name and address on the form. The students were listed by name and by country of origin. ② [C usually singular] 声誉，名声 She went to court to clear her name (= prove that the bad things said about her were not true). They're trying to restore the good name of the manufacturer. ③ [C]有名的人，名人 It seemed like all the big names in football were there. name vt ①给(人)取名， 给…命名 [+双宾语] We named our dogs 'Shandy' and 'Belle'. A man named Dennis answered the door. name … after/for 以…名字给…取名 He named his daughter after /for his grandmother. ② 说出…的名字, 举出…的名称 In the first question you had to name three types of monkey. ③ 确定，指定 Just name the time and I'll be there on the dot. Name your conditions/terms/price. ④ 名(某人)(为…),任命 Ms Martinez has been named (as) (= she will be) the new Democratic candidate by/of the name of sth 名叫…的, 以…之名 I've got to talk to a professor by the name of Bin Said. in the name of sb (ALSO in sb's name)凭… 之名， 对…发誓; 以…名义， 凭…权威; 做为…. 代理，代表 I've come to collect my tickets - I reserved them by phone yesterday in the name of Tremin. The house is in my wife's name. under the name of 以(不是本名的)…名字 Her detective stories were written under the name of Kramer call sb names 谩骂某人 4. In particular, we associate ancient Greek civilization with the capital city of Athens, the greatest symbol of which is the Acropolis. 我们尤其将古希腊文明与其首都雅典城相联系， 而雅典最伟大的标志就是雅典卫城。 （page 18, lines 18-20） 1) particular particular (SPECIAL) adjective [before noun] 特定的, 特别的,特殊的 She wanted a particular type of cactus. "Why did you ask?" "Oh, no particular reason, just making conversation." particular adj (NOT EASILY SATISFIED) (喜好)很讲究的, 很挑剔的, 难以取悦的 He's very particular about the kitchen - everything has to be perfectly clean and in its place. She's very particular about what she eats particulars pl 详情，详细的事实 There's a form for you to note down all your particulars. particularly adv 特别地, 格外地 We're particularly interested to hear from people who speak two or more European languages. in particular 特别，尤其 Are you looking for anything in particular? 2) associate …with…
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associate sth with sth phrasal verb 把(某事物与他事物)联想在一起 The cancer risks associated with smoking have been well documented. associate with sb phrasal verb 与…为友; 结交；交往 I don't want my children associating with drug-addicts and alcoholics. 5．The Acropolis was constructed in the 5th century BC at a high altitude above the city in honour of Athena, the goddess of Athens. 雅典卫城海拔高于雅典城， 是为了纪念雅典女神雅 典娜于公元前五世纪兴建的。(page 18, lines 20-24) honour (RESPECT) UK, US honor noun [U] 1) 信义,信用, 道义心 a man of honour We fought for the honour of our country. 2) in honour of sb/sth 为向…表敬意,为纪念…, 为祝贺 a banquet in honour of the president honour UK, US honor vt 给予(某人)荣誉/光荣 He was honoured for his bravery. FORMAL We are honoured (= proud and happy) to have you here tonight. honourable UK, US honorable adjective 高尚的,可敬的,值得尊敬的 honourably UK, US honorably adverb 了不起地, 卓越地, 高洁地 They acted honourably and returned the wallet. be on your honour OLD-FASHIONED 为了名誉必须做… do sb the honour of doing sth FORMAL 给予某人…的荣幸，做…而给予某人面子 Would you do me the honour of accompanying me to the New Year Ball? 6. It was convenient for everyone to get to, and because it was on the hill, the Acropolis could be seen from every part of the city. 它位于市中心的山上， 这样便于所有人参观，而且它在 山顶，因此从城市的每一个角落都可以看到它。 （page 18, lines 26-30） convenient adj ① suitable for your purposes and needs and causing the least difficulty:方便的, 便利的 Our local shop has very convenient opening hours. A bike's a very convenient way of getting around. [+ that] It's very convenient that you live near the office. [+ to do] I find it convenient to be able to do my banking by phone. What time would it be convenient for me to come round? 反义词 inconvenient. ② near or easy to get to or use: 近而方便的 a very convenient bus service Our new flat is very convenient for (= near to) the kids' school. conveniently adv 方便地,便利地 The house is conveniently situated near the station and the shops. convenience noun [U] 方便，便利 I like the convenience of living so near work. Just for convenience, I'm going to live at my mother's place until my new house is ready. 7. However, throughout history, few ancient monuments have completely avoided damage. 但历史上几乎没有哪座古代纪念建筑能完好无损。(page 18, lines 45-46) 1) throughout throughout preposition, adverb 遍及于,到处; 整个…期间,从头到尾 People throughout the country are out of work. He yawned throughout the performance. The school has been repainted throughout.
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all over everywhere 到处，各处; 正像所说的人一样 we looked all over for the ring. I’m aching all over after the match. That sounds like my sister all over. all through from the beginning to the end of 自始至终,,从头到尾 2) avoid avoid vt 逃避…,避免…，回避… I try to avoid supermarkets on Saturdays - they're always so busy. [+doing] I try to avoid going shopping on Saturdays. The report studiously avoided any mention of the controversial plan. I left the pub to avoid a fight (= prevent a fight from happening). 8. In 1458, the Turks defeated the Greeks and seized control of Athens. 1458 年土耳其人打败 了希腊人并夺取了雅典. (page 18, lines 52-53) seize control of 夺取 control noun 控制,支配 [C or U] She's got no control over that child - it's terrible. The dictator took/seized control of the country in 1933. He felt he was losing control of events. You need to stay in control of your emotions. The car skidded and went out of control, crashing into an oncoming truck. There was nothing we could do about it - the situation was out of/beyond/outside our control. 9. The last major destruction of this kind occurred with the theft of many of the best sculptures in 1801, when an……最近一次人为的重大破坏发生于 1801 年，许多最精美的雕 像遭窃 (page 18, lines 60-62) occur occur (HAPPEN) vi -rr- (意想不到的事情)发生 An accident involving over ten vehicles has occurred in the east-bound lane. If any of these symptoms occur while you are taking the medicine, consult your doctor immediately. occur (EXIST) vi + adverb or preposition] -rr- 存在，出现 Violence of some sort seems to occur in every society. Minerals occur naturally in the earth's crust. occur to sb phrasal verb (想法、念头等)想起，浮现 The thought did occur to me. [+ that] It never even occurred to us that he hadn't been invited. Does it never occur to you that I might like to be on my own occasionally? 10．In 1816, these sculptures were transferred to the British museum. They are still on display there under the title of ‘Elian Marble’, and this has caused some friction between Greece and Britain as the Greek government has never given up asking for the return of these marble statues. 1816 年， 这些雕塑又被转移到大英博物馆。 如今它们仍然在那里展出， 冠名为“埃尔金大理石雕塑” 。这导致了希腊和英国之间的摩擦，因为希腊政府一直要求英 国归还这些大理石雕像。(page 19, lines 65-73) 1) be transferred to transfer (MOVE) verb -rr① vt 运送，转送，迁移； （使） （某人）换乘，改乘
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He has been transferred to a psychiatric hospital. We were transferred from one bus into another. Police are investigating how ? 20 million was illegally transferred from/out of the Trust's bank account. The aim is to transfer power/control/responsibility to self-governing regional councils. I'll be upstairs, so could you transfer my phone calls (= arrange that I can receive them) up there please? ② [I or T; usually + adv or prep]（使） （某人）转校／转学 After a year he transferred to University College, Dublin. Some very high-profile British players have transferred to clubs abroad. He threatened to give up football if his club didn't transfer him (= sell him to another team). ③ [T]让渡（权利、财产等） She transferred the house to her daughter before she died. 2) on display display (SHOW) verb [T] 展示，表露或陈列某事物 The British traditionally tend not to display much emotion in public. display noun [C or U] 展示，陈列，显示，显露 There's never much (of a) display of affection between them. on display being displayed 被展示，被陈列 A collection of photographs was display in the hall. put sth on display 展出某物 3) give up give up (sth) phrasal verb 放弃 [+ ing form of verb] I've given up trying to help her. 4) ask for 请求，要求 ask for sth (PRAISE) She's great to work for - I really couldn't ask for a better boss. ask for sb (SPEAK TO) phrasal verb A young man was here asking for you this morning. 11. In 1832, Greece was recognized as an independent country ……1832 年希腊获得独立。 (page 19, lines 73-74) be recognized as 被承认是。 。 。 recognize (KNOW), UK USUALLY verb [T] ① 认出（旧识） ， ，认识，识出，辩出 I hadn't seen her for 20 years, but I recognized her immediately. Doctors are trained to recognize the symptoms of different diseases. recognize (ACCEPT), UK USUALLY ② [T]正式承认，认可 [+ (that)] He sadly recognized (that) he would die childless. You must recognize the seriousness of the problems we are facing. ③[T often passive] 承认（功绩等） ，赏识；感谢 The Prime Minister recognized her services to her country by awarding her an MBE. recognized adj 为世间所公认的，为人们所承认的 Professor Jones is a recognized authority on ancient Egypt. Violence in schools is a recognized problem. recognition noun [U] 1)（正式的）承认，认可，认知 It's a new country, hoping for diplomatic recognition from the international community. [+ that] There's a growing recognition that this country can no longer afford to be a nuclear
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power. 2) 承认（功绩等） ，感谢，表扬 Ella complained that the company never gave her any recognition for her work. He was presented with a gold watch in recognition of (= to show appreciation of) his years as club secretary. 12. Unfortunately, some of the construction that was carried out over the following 100 years was not very successful. 遗憾的是，此后一百多年进行的一些修复工作并不是很成功。 carry out carry sth out phrasal verb [M] 完成, 实现, 贯彻, 执行 Nigel is carrying out research on early Christian art. Don't blame me, I'm only carrying out my orders/instructions. 13. In a gesture to help preserve history, the Greek government established a committee in 1975 to undertake the complete, professional restoration of the Acropolis. 为保存历史， 希腊 政府于 1975 年成立了一个委员会来负责卫城全面、专业的修复。 （page 19, lines 92-96） undertake (DO) ① vt undertook, undertaken SLIGHTLY FORMAL 承担（工作，责任） ，承办；着手，进行， 企图 undertake (PROMISE) ② vt undertook, undertaken FORMAL 保证，担保 [+ to do] She undertook not to publish the names of the people involved. [+ that] The government undertook that the buildings would not be redeveloped. Students are required to undertake simple experiments. undertaking noun [C] The construction of the tunnel is a large and complex undertaking. undertaking noun [C] FORMAL [+ that] FORMAL The manager gave a written undertaking that no one would lose their job. 14. After that, much progress was made in reconstruction the monument, particularly with the large amount of work in preparation for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. 此后，遗址修 复工作取得了很大的进展，尤其是为准备 2004 年雅典奥运会做大量工作。(page 19, lines 98-102) 1) make progress in progress noun [U] 前进，进行；进步上进，发展 a. Technological progress has been so rapid over the last few years. I'm not making much progress with my Spanish. The doctor said that she was making good progress (= getting better after a medical operation or illness). b. FORMAL in progress 进行中 Repair work is in progress on the south-bound lane of the motorway and will continue until June. progress vi ① 提高，进步 My Spanish never really progressed beyond the stage of being able to order drinks at the bar. ② 前进，进行 As the war progressed more and more countries became involved. We started off talking about the weather and gradually the conversation progressed to politics.
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2) in preparation of preparation noun [U] 准备，预备 The teacher didn't seem to have done much preparation for the class. Yasmin assisted in the preparation of this article. preparations plural noun (具体的)准备 [+ to do] We are making preparations to fly Mr. Goodall to the nearest hospital. Preparations for the opening ceremony are well under way. prepare verb [I or T] 准备…, 预备… , (为…) 做准备 1) Have you prepared for your interview? This course aims to prepare students for middle and senior managerial positions. [+ object + to do] Are the players mentally and physically prepared to play a tough game? The meal took two hours to prepare. 2) 使(某人)做心理准备，(某人)做好准备 [+ to do] It almost seems as if she is preparing to die. [R] You need to prepare yourself for a long wait. prepared adjective 有准备的,准备好的; 乐意 1) When she called on me, I wasn't prepared. They were prepared for the worst. 2) The spokesperson read a prepared statement. 3) be prepared to do sth Would you be prepared to help me get things ready for the party? People are not really prepared to talk about these kinds of personal problems. 15. A steady cleaning programme must follow in order to protect the marble from air pollution, as well as from natural things such as plant roots and bird droppings. 接下来必须 稳步进行清洁工作，保护大理石不受空气污染及自然物（如植物根系和鸟类排泄物）的 坏。 （page 19, lines 107-112） 1) in order to order (PURPOSE) noun in order to/in order for/in order that 为了 He came home early in order to see the children before they went to bed. I agreed to her suggestion in order not to upset her. 2) protect… from… [I or T] 防御，保护 clothing that protects you against the cold Vitamin C may help protect against cancer. It's important to protect your skin from the harmful effects of the sun. Step6: Homewok Read the text again and again. Try to memorize the language points.
Period 3 Word power
Teaching aims and demands:
1. To teach some English words derived from Greek 2. To get students familiar with the Greek words in English
Difficult and key points:
English words borrowed from Greek
Step1: Brainstorming In this section, you will learn some English words that were derived from Greek. You will read a
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passage focusing on Greek words that are used in English and a chart showing the different fields of study based on Greek ideas and words. 1. Throughout history, the English language borrowed many words from other languages. What words are borrowed words and which language did they come from? Please find out as many words as possible and write your answers on the paper 2. Apart from the above languages, the English language also borrowed many words from Greek. Work in pairs and do some research on the Greek in English and present some Greek words in class. Step 2: Vocabulary learning 1. Now read the passage in Part A and find out the answers to the following questions: What words does Greek contribute to the English language? ( Words related to science, sport and many everyday words.) Why are there so many scientific words that come from Greek?( Because the Greeks made a huge contribution to the field of science.) 2. Now read the instructions for Part B on page 22, work in pairs to put the words mentioned in Part A in the correct fields in Part B 3. Complete Part C on page 23 individually referring to Parts A and B for reference. 4. Complete Part D on page 23 individually and consult with each other or check the dictionary Step 3: Discussion Organize students into groups and discuss:
Why does a language need to borrow words from other languages?
Ask some students to report their answers Step4: Summary and homework 1.Find out more borrowed words on the Internet 2.Do exercises in workbook Language points: 1. borrow… from… (P22) borrow (RECEIVE) verb (从…)借入,借用 1) [T] Could I borrow your bike from (NOT STANDARD off) you until next week? 2) [T] (由…)采用(说词,思想),采取 English has borrowed many words from French. 2. find ourselves using Greek…(P22) find (DISCOVER) verb [T] found, found 1)发现…, 遇见 I've just found a ten-pound note in my pocket. [+ 双宾语] Has he found himself a place to live yet? [+ 宾 + adj] She was found unconscious and bleeding. [+ that] The study found that men who were married lived longer than those who were not. 2)发现…(为…) [+ object + noun or adjective] Do you find Clive difficult to talk to? I don't find him an easy person to get on with. She doesn't find it easy to talk about her problems. [+doing] I find living in the city quite stressful. 3) [+ (that)] We came home to find (that) the cat had had kittens.
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I found (that) I could easily swim a mile 3. owe… to( page 22) owe (HAVE DEBTS) verb [T] 欠(钱),借钱, 负债 [+ two objects] I owe Janet ten pounds. We still owe $1000 on our car (= We still need to pay $1000 before we own our car). I owe you a drink for helping me move. I think you owe (= should give) me an explanation/apology. owe (AS A RESULT) vt (因…事, 有某人)受到恩惠 I owe my success to my education. He owes his life to the staff at the hospital. I owe everything (= I am very grateful) to my parents. owing to prep 因为,由于…. because of: The concert has been cancelled owing to lack of support. 4. a great deal( page 22) much a good/great deal of 大量，许多的 The new law met with a good deal of opposition at local level. 5. apart from ( page 22) apart (SEPARATE) adverb 1) 与…分开地, 相隔 Stand with your feet wide apart. We were asked to stand in two lines three meters apart. The garage, large enough for two cars, is set apart from (= not joined to) the house. I forget the exact age difference between Mark and his brother - they're two or three years apart. 2)拆散地 My jacket is so old it's falling apart. I took the motor apart (= separated it into pieces) to see how it worked. apart from Apart from the salary/Salary apart, it's not a bad job. Apart from you and me/You and me apart, I don't think there was anyone there under thirty.
Period 4 Grammar and usage
To teach participle clauses.
Difficult and key points:
Step 1: General introduction The grammar item in this unit focuses on participle clauses. Compare and identify their functions as adjectives or adverbs in the following sentences: (1).The boy sitting under that tree is my brother. (as an adjective) (2).The boy followed by a dog is my brother. (as an adjective) (3).Hearing the news, they got excited. (as an adverb) (4).Given a chance, I can surprise the world. (as an adverb) Step 2: Exercises: 1. Read the guidelines and Part 1 on page 24. I will give you more examples for you to identify their functions in the following sentences. (1).The building completed last month is a bank
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(2).The bird flu sweeping through Asia has jumped from birds to humans recently. (3).The teacher came into the laboratory, followed by some students. (4).The cup dropped to the ground, breaking into pieces. (5). I heard her singing an English song when I passed by her room yesterday. (6). The peasants had the tractor working day and night at harvest time. (7). Mr Smith had his house broken into while he was away on holiday. Keys: (1). an attributive (2). an attributive (3). an adverbial (4). an adverbial (5). a complement (6). a complement (7). a complement 2. Read Part 2 and the example sentences. More examples for the students: Weather permitting, we may go for a picnic this Sunday. Considering his age, he is not suited to a long journey. Judging from his appearance, he doesn’t look like his father. 3. Do the exercise on page 25 in pairs, using a participle clause to rewrite the sentences. 5. Do Parts C1 and C2 on page 112 in workbook. For reference: 现在分词和过去分词的用法 现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于：现在分词表示“主动和进行”，过去分词表示“被动和完 成”(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动，只表示完成)。分词可以有自己的状语、宾语或逻 辑主语等。 1)分词作状语分词在句子中作状语，可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。 分词做状语时，它的逻辑主语与句子的主语一致。作状语的分词相当于一个状语从句。 【例如】 Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Using what you know of word stems and word formations, you can make a guess at the meaning of a new word. The students went out of the classroom, laughing and talking. Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station. Given better attention, the plants could grow better. He looked tired and depressed, visibly disturbed by the news of his mother's illness. 分词在句子中作状语，使用何种分词，要取决于分词与句子主语的关系：主谓关系用现 在分词，动宾或被动关系用过去分词。 【例如】 Not having enough hands, we turned to them for help.(we don't have enough hands). Taught by mistakes and setbacks, we have become wiser and handled our affairs better. (we are taught/teach us) . Inspired by the International, the working people of all countries have been fighting for their final liberation. (the working people were inspired/ inspire the working people) ____the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge. (CET-4 1996,6) A)Having believed B) Believing C) Believed D) Being believed 本句意思为：相信地球是平的，许多人担心哥伦布会从边上掉下去。许多人与相信之间 是主谓关系，及分词与主语之间为主谓关系。因此，应用现在分词，答案为B. No matter how frequently ____, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences. (CET-4 1995,6) A) performing B) performed C) to be performed D) being performed 本句中贝多芬的作品被反复表演， 可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系， 应该用过去分词， 故答案为B.
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____as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention. (CET-4 1996,1) A) Being published B) Published C) Publishing D) To be published 本句中as引导的是让步状语从句，意思为：他的作品尽管在被这样的时候出版，还是引 起了关注，可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系，应该用过去分词，故答案为B. 2)“while ( when, once, until, if , though等连词)＋分词”结构现在分词或过去分词作状语 时，有时可以在分词前加while，when, once, although, until, if等连词。 【例如】 When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us. While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work.. Once recovered, he threw himself into his work and made every effort to do it well. Although working very hard, he failed to pass the final exam. If translated word by word, the passage will be difficult to understand. 3)分词作定语时，单个的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前，分词短语一般置于所修饰的 中心词后面。现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(即与名词有主谓关系)，过去分词修饰承 受该动作的名词(即与名词是动宾关系)。 【例如】 We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund. This is really an exhausting day to all of us! We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight. After a night spent in excitement and sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day. More and more developing countries established strategic partnership with developed countries. The young sitting between my sister and my brother is my cousin Jack.. As early as 1649 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town ____50 households or more. (CET-4 1998,1) A) having B) to have C) to have had D) having had 后面由分词做定语，而且town本身有50或以上人家，故town与分词间为主谓关系，应该 用现在分词，答案为A。 4) 分词作宾语补足语现在分词在 see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse, glance等感官动词和look at, listen to等短语动词以及have, keep, get, catch, leave, set, start, send 等使役动词后面与名词或代词构成复合宾语，作宾语补语的成分。 【例如】 On the top of the hill, we could see smoke rising from the chimneys in the village. The little boy sat beside the railway line and watched the trains roaring by. We should not leave him wondering what he should do. I am sorry to have kept you waiting for such a long time. I caught him dozing off in class. 过去分词可以在allow, ask, consider, desire, expect, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, like, make, observe, order, permit, prefer, remember, request, require, see, urge动词等后面 作宾语补足语。 【例如】 After my encounter with her, I found myself greatly shaken. You should keep her informed of what is going on here.
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The teacher expected the students well prepared for the examination. 在动词see, hear, feel, watch, notice，perceive，observe, listen to, look at后既可用现在分词 做补语,也可用不定式做补语。用现在分词表示动作正在进行,用不定式表示的动作的全过程 已经完成。 【例如】 I saw Mr. White get off a bus. I saw Mr. White looking into a shop window. ——Do you hear someone knocking at the door? ——Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times. 5)分词作表语 分词作表语通常看作形容词来用。现在分词表示主语的性质，而且主语多为物；过去分 词表示主语的感受或状态，主语多为人。 【例如】 The film “Pearl Harbor” is really exciting. I am excited about it. His response to the question was quite disappointing. I felt disappointed at his response.
in most cases (page 24) case ① (SITUATION) n [C] 场合, 事例, 情况，事件 Over a hundred people were injured, in several cases seriously. Jobs are hard to find but in his case that's not the problem because he has so much experience. I wouldn't normally agree but I'll make an exception in this case. The number of new cases of the illness appears to be declining. ② (PROBLEM) n [C] 1) 案件，判例 Several social workers have looked into the child's case. The detective on the case (= responsible for solving it) has been suspended from duty. 2) LEGAL a murder case The case will go before the European Court next month. She accused her employer of unlawful dismissal and won/lost her case. in that case 如果那样的话 in any case 总之，无论如何 (just) in case I don't think I'll need any money but I'll bring some just in case. Bring a map in case you get lost. in no case 无论如何都不
Period 5 Task Writing a letter about the Tower of London
Teaching aims and demands:
1. 2. 3. To teach and practise the skills of listening ,speaking ,reading and writing . To teach how to listen for discourse markers, how to stress syllables and words To teach how to write informally about a formal topic
Difficult and key points:
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To teach how to listen for discourse markers, how to stress syllables and words To teach how to write informally about a formal topic
Skills building 1: listening for discourse markers Step 1: listening to a radio programme: Skills building 2: stressing syllables and words Step 2: asking about the crown jewels Skills building 3: writing informally about a formal topic Step 3: writing a letter back home Homework: Finish WB Ex. Language points: 1. in general (P26) general (COMMON) adj 1) 公众的，社会一般的 The talk is intended to be of general interest (= of interest to most people). UK FORMAL Rain will become more general in the south-east during the afternoon. 2) 大概的， 笼统的 What he said was very general. The school aims to give children a general background in a variety of subjects. 3)一般的,非专门的 general knowledge 4) 总…, …长(官) the general manager the General Secretary of the UN in general 一般地, 概括地, 通常地 (ALSO as a general rule) In general, men are taller than women. As a general rule, we don't allow children in the bar. 2. as a result (P26) result noun 1) [C or S]结果;成果;成绩;(计算的)答案;比赛结果 The road has been widened, but the result is just more traffic. To ensure good/the best results, use Italian tomatoes and fresh basil. I finished my exams yesterday, but I won't know/get the results until August. We used different methods of calculation, but we both got the same result. the football results result vi 造成(的…)结果, 结果(为…) Teachers were not fully prepared for the major changes in the exam system, and chaos resulted. as a result of sth because of something result from sth 由??导致 result in sth 导致?? Icy road conditions in Teasdale resulted in two roads being closed. 3. (P26) in other words 换句话说 in a word 总之 In a word, she's lying. 4. on the other hand (P26) on the one hand ... on the other hand 一方面, 另一方面 On the one hand I'd like a job which pays more, but on the other hand I enjoy the work I'm doing at the moment. on hand (UK ALSO to hand) 持有的, 现有的 手头上的, ; 在近处的, 即将发生的 A 1200-strong military force will be on hand to monitor the ceasefire. in hand 在手上的/地; 进行中的,考虑中的;
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They've had plenty of time to prepare, so the arrangements should be well in hand (= almost ready). at hand 在手边 Help is at hand (= easily available). hand in hand 手牵手, 携手,共同地 I saw them walking hand in hand through town the other day. go hand in hand with sth 并存 Prosperity goes hand in hand with investment. 5. give birth to(page 27) give birth 生… ; 造成… 原因 She gave birth to twins. Our cat gave birth last night. 喻： This extraordinary experience gave birth to (= gave him the idea for) his latest novel. 6. accuse (page 27) accuse vt (因…) 控告(人),指责(人等),谴责 He's been accused of robbery/murder. Are you accusing me of lying? the accused n [C + singular or plural verb] (legal) 被告发的,被控告的 The accused protested her innocence. The accused were all found guilty. accuser n [C] 原告 accusing adj 责难的,谴责的 an accusing glance/look accusingly adv 责难地 ,谴责地 7. marry (page 27) marry verb 1) [I or T] (与…)结婚,娶,嫁 Men tend to marry later than women. Paul married Lucy four years ago. 2) [T] (牧师)主持…的婚礼,使结婚 The couple were married by the Archbishop of Canterbury . married adj 结婚的,以婚的 a married couple be married to sb 已与?结婚的 We've been happily married for five years. So how long have you been married to Nicky? He was married with two children. 他已婚并有两个孩子。 喻： Rachel seems to be married to (= very involved with) her new job at the moment, so we hardly ever see her. get married When did you get married? Jamie's getting married to Laura. 8. sentence sb to death (page 27) sentence (PUNISHMENT) n [C] (罪行的)宣判，判刑 1) He got a heavy/light sentence (= He was severely/not severely punished). The offence carries a jail/prison/life/5-year sentence. 2) pronounce sentence (of a judge) to say officially what a punishment will be: The judge will pronounce sentence on the defendant this afternoon. sentence vt LEGAL 给(某人)判刑,宣判(某人)(罪行) He was sentenced to life imprisonment. 10. manage to do (page 27) 1) [I or T] 设法做好，想办法达到 [+ to do] Did you manage to get any bread? I can't manage all this work on my own. Don't worry about us - we'll manage! (Mainly UK) I'm afraid I can't manage the time (= I'm too busy) to see you at the moment. 2) [I]设法维持下去，设法过日子 After she lost her job, they had to manage on his salary.
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manage (CONTROL) vt 经营… 管理, 联营 Has she had any experience of managing large projects? He's not very good at managing people. management n [U]支配; 处理，操作 The company has suffered from several years of bad management. management group noun [C] 管理部门，主管人员 Management has/have offered staff a 3% pay increase. 11.make room for (page 27) room (space) n [U] 1) (人, 物所占的) 空间，场所，位置 That sofa would take up too much room in the flat. James took the books off the little table to make room for the television. Is there (enough/any) room for me in the car? [+ to do] There's hardly room to move in here. 2) (接受、采纳事物的) 余地，余裕,必要，机会 I feel the company has little room for manoeuvre.
Period 6 Project
Teaching aims and demands:
Writing a proposal for saving a building
To help students learn and use English through doing a project together .
Difficult and key points:
To help students learn and use English through doing a project together
Teaching steps :
Enjoy a section of video: Yuanmingyuan. Part A: Reading 1. Scan the text and answer the some questions: 2. Read the passage again and take notes of the historic sites. 3. Do Parts B1 and B2 on page 111 in Workbook to practise the usages of some words and phrases learnt in this section. 5. Do Parts D 1 and D2 on page 113 in Workbook as your homework. Part B: 1. Group work: Discuss the eight questions in Part B. 2. Each group member will be responsible for one part to preserve the building. Express your opinions freely. 3. Write a proposal for saving and protection the building. Then report your proposal to the class. Homework: Read the article in Part A on page 117 in Workbook, and then write an account of the Lugou Bridge. Language Points: 1. The Ming and Qing Imperial Tombs are among the most impressive cultural remains to be found anywhere. 明清皇家陵寝是世界上最令人赞叹的文化遗产之一。(page 30, lines 1-2) remain v 1) [I] 停留，留下，逗留 The doctor ordered him to remain in bed for a few days.
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2）尚待… 留待… [+ to be done ] A great many things remain to be done (= have not yet been done). It remains to be seen whether you are right. 3）剩下，剩余，遗留 After the fire,little remained of my house. 火灾过后，房屋所剩无几。 4）仍然，依然 [Link-v] He remained silent. It remains a secret. The bank will remain open while renovations are carried out. the remainder n ①（集体名词） 剩余,残存之物/人，其他的人们 I ate most of it and gave the remainder to the dog. It rained the first day but the remainder of the trip was lovely. ② n [U] 余数 remaining adj [before noun] 剩下的 the remaining water/ the water left 剩下的水 remains plural noun 剩余,残留物;余额 1) The remains of lunch were still on the table. 2) FORMAL human/sb's remains 遗体，遗骸；遗迹，废墟 Fifty years after he died, his remains were returned to his homeland. Human remains were found in the woods. We visited the remains of a 12th-century monastery. 2. Any visitor to China should try to include the Ming and Qing Tombs as part of his or her tour. 任何来中国的游客都应该去看看明清皇家陵寝。(page 30, lines 4-5) try (ATTEMPT) verb [I or T] 努力做…,努力于…；vt 尝试,试用 Keep trying and you'll find a job eventually. I'm trying my best/hardest, but I just can't do it. [+ to do] I tried to open the window. 设法做 [+doing] Perhaps you should try getting up earlier in the mornings. 试着做 I thought I might try parachuting. I've forgotten my door-keys - we'd better try the window (= test it to see if it is open try (LAW) vt 审理(案件),审判(某人) They are being tried for murder. try sth on phrasal verb [M] 试穿(衣服，鞋帽等) try sth out phrasal verb [M] 试用, 彻底试验 Don't forget to try out the equipment before setting up the experiment. try out for sth phrasal verb US 试图获得(地位，奖赏等),为(职业等)参加考试,报名，申请 3. The Sacred Way, which is sometimes called the Avenue of Animals, leads to the thirteen tombs and is in good condition. 通向陵寝的神道有时被称为石像神道，保存良好。(page 30, lines 13-14) 1) lead to lead (DIRECTION) verb [I or T; usually + advor prep] led, led (道路等)引导(人)到…, 通往 There's a track that leads directly to the reservoir. This information led the police to a house near the harbor. lead sb to do sth lead to sth 导致 Reducing speed limits should lead to fewer deaths on the roads. 2) in good condition condition (STATE) noun [S or U]状态，情形,健康状态
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Mum's still got our pram - it's very old, but it's in perfect condition. The hospital say her condition (= state of health) is improving slowly. He's in no condition (= He is too ill or too drunk) to drive home. conditions pl (周围的)状况,情况，形势 weather conditions working conditions Under what conditions do plants grow best? out of condition 健康不佳, 情况欠佳 on (the) condition that 在…条件下 I'll come to the party on the condition that you don't wear those ridiculous trousers! 4. Most of the trees that were originally planted there were cut down at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, but some continue to grow today. 大部分原先栽种此处的树木在清初别砍掉 了，但有一些至今仍留存于世。(page 30, lines 17-18) cut 常用词组： cut sth down phrasal verb 砍倒, 砍伐 cut back/down phrasal verb 缩减(生产), 削减(支出) The government has announced plans to to cut back on defence spending by 10% next year. I'm trying to cut down on caffeine. cut in (TALK) phrasal verb 插嘴 I was just talking to Jan, when Dave cut in (on us/our conversation). cut in (DRIVE) phrasal verb 插入，插队 cut into sth phrasal verb 占去…时间 cut off (REMOVE) phrasal verb [M] 切断，砍掉 cut sth off (STOP) phrasal verb [M] 切断(电力，煤气，自来水),停止…供应 The aim was to cut off the enemy's escape route/supplies. 5． Changling is considered by many as the best preserved of the thirteen tombs. 许多人都认 为长陵是十三座陵寝中保存最完好的。(page 30, lines 20-21) be considered consider (POSSIBILITY) verb [I or T] 考虑到…, 顾及… Don't make any decisions before you've considered the matter. [+ question word] Have you considered what you'll do if you don't get the job? [+doing] 考虑做? (OPINION) vt + object + (to be) + n / adj] 将…视为, 认为，以为 He is currently considered (to be) the best British athlete. [passive + object + to do] It is considered bad manners in some cultures to speak with your mouth full of food. [+ (that)] She considers (that) she has done enough to help already. consideration n [C or U] 考虑,深思 take? into consideration considering prep, conj, adv 就…而论 Considering the weather, we got here quite quickly. 6.The tombs, which were built over a length of 247 years , take up 78 square kilometers. 这 些陵墓的建造历时 247 年， 占地 78 平方公里。(page 30, lines41-42) take up ①占据（空间，时间） ②take sth up (START) 开始(工作,产生兴趣等) He's taken up the post of supervisor. [+doing] Have you ever thought of taking up acting? ③继续讲 Anne took up (= continued) the story where Sue had left off.
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