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高中英语选修9课文逐句翻译(人教版)


1.选修九 Unit1 Breaking records-Reading 打破记录 "THE ROAD IS ALWAYS AHEAD OF YOU"―路永在前方‖ Ashrita Furman is a sportsman who likes the challenge of breaking Guinness records. 阿什里塔· 弗曼是一位热 衷

挑战并想争创吉尼斯世界纪录的运动员。Over the last 25 years, he has broken approximately 93 Guinness records. 在过去的25年中, 他大约已经打破了93项吉尼斯世界纪录。 More than twenty of these he still holds, including the record for having the most records. 至今,他仍然是其中20多项纪录的保持者,还包括拥有最多 的吉尼斯纪录这一项。But these records are not made in any conventional sport like swimming or soccer. Rather Ashrita attempts to break records in very imaginative events and in very interesting places. 但是这些纪录并不是 像游泳或足球等一般运动项目那样创建的,而是阿什里塔试图在非常有趣的地点,在富有想象力的运动项 目中打破的。 Recently, Ashrita achieved his dream of breaking a record in all seven continents, including hula hooping in Australia, pogo stick jumping under water in South America, and performing deep knee bends in a hot air balloon in North America. 最近,阿什里塔完成了他的梦想:在所有的七大洲中都破一项纪录,其中包括在澳洲玩 呼啦圈, 在南美洲的水下做弹簧单高跷游戏, 在北美洲的热气球中做膝部深弯曲运动。 While these activities might seem childish and cause laughter rather than respect, in reality they require an enormous amount of strength and fitness as well as determination. 虽然这些活动看起来孩子气且令人发笑而不是让人肃然起敬,但实际 上,完成这些活动需要强大的力量、健康的体格和坚定的决心。 Think about the fine neck adjustments needed to keep a full bottle of milk on your head while you are walking. 想想吧, 你一边走路一边还要把满满一瓶牛奶定在头上, 你的脖子需要有多好的适应力。 You can stop to rest or eat but the bottle has to stay on your head. 你可以停下来休息或者吃东西,但瓶子必须呆在你的头顶上。 While Ashrita makes standing on top of a 75 cm Swiss ball look easy, it is not. 当阿什里塔站在高75公分的瑞士 气球上时, 看起来虽然很轻松容易, 其实不然。 It takes a lot of concentration and a great sense of balance to stay on it. 呆在球上得一直全神贯注, 还需要有极强的注意力和极好的平衡感。 You have to struggle to stay on top especially when your legs start shaking. 特别是在双腿开始抖动的时候,你还得使劲呆在球上。 And what about somersaulting along a road for 12 miles? 然而沿着12英里的马路翻筋斗,情况又是怎样呢? Somersaulting is a tough event as you have to overcome dizziness, extreme tiredness and pain. 翻筋斗是一项艰 苦的运动,因为你必须克服头晕、极度疲劳和痛苦。 You are permitted to rest for only five minutes in every hour of rolling but you are allowed to stop briefly to vomit. 每翻滚一个小时,只允许你有五分钟的休息,不过 也可以短暂地停下来呕吐。 Covering a mile in the fastest time while doing gymnastically correct lunges is yet another event in which Ashrita is outstanding. 做标准的体操弓箭步动作向前, 以最快的节奏走完一英里的路程是阿什里塔又一个出色的项 目。 Lunges are extremely hard on your legs. 弓箭步冲刺对你的双腿是一个极端艰苦的考验。You start by

standing and then you step forward with the right foot while touching the left knee to the ground. 开始时呈站立 姿势, 然后右脚向前迈一步, 同时左膝触地。 Then you stand up again and step forward with the left foot while touching the right knee to the ground. 然后再站起来, 左脚向前迈出一步, 同时右脚触地。 Imagine doing this for a mile! 想想吧,这个动作要反复做一英里远! Yet this talented sportsman is not a natural athlete. 然而, 这位有才能的运动员并不是天生的。 As a child he was very unfit and was not at all interested in sports. 小时候他很不健康,而且对运动毫无兴趣。 However, he was fascinated by the Guinness Book of World Records. 但他却对《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》非常着迷。 How Ashrita came to be a sportsman is an interesting story. 阿什里塔究竟是怎样成为一名运动员的呢?这是 一个有趣的故事。 As a teenager, he began searching for a deeper meaning in life. 十几岁的时候他就开始探求 人生的深层意义。 He studied Eastern religions and, aged 16, discovered an Indian meditation teacher called Sri Chinmoy who lived in his neighbourhood in New York City. 他研究过东方宗教,在16岁时,他发现了一位名 叫斯里琴摩的印度静坐功导师,住在纽约市他家附近。Since that time in the early 1970s, Ashrita has been one of Sri Chinmoy's students.自从20世纪70年代初,阿什里塔就一直是斯里琴摩的学生。Sri Chinmoy says that it is just as important for people to develop their bodies as it is to develop their minds, hearts and spiritual selves. He believes that there is no limit to people's physical abilities. 斯里琴摩指出人们发展他们的体魄与发展他们的头 脑、心灵和精神上的自我具有同等的重要性,并且他相信人的体能是没有局限的。 When Ashrita came third in a 24-hour bicycle marathon in New York's Central Park in 1978, he knew that he would one day get into the Guinness Book of World Records. 但阿什里塔于1978年在纽约市中央公园进行24 小时自行车马拉松比赛中获得第三名的时候,他就知道总有一天他会进入《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》 。He had been urged by his spiritual leader to enter the marathon even though he had done no training. 尽管从没有训练 过,他还是收到他的精神领袖的敦促参加了马拉松比赛。So, when he won third place, he came to the understanding that his body was just an instrument of the spirit and that he seemed to be able to use his spirit to accomplish anything. 因此,当他取得第三名的时候,他就开始有了这样的认识:他的身躯只不过是他的精 神的工具,而且他似乎能够用他的精神力量去完成任何事。 From then on, Ashrita refused to accept any physical limitation. 从那时起,阿什里塔就拒绝接受任何身体极限的说法。 With this new confidence, Asharita broke his first Guinness record with 27,000 jumping jacks in 1979. 由于有了 这种新的信心,阿什里塔于 1979年第一次打破吉尼斯纪录——跳爆竹27000次。 The motivation to keep trying to break records comes through his devotion to Sri Chinmoy. 不断努力打破纪录的动机来自于他对斯里 琴摩思想的虔诚。 Every time Ashrita tries to break a record, he reaches a point where he feels he cannot physically do any more. 每次是突破记录的时候,阿什里塔都会达到一个体力不可逾越的极限点。At that moment, he goes deep within himself and connects with his soul and his teacher. 这个时候他就会进入自己内心 深处,与他的灵魂和他的老师相沟通。

Ashrita always acknowledges his teacher in his record-breaking attempts. 在创纪录的努力中,阿什里塔总是要 感谢他的老师。In fact, he often wears a T-shirt with Sri Chinmoy's words on the back. The words are: 事实上, 他常常穿着一件体恤衫,后背上有斯里琴摩的名言: "There is only one perfect road. It is ahead of you, always ahead of you." ―完美的道路只有一条,他就在你的前 方,永远在你的前方。‖

2.选修九 Unit 1 FOCUS ON ... 集中精力于…… Lance Armstrong 兰斯· 阿姆斯特朗 Date of Birth: 8th September, 1971出生日期:1971年9月8日 Country: USA 国籍:美国 Lance Armstrong's Guinness record for the fastest average speed at the Tour de France was set in 1999 with an average speed of 40.27 km/hr. 兰斯· 阿姆斯特朗环法自行车赛最快平均速度的吉尼斯世界纪录是他1999年以 40.27公里每小时的平均速度创造的。 In his teens he was a triathlete but at 16 he began to concentrate on cycling. 在少年时期,他是一位三项全能比赛的运动员,但到16岁时,他开始集中精力于自行车运动。 He was an amateur cyclist before the 1992 Olympic Games but turned professional after he had competed in the Games. 在1992年奥运会之前他还只是一名业余车手,但是在参加奥运会比赛之后,他就成为一名专业车 手了。In the following few years, he won numerous titles, and by 1996 he had become the world's number one. 在随后的几年里,他获得了许多称号。到了1996年,他已经成为世界第一了。 However, in October 1996, he discovered he had cancer and had to leave cycling. 然而,在1996年10月,他发现自己患了癌症,不得不放弃 骑车运动。 Successfully fighting his illness, Armstrong officially returned to racing in 1998. 在成功地战胜病魔 之后,他于1998年正式重返赛场。In 1999 he won the Tour de France and in 2003 he achieved his goal of winning five Tours de France. 1999年他赢得了环法自行车赛的冠军。 到2003年他完成了自己在环法自行车赛 上五次夺冠的目标。 Michellie Jones 米歇尔· 琼斯 Date of Birth: 9th June, 1969出生日期:1969年6月9日 Country: Australia 国籍:澳大利亚 In 1988 Michellie Jones helped establish the multi-sport event, the triathlon, in Australia. 1988年, 米歇尔· 琼斯帮 助在澳大利亚创建了―多项运动‖比赛——三项全能运动。 After completing her teaching qualifications in 1990, she concentrated on the triathlon. 1990年她取得教师资格证之后, 就把精力集中在三项全能运动上。 In 1991, she finished third at the world championships. 在1991年的世界锦标赛上她得了第三名。 In 1992 and 1993, she was the International Triathlon Union World Champion. 在1992年和1993年她取得了国际铁人三项联盟的冠 军。 Since then, she has never finished lower than fourth in any of the world championships she has competed in.

从那以后,在她所参加的任何一次世界锦标赛中,她从来没有得过低于第四名的成绩。 At the Sydney Olympics in 2000 she won the silver medal in the Women's Triathlon, the first time the event had been included in the Olympic Games. 在2000年的悉尼奥运会上,她又取得了女子三项全能运动的银牌。该项运动还是首次 被纳入奥运会。 Recently, for the first time in 15 years, Jones was not selected as part of the national team and therefore did not compete in the 2004 Olympics in Athens. 最近,琼斯没有入选国家队,这是她15年来首次为 被入选,因而她没能参加2004年的雅典奥运会。 Fu Mingxia 伏明霞 Date of Birth: 16th August, 1978出生日期:1978年8月16日 Country: China 国籍:中国 Fu Mingxia first stood on top of the 10-metre diving platform at the age of nine. 伏明霞首次站在10米跳台上是 在她九岁的时候。At 12 years old she won a Guinness Record when she became the youngest female to win the women's world title for platform diving at the World Championships in Australia in 1991. 1991年, 12岁的伏明霞 就获得了一项吉尼斯纪录,当时她参加了在澳大利亚举行的跳台跳水世界锦标赛,成为最年轻的女子世界 冠军。At the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games, she took the gold medal in the women's 10-metre platform, becoming the youngest Olympic diving champion of all time. 在1992年的巴塞罗那奥运会上, 她夺得女子十米 跳台的金牌, 成为有史以来最年轻的奥运会跳水冠军。 This was followed by great success at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games where she won gold for both the 10-metre platform and the three-metre springboard. 随后的巨 大成功是在1996年亚特兰大奥运会上,她又夺得10米跳台和3米跳板的金牌。 This made her the first woman in Olympic diving history to win three gold medals. 这使伏明霞成为奥运会跳水史上第一位连续夺得三枚金 牌的女子。 She retired from diving after Atlanta and went to study economics at university. 在亚特兰大之后, 伏明霞退役,到大学里学习经济。While there she decided to make a comeback and went on to compete at the Sydney Olympic Games, where she won her fourth Olympic gold, again making Olympic history. 读书期间,她 决定复出参加悉尼奥运会,结果她又获得了自己的第四枚奥运会金牌,再次改写了奥运会历史。 Martin Strel 马丁· 斯特雷 Date of Birth: 1st October, 1954出生日期:1954年10月1日 Country: Slovenia 国籍:斯洛文尼亚 Strel was trained as a guitarist before he became a professional marathon swimmer in 1978. 在1978年成为职业 马拉松游泳运动员之前, 斯特雷曾被作为吉他手培养。 He has a passion for swimming the world's great rivers. 但是他有一股热情,想要到世界上的大江大河中去游泳。 In 2000, he was the first person ever to swim the entire length of the Danube River in Europe - a distance of 3,004 kilometres in 58 days. 2000年, 他成为游完欧洲 多瑙河全程的第一人——58天游完了3004公里。 For this, he attained his first entry in the Guinness Book of World Records. 为此,他第一次进入了《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》 。 Then in 2001 he broke the Guinness record

for non-stop swimming - 504.5 kilometres in the Danube River in 84 hours and 10 minutes. 随后在2001年, 它打 破了全程无间断游泳的吉尼斯世界纪录——在多瑙河中以84小时10分的时间游了504.5公里。 Martin won his third entry in the Guinness Book of World Records in 2002 when he beat his own record for long distance swimming by swimming the length of the Mississippi River in North America in 68 days, a total of 3,797 kilometres. 马丁于2002年第三次进入《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》 ,这次他打破了自己远距离游泳的世界纪录 ——在68天内总共游完北美洲密西西比河的3797公里。Then in 2003 he became the first man to have swum the whole 1,929 kilometres of the difficult Parana River in South America. 然后在2003年他成为游完难度巨大, 全程1929公里的南美洲巴拉那河的第一人。 In 2004, Strel again broke his own Guinness record by swimming the length of the dangerous Changjiang River (4,600 km), the third longest river in the world. 到2004年,斯特雷 再次破了他自己的吉尼斯纪录,游了世界上第三大河长江的危险河段4600公里。

3.选修九 Unit2 Sailing the oceans 海洋航行 We may well wonder how seamen explored the oceans before latitude and longitude made it possible to plot a ship's position on a map. 我们很可能感到奇怪, 在经纬度被用来在地图上标出船只位置之前, 海员是如何对 海洋进行探索的。 The voyages of travellers before the 17th century show that they were not at the mercy of the sea even though they did not have modern navigational aids. 17世纪以前的航海纪录显示,即使没有现代航海 技术的帮助,他们也没有任凭海洋摆布。 So how did they navigate so well? Read these pages from an encyclopedia. 那么,他们是怎样航行得如此之好的呢?读读百科全书这几页上的记载吧。 Page 1: 第一页: Using nature to help Keeping alongside the coastline 借助大自然使船只沿海岸线行驶 This seems to have been the first and most useful form of exploration which carried the minimum amount of risk. 这似乎已是最早的、最有用的探险方式,所冒的风险也最小。 Using celestial bodies 利用天体 ●North Star 北极星 At the North Pole the North Star is at its highest position in the sky, but at the equator it is along the horizon. 在 北极, 北极星是在天上的最高位置; 而在赤道上, 北极星却在地平线上。 So accomplished navigators were able to use it to plot their positions. 因此,熟练的航海探险家就能够利用北极星来确定他们自己的位置。 ●Sun 太阳 On a clear day especially during the summer the sailors could use the sun overhead at midday to navigate by. They can use the height of the sun to work out their latitude. 在晴朗的日子里, 特别是夏天, 船员可以利用正午在头 顶上的太阳来导航,他们可以用太阳的高度来计算出他们的纬度。

●Clouds 云层 Sea captains observed the clouds over islands. There is a special cloud formation which indicates there is land close by. 海上的船长观测岛上的云层。有一种特殊的云彩的形状表明附近有陆地。 Using wildlife 利用野生动植物 ●Seaweed 海藻 Sailors often saw seaweed in the sea and could tell by the colour and smell how long it had been them. 海员常常 看到海里的海藻,并能根据它的颜色和气味判断这种海藻在那儿有多久了。If it was fresh and smelled strongly, then the ship was close to land. 如果它颜色新鲜而且气味浓烈,那说明船只就离陆地很近了。 ●Birds 鸟 Sea birds could be used to show the way to land when it was nowhere to be seen. 在看不见陆地的时候,可以用 海鸟来指明通往陆地的去路。 In the evening nesting birds return to land and their nests. 在夜晚的时候,筑巢 而居的鸟就要返回陆地鸟窝。 So seamen could follow the birds to land even if they were offshore and in the open sea. 因此,即使在远离海岸的大洋上,海员们也可以跟随这些鸟到达陆地。 Using the weather 利用天气 ●Fog 雾 Fog gathers at sea as well as over streams or rivers. 正如雾气汇聚在溪流或江河上一样,雾气也能汇聚在海洋 上。Seamen used it to help identify the position of a stream or river when they were close to land. 当靠近陆地 时,海员们可以用雾气来帮助确定溪流或江河的位置。 ●Winds 风 Wise seamen used the winds to direct their sailing. They could accelerate the speed, but they could also be dangerous 聪明的海员常常利用风向来导航。风向可以使船只加快速度,也可以造成危险。. So the Vikings would observe the winds before and during their outward or return journeys. 于是, 北欧的海盗们在出海或返航 时都要观察风向。 Using the sea 利用大海 Certain tides and currents could be used by skillful sailors to carry ships to their destination. 技术娴熟的海员可 以利用大海的某些潮汐或浪潮把船送往他们的目的地。 These skills helped sailors explore the seas and discover new lands.这些技术帮助海员探测大海和发现新大陆。 They increased their ability to navigate new seas when they used instruments.当他们使用这些手段的时候就增加了在新的海域导航的能力。 Page 2: 第二页 Using navigational instruments to help 利用航海工具 Finding longitude 找出经度 There was no secure method of measuring longitude until the 17th century when the British solved this theoretical

problem. 直到17世纪英国人解决了这个理论问题后,人们才有了测量经度的可靠方法。 Nobody knew that the earth moved westwards 15 degrees every hour, but sailors did know an approximate method of calculating longitude using speed and time. 以前没有人知道地球每小时向东转动约15度, 然而海员们确实知道用速度和 时间来计算经度的近似标准的方法。An early method of measuring speed involved throwing a knotted rope tied to a log over the side of the ship. 早期测量速度的方法是沿着船边拉一根打结的绳子,把这根绳子系在一根 圆木上, 然后把它抛入海里。 The rope was tied to a log which was then thrown into the sea. As the ship advanced through the water the knots were counted as they passed through a seaman's hands. The number of knots that were counted during a fixed period of time gave the speed of the ship in nautical miles per hour. 当船只在水中前进 时,这些绳结从海员的手中通过,这时海员就记下绳结的数目。在一定时间内计算出有多少个结, 就可以算 出船只每小时航行多少海里的速度。 Later, when seamen began to use the compass in the 12th century they could calculate longitude using complicated mathematical tables. The compass has a special magnetic pointer which always indicates the North Pole, so it is used to help find the direction that the ship needs to go. In this way the ship could set a straight course even in the middle of the ocean. 后来,当12世纪海员们开始使用指南针的时候,他们就可以用复杂的数 学表来计算出经度了。指南针有一个特殊的磁针,始终指着北极。因此人们用它来帮助找出船只所要去的方 向。这样,即使在大海中船只也可以直线航行。 Finding latitude 找出纬度 ●The Bearing Circle 方位圆 It was the first instrument to measure the sun's position. A seaman would measure the sun's shadow and compare it with the height of the sun at midday. Then he could tell if he was sailing on his correct rather than a random course. 这是最早用来测量太阳位置的工具。 海员可以测量太阳的影子, 并把它同太阳在正午时的高度作比 较,这样就可以知道自己是在正确的航道上或是在随意行驶。 ●The Astrolabe 星盘 The astrolabe, quadrant and sextant are all connected. 星盘、象限仪和六分仪相互都有联系。 They are developments of one another. 它们是在彼此的基础上发展而成的。 The earliest, the astrolabe, was a special all-in-one tool for telling the position of the ship in relation to the sun and various stars which covered the whole sky. 最早的是星盘,它是一种特殊的集多功能于一体的工具,它可以用来表明船只同太阳和布满天空的各 种星星之间的相关位置。 This gave the seamen the local time and allowed them to find their latitude at sea. 这 样, 海员们就可得知当地的时间, 以及他们在海上的纬度。 However, it was awkward to use as one of the points of reference was the moving ship itself. 但是,它不容易使用,因为其参照点之一就是行驶中的船只本身。 ●The Quadrant 象限仪 This was a more precise and simplified version of the astrolabe. 这是一种比较精确而且比较简单的星盘。It

measured how high stars were above the horizon using a quarter circle rather than the full circle of the astrolabe. 它利用星盘的1/4圆周而不是整个圆来测量星星在在水平线上的高度。 It was easier to handle because it was more portable. 它比较容易操作, 因为它比较轻便。 Its shortcoming was that it still used the moving ship as one of the fixed points of reference. 缺点仍就是使用移动的船只作为一个固定的参照点。As the ship rose and plunged in the waves, it was extremely difficult to be accurate with any reading. 因为船只在海浪中起伏不定, 所以很难测出精确的读数。 ●The sextant 六分仪 The sextant was the updated version of the astrolabe and quadrant which reduced the tendency to make mistakes. 六分仪是星盘和象限仪的改进版, 它减少了出差错的可能性。 It proved to be the most accurate and reliable of these early navigational instruments. 在这些早期的航海仪器中,它被证明是最精确和最为可靠的一种, It works by measuring the angle between two fixed objects outside the ship using two mirrors. 它的工作方式是用 两块镜子来测量船外两个固状物体之间的角度,This made the calculations more precise and easier to do.这就 使得计数更加精确,而且更加容易操作。

4.选修九 Unit2 THE GREATEST NAVIGATIONAL JOURNEY:A LESSON IN SURVIVAL 最伟大的航海 旅程——幸存的经验教训 I am proud to have sailed with Captain Bligh on his journey of over 40 days through about 4,000miles in an open boat across the Pacific Ocean in 1789. 1789年,我有幸与布莱船长乘坐一条敞篷船航行了40余天,横穿 太平洋,行程约4000英里。 Our outward voyage in the "Bounty" to Tahiti had been filled with the kind of incidents that I thought would be my stories when I returned home. 我们乘坐―邦蒂号‖出发到塔希提岛这段航 程中充满了许多事件。我以为回国后可以讲这些故事, But how wrong I was! 但是我完全错了! On our departure from Tahiti, some of the crew took over the ship. 在我们离开塔西提后,有部分船员接管了这艘船。 They deposited the captain into a small boat to let him find his own way home. 他们把船长放进一艘小船里, 让 他自己想办法回家。 But who else was to go with him? 可是还有别的什么人跟他一起走吗?Those of us on board the "Bounty" were caught in a dilemma. Was it better to risk certain death by sitting close together on a small, crowded open boat with very little food and water? 在―邦蒂号‖上的我们有点儿进退两难:是冒着生命 危险,挤坐在又小又拥挤的船上,只有少量的食物和水更好呢?Or should one stay on the "Bounty" with the crew and face certain death from the British Navy if caught? 还是与船上的人一起呆在―邦蒂号‖上,面对被英 国海军捉获处死的危险? The drawback of staying on the ship seemed to grow as I thought about how wrong it was to treat Captain Bligh in this way. So I joined him in the small boat. 想到这样对待布莱船长是多么错误的 时候, 留在船上的不利因素似乎增多了, 因此我随船长上了小船。As dusk fell, we seemed to face an uncertain future. 随着黄昏降临,我们似乎面对着一个不可预测的未来。We had no charts and the only instruments the

captain was allowed to take with him were a compass and a quadrant. 没有航海图, 允许船长带走的仪器只有指 南针和一个四分仪。 Once we were at sea, our routine every day was the same. 一旦我们在海上,每天的事务总是一成不变。 At sunrise and sunset the captain measured our position using the quadrant and set the course using the compass. 每 当日出和日落的时候, 船长就用四分仪测量我们的位置, 并用指南针确定航线。 It was extremely difficult for us to get a correct reading from the quadrant as the boat moved constantly. 因为船只总是在晃动, 所以我们很难 从四分仪上得到正确的读数。 The captain used a system called "dead reckoning".船长使用一个叫做―航位推 算‖的系统。He knew there was land directly northwest of our original position. 他知道在我们原先位置的正西 北有陆地。 So his task was to make sure we stayed on that course. 因此,他的任务就是确保我们要在那个航 线上。As you can see from the map we kept to a straight course pretty well. 正如你在地图上所见到的那样,我 们很好地保持着这条笔直的航线。 In addition, the captain kept us all busy reading the tables to work out our position. 此外,船长还让我们大家都忙于解读表格,以计算出我们的位置。Although this took a great deal of time, it didn't matter. Time was, after all, what we had a lot of! 虽然这项工作占去了大量的时间,但那并没有 关系。毕竟我们有的是时间! Our daily food was shared equally among us all: one piece of bread and one cup of water. 我们的日常食 物全都是平均分配的:一片面包和一杯水。It was starvation quantities but the extreme lack of water was the hardest to cope with psychologically. 这点儿分量的食物只能让人处于饥饿之中, 可是我们心理上最难受的却 是极度缺水。 Imagine all that water around you, but none of it was safe to drink because the salt in it would drive you mad! 想想看, 你的四周全都是水, 但是一滴都不能喝, 因为水中的盐分会弄得你精神失常! All the time the captain tried to preserve our good spirits by telling stories and talking hopefully about what we would do when we got back to England. 船长一直试图让我们保持良好的精神状态,他给我们讲故事,并且满怀希望的同我 们谈论回到英国后所要做的事。 We only half believed him. 我们对他只是将信将疑罢了。 The tension in the boat got worse as the supply of food and water gradually disappeared. 随着食物和水的 供应渐渐短缺,船上的气氛也越来越紧张。We could foresee that we would die if we could not reach land very soon and we sank gradually into a sleepy, half-alive state. 可以预见到,如果不能很快地靠岸登陆,我们必死 无疑。 逐渐地我们陷入一种昏昏入睡、 奄奄一息的状态。 The captain was as weak as the rest of us, but he was determined not to give up. 船长同我们这些人一样地虚弱, 但是他决意不放弃。 He continued his navigational measurements every day. 他每天继续不停地进行航海测量。He kept us busy and tried to take our minds off our stomachs and our thirst. He kept us alive. 他总是使我们忘记饥渴。他使我们活了下来。 You could not imagine a more disturbing sight than what we looked like when arriving in Timor over forty days after being set loose in our small boat. 你简直无法想象我们被放在小船上漂泊了40天后在帝汶岛 登陆时的凄惨样子。 Our clothes were torn, we had fever and our faces showed the hardships we had suffered.

我们衣衫褴褛, 发着高烧, 从脸上就能看出我们所遭受的痛苦。 But after a rest, some good meals and some new clothes, everything changed. 但是经过一段时间的休息,吃了几顿好饭,穿了几件新衣服之后,一切情况就 都变了。 We couldn't stop talking about our voyage and everybody wanted to hear about it. 我们不停地讲述着 我们的经历,并且大家都听我们讲。We were the heroes who had escaped the jaws of death by completing the greatest navigational feat of all time! 我们完成了历史上最伟大的航海壮举, 我们成了从鬼门关里逃出来的英 雄!

5.选修九 Unit 3 GLIMPSES OF AUSTRALIA 澳大利亚小览 AUSTRALIA 澳大利亚 Capital: Canberra 首都:堪培拉 Offcial name: Commonwealth of Australia 正式国名:澳大利亚联邦 Area: 7,686,850 km2面积:7686850平方公里 Population: 20 million 人口:2千万 Highest point: Mount Kosciuszko, 2,228 metres above sea level 最高点:科西阿斯科山,高出海平面2228米 Lowest point: Lake Eyre, 15 metres below sea level 最低点:艾尔湖,低于海平面15米 Australia is the only country that is also a continent. 澳大利亚是唯一一个既是国家又是大陆的国家。It is the sixth largest country in the world and is in the smallest continent - Oceania. 它是世界上第六大的国家,并且位 于最小的大陆——大洋洲。It is a mainly dry country with only a few coastal areas that have adequate rainfall to support a large population. 这是一个干旱气候为主的国家,只有少部分沿海地区有充足雨量,可以维持着大 量人口的生存。Approximately 80 of Australians live in the south-eastern coastal area, which includes Australia's two largest cities – Melbourne and Sydney. 大约有80%的澳大利亚人居住在东海沿海地区,这里包括澳大利 亚两个最大的城市——墨尔本和悉尼。 The centre of the continent, which is mainly desert and dry grassland, has few settlements. 大陆中央主要是沙漠和干草地,很少有人居住。 Australia is famous for its huge, open spaces, bright sunshine, enormous number of sheep and cattle and its unusual wildlife, which include kangaroos and koalas. 澳大利亚以其开阔的疆域、明媚的阳光、数不尽的牛羊 和奇特的野生动植物而闻名,其中包括袋鼠和树袋熊。Australia is a popular destination with tourists from all over the world who come to experience its unique ecology. 澳大利亚是一个受人欢迎的旅游胜地,世界各地的 游客来到这里体验它独特的生态环境。 Australia is made up of six states. 澳大利亚是由六个州组成的。Like the states in America, Australian states are autonomous in some areas of government. 像美国的州一样,澳大利亚的州政府的某些部门自治。 However, Australia has a federal government responsible for matters that affect people all over the country, such as defence, foreign policy and taxation. 然而,澳大利亚有一个联邦政府负责管理涉及全国人民的事务,诸如 国防、外交政策和税收等。The federal parliament is located in Canberra.联邦议会设在堪培拉。 CITIZENSHIP CEREMONIES PLANNED AROUND AUSTRALIA 澳大利亚的公民庆典活动

On 26 January, Australia Day, in over 200 locations across the nation , more than 9,000 people will become Australian citizens. 1月26日是澳大利亚日,全国200多个地方的9000多人将成为澳大利亚的公民。 "By these citizenship ceremonies we welcome those who have come from overseas from many different cultural and social backgrounds into our communities and our nation," said the Minister for Citizenship and Multicultural Affairs. ―我们以这些公民庆典的形式欢迎来自不同文化和社会背景的人加入到我们这个群体 和国家中来。‖公民与多元文化事务部部长说。 "Australia Day celebrations that include people from so many birthplaces are an excellent way to encourage tolerance, respect and friendship among all the people of Australia." ―来自许多不同的出生地的人参加澳大利亚日庆典活动。这种庆典活动是在澳州全体人民中鼓励宽容、尊 重和友爱的一种极佳的方式。‖ Most citizenship ceremonies will be followed by displays of singing and dancing from many of the migrants' homelands and the tasting of food from all over the world. 通常在公民庆典活动之后有一些来自移民 国家的歌舞表演,还有品尝世界各地美味佳肴的活动。 Go by plane and see clouds 乘飞机观云彩 Go by TRAIN and see Australia 坐火车看澳洲 Enjoy 3 nights on board the Indian-Pacific 乘印度洋——太平洋号列车三日游 On this 4,352-km journey from Sydney to Perth via Adelaide you'll view some ot Australias unique scenery from the superb Blue Mountains to the treeless plains of the Nuliarbor. 从悉尼经阿德莱德到珀思长达4352公里的旅 途中,你将欣赏到澳大利亚特有的美景,既有巍峨秀美的蓝山,也有望不见树木的那拉伯平原。Along the way you will spot a fascinating variety of wildlife. 沿途中,你还将看到各种各样引人入胜的野生动植物。 Enjoy 2 nights on board the Ghan 乘格安列车二日游 As you travel from Adelaide to Darwin via Alice Springs, you'll observe some of Australia's most spectacular landscapes - from the rolling hills surrounding Adelaide to the rusty reds of Australia's centre and the tropical splendour of Darwin. 从阿德莱德经爱丽丝温泉到达达尔文的旅程中,你可以看到澳大利亚最壮丽的风景 ——从环绕阿德莱德的延绵起伏的群山,到澳大利亚中部的红色土地,到达尔文美丽的热带景观。 For more information, timetables and fares go to www.gsr.com.au/trains.htm 查询详情、时间表与费用等请登陆:www.gsr.com.au/trains.htm Dear Shen Ping, 亲爱的沈平: I wish you could see this amazing rock. 真希望你能够亲眼看到这块令人惊叹的岩石。It is part of one of Australia's 14 Worm Heritage Sites and rises about 335 metres out of a vast, flat sandy plain. 它是澳大利亚14项 世界遗产之一,矗立在一片广阔的沙地平原上,高达335米。A t different times of the day it appears to change co/our, from grey-red at sunrise, to golden and finally to burning red at dusk. 在不同时间里, 这块岩石会呈现出 不同的颜色,从日出时的灰红,到金黄,最后到黄昏时的火红。Aboriginal people have lived near Uluru for

thousands of years and you can walk around it with an Aboriainal guide to learn about their customs, art, religion and day-to-day life. 澳洲土著人居住在乌卢鲁附近已经有几千年了。你可以找一位土著人向导带你去走一 走,了解那里人们的习俗、艺术、宗教和日常生活。 It is also possible to climb the rock, but most people don't do this out of respect for the Aboriginal people who consider the rock to be sacred. 要爬上这个巨石也是可能 的, 但大多数人们出于对土著人的尊敬而不这么做, 因为他们认为这块岩石是神圣的。I‘ll be back in Sydney in a fortnight because I've made a reservation on the Indian Pacific train to Perth. 我会在两个星期后返回悉尼, 因为我已经预定好了印度洋——太平洋号火车票前往佩思。 love Jack 杰克 Tours outside Hobart 霍巴特市外之旅 Drive 250 km northwestwards from Hobart along the A10 highway and you'll arrive at the southern end of the magnificent Cradle Mountain National Park and World Heritage area. 从霍巴特沿 A10号公路朝西北方向行驶 250公里,你就来到景色壮观的摇篮山国家公园暨世界遗产保护区的南端。 This park is famous for its mountain peaks, lakes and ancient forests. 这座公园以山峰、湖泊和远古森林而闻名。A popular attraction for active tourists is the 80-km walking track that joins the southern and northern ends of the park. There are also a range of short walks. 喜爱运动的旅游者还有个好去处,那就是贯穿公园南北的一条80公里长的徒步旅行路 线,此外还有一些短途旅行路线。

6.选修九 Unit3 DANGEROUS CREATURES 澳大利亚的危险动物 Australia is home to more than 170 different kinds of snake and 115 of these are poisonous. 澳大利亚是170 多种蛇的家乡,其中有115种是毒蛇。 In fact, Australia has more kinds of venomous snake than any other country in the world. 事实上,澳大利亚比世界上任何其他国家的毒蛇品种都多。Luckily, the poison of most snakes can kill or paralyze only small creatures. 幸运的是,多数毒蛇的毒素只能杀死小动物,或使它们瘫痪。 A few varieties, however, can kill humans, so it is just as well that snakes are very shy and usually attack only if they are disturbed and feel threatened. 不过,还是有少数几种蛇能置人于死地。好在蛇都是胆小怕事,通常 是在被打扰和感到有威胁时才会出击。 There are also approximately 2,000 different kinds of spider in Australia and, like snakes, most have a poisonous bite. 在澳大利亚,还有着将近2000种不同种类的蜘蛛。它们同蛇一样,多数蜘蛛咬起来也有毒。 However, the majority have no effect on humans or cause only mild sickness. 然而,绝大多数蜘蛛的毒素对人 体并没有影响,或者只能引起轻微病痛。Only a few have venom that is powerful enough to kill a human being. 只有少数蜘蛛有剧毒,足以致人于死地。 While a small number of Australians are bitten by spiders each year, most recover without any medical treatment. 虽然每年有少数人被蜘蛛咬伤,但是多数人不经治疗就能痊愈。 The seas around Australia contain over 160 different kinds of shark, which vary in size from just 20

centimetres to over 14 metres. 在环绕着澳大利亚的海域里有160多种鲨鱼,它们的体长从20厘米到14米不 等。However, although they look dangerous because of their wide mouths and sharp teeth, all but two or three kinds are harmless to humans. 尽管它们有宽大的嘴巴和锋利的牙齿,看上去很危险,然而除了两三种之外, 其余的对人类并没有危害。 Another potentially dangerous sea animal is the jellyfish. 另外一种具有潜在危险的海洋动物就是水母。 Most kinds of poisonous jellyfish can cause severe pain to anyone who touches them but the poison of the box jellyfish can actually kill a human, especially if that person has a weak heart. 多数有毒水母都会使任何触碰到 它们的人痛苦不已,而箱水母的毒素则足以致人死亡,特别是如果这个人的心脏虚弱的话。 The tiniest amount of poison from a box jellyfish can kill in less than five minutes and it is probably the most poisonous animal in the world. 箱水母极少量的毒素就可以在五分钟之内致人死命,它也许是世界上最毒的动物。 There is one other dangerous animal in Australia worth mentioning, and that is the crocodile. 澳大利亚还有 一种值得一提的危险动物就是鳄鱼。Although two types of crocodile live in Australia, only the saltwater crocodile has been known to kill humans. 虽然澳大利亚有两种类型的鳄鱼, 但是我们只知道咸水鳄才会置人 于死地。 This crocodile moves very quickly when it sees something it considers to be food, and from time to time a crocodile has snatched someone before he or she is even aware that the crocodile is there. 当这种鳄鱼看到某 个东西并认为是食物的时候,他就会迅速行动,就这样时常捕获那些还未来得及察觉到鳄鱼的人。 You might think that with all these dangerous animals Australia is an unsafe place to live in or visit. 澳大利亚 有这么多的危险的动物, 你也许会认为在这里居住或到这里旅游很不安全。 However, this is far from the truth. 但事实并非如此。There are no more than a handful of shark attacks each year and only three deaths have been reported in the last five years. 每年只有少量的鲨鱼袭人事件,而且在过去五年里,只有三例死亡报道。 Similarly, in the last three years there have been only two reported deaths from crocodile attacks. 与此相似的是 在过去三年时间里也只有两三起鳄鱼咬死人的事件了。 Since 1956, when an anti-venom treatment for redback spider bites was developed, there have been no deaths from redbacks, and since 1981 when a treatment was developed for funnelweb spider poison, there have been no deaths from this spider either. 1956年研制出一种 对付红背蜘蛛的疗法,那以后就也没有人再因此而死亡。1981年研制出一种对付漏斗网蜘蛛的疗法,那以 后就也没有人再因此而死亡。 Treatments for jellyfish stings and snake bites have also been developed and in the last five years there have been only three deaths from jellyfish stings and about the same number from snakebites. 治疗水母刺伤和毒蛇咬伤的方法也已经研制成功。在过去的五年里只有三人死于水母刺伤,这 与被毒蛇咬伤致死的人数大体相同。

7.选修九 Unit4 Exploring plants 探索植物

PLANT EXPLORATION IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES18世纪和19世纪的植物探索 The plants in our gardens look so familiar that often we do not realize that many of them actually come from countries far away. 我们花园里的植物看上去是那么熟悉, 以致我们常常意识不到在这些植物中实际上 有许多来自遥远的国度。 Collecting "exotic" plants, as they are called, dates back to the earliest times. 收集所谓 的―异国‖植物要追溯到很久以前。Many ancient civilisations saw the value of bringing back plants from distant lands. 许多古老文化都懂得从遥远的地方把植物带回来的价值。The first plant collecting expedition recorded in history was around 1500 BC when the Queen of Egypt sent ships away to gather plants, animals and other goods. 历史上有记载的第一个收集植物的探险是公元前1500年,埃及女王派出船只去收集植物、动物以及 其他货物。 However, it was not until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that the exploration of the botanical world began on a large scale. 然而,直到18世纪和19世纪人们对植物世界大规模的探索才开始。 Europe had become interested in scientific discovery and the European middle classes took great interest in collecting new plants. 那时欧洲对科学发现已经倍感兴趣,而欧洲的中产阶级则特别热衷于收集新的植物。This attraction to exotic plants grew as European nations, like the Netherlands, Britain and Spain, moved into other parts of the world like Asia and Australia. 随着欧洲人,如荷兰和西班牙向世界其他地区如亚洲和澳洲的迁徙,这些异 域植物的吸引力也在增长。 Brave young men took the opportunity of going on botanical expeditions, often facing many dangers including disease near-starvation, severe environments and conflicts with the local people. 勇敢的年轻人借机进行植物探索活动,他们常常面临许多危险,如疾病、饥饿、严酷的环境以及同当地居 民的冲突。 An important group of collectors were Frencn Catholic missionaries who, by the middle of the 18th century, were beginning to set themselves up in China. 有一群重要的收集者是法国天主教教士,18世纪中叶,他们开 始进入中国。 One such missionary, Father d'Incarville, was sent to Beijing in the 1740s. 其中有一位叫汤执中的 传教士于18世纪40年代被派赴北京。He collected seeds of trees and bushes including those of the Tree of Heaven. 他收集了树种、灌木种,其中包括天堂树的种子。Just before he died, he sent some Tree of Heaven seeds to England. 就在他去世之前,他还把一些天堂树的种子送到了英国。 They arrived in 1751 and plants from these seeds were grown throughout Europe and later, in 1784, the species was introduced in North America. 1751年它们抵达英国,有这些树种长成的树遍布了全欧洲。后来在1784年,这个物种又被引进到了北美。 Sir Joseph Banks was a very famous British plant collector, who accompanied James Cook on his first voyage from England to Oceania. 约瑟夫· 班克斯爵士是一位著名的英国植物收集家,他曾经陪同詹姆斯· 库 克进行了从英国到大洋洲的首航。 The purpose of the trip for Banks was to record the plant and animal life they came across. 班克斯这次出行的目的就是把他们所见到的植物和动物的情况记录下来。He and his team collected examples whenever they went onto dry land. 他和他们的队员们每次进入干燥的土地时都要收集样

品。 In 1769, Banks collected vast quantities of plants in the land now known as Australia. None of these plants had been recorded by Europeans before. 1769年, 班克斯在我们如今所知道的名叫澳大利亚的这块土地上收集 到大量的植物, 而在欧洲还没有有关这些植物的记载。 Cook called the bay where the Endeavour had anchored Botany Bay. 库克还把―奋进号‖抛锚停靠的地方称为植物湾。 Keeping plants alive during long land or sea voyages was an enormous challenge. 要使植物在陆地上或 海上远距离航行时存活下来, 是一个巨大的挑战。 Large numbers of seeds failed to grow after long sea voyages or trips across land between Asia and Europe. 在亚欧之间经过海上或陆上远程旅行之后,大量的种子都不能 生长。 One plant explorer lost several years' work when his plants were mined with seawater. 曾有一位植物探 险家由于他的植物被海水侵蚀腐烂而使他好几年的成果毁于一旦。 The world of plant exploration was completely changed with Dr Nathaniel Ward's invention of a tightly sealed portable glass container. 纳撒尼尔· 沃德医生所发明的便携式密封玻璃容器彻底改变了植物探索的世 界。 This invention, called the Wardian case, allowed plants to be transported on long journeys. 这项发明被称为 沃德箱,可以用来进行远距离的植物运输。 In 1833, Ward shipped two cases of British plants to Sydney, Australia. 1833年, 沃德把两箱英国植物运到了澳大利亚的悉尼。 All the plants survived the six-month journey. 所有这些植物经过六个月的航行都存活下来了。 In 1835, the cases made a return trip with some Australian species that had never been successfully transported before. 1835年这些箱子又带着一些过去从没有被成功运 输过的澳洲物种作了回程之旅。 After eight months at sea, they arrived safely in London. 在海上历经八个月的 航行之后,它们安全抵达了伦敦。 A British man called Robert Fortune was one of the earliest plant collectors to use Wardian cases. 有一 位名叫罗伯特· 福琼的英国人,是使用沃德箱的最早期的植物收集家之一。He made several trips to China between 1843 and 1859. 在1843——1859年之间,他曾多次来到中国。At that time, there were restrictions on the movement of Europeans and so, in order to travel unnoticed, he developed his fluency in Chinese and dressed as a Chinese man, even shaving his head in the Chinese style. 那时候,欧洲人在中国的活动受到种种限制,因 此,为了在旅行中不引起别人的注意,他努力使自己的汉语讲得很流利,并且穿着中国人的服装,甚至像 中国人一样削发 (留辫) 。 He experienced many adventures including huge thunderstorms in the Yellow Sea and pirates on the Yangtze River. 他经历过多次险情,包括在黄海碰到过巨大的风暴,以及在长江遭遇海盗的袭 击。 Not only did Fortune introduce over 120 species of plants to Western gardens but he also shipped 20,000 tea plants from Shanghai to India, where a successful tea industry was established. 福琼不仅把120余种植物引入西 方园林,而且还把两万株茶树用船从海上运到印度,印度的制茶工业就成功地发展起来了。 The second half of the nineteenth century was a very important period of plant exploration. 19世纪下半期 市植物探索的一个非常重要的时期。During this time many Catholic missionaries were sent to China from France. 在这期间,许多法国天主教的传教士被派到中国。 They valued the study of the natural sciences and

many of the missionaries knew a lot about plants and animals. 他们很看重自然科学的研究, 而且许多传教士对 动植物都很了解。Their expeditions resulted in huge plant collections, which were sent back to France.他们远征 的结果是收集了大量的植物,并把它们运回法国。 One of the collectors was Father Farges, who collected 37 seeds from a tree that had appealed to him. 其中一位叫做法尔热的神父,从他所喜爱的一棵树上收集了37粒 种子。This tree was later called the Dove Tree. 这种树后来被称作鸽子树。 He sent the seeds back to France in 1897 but only one seed grew. 他于1897年把这些种子送回法国,但是只有一粒种子得以生长。 Although the missionaries collected large numbers of specimens, there was not enough material for growing particular species in Western gardens. 虽然传教士收集了大量的物种,但是在西方人的花园里种植特殊物种 的材料仍然很缺乏。However, European botanists were very excited with the knowledge that China had a vast variety of plants, so many plant collectors were sent on collecting trips to China. 然而欧洲植物学家知道中国有 着品种繁多的植物, 并为此感到兴奋不已。 因此, 许多植物收集人员被派去中国进行采集工作, One of these collectors was E H Wilson who, in 1899, was able to collect a large quantity of seeds of the Dove Tree that Father Farges had discovered. 其中有一位叫做 E· H· 威尔逊的,他在1899年收集到大量的法尔热神父所发现的鸽子 树种子。Wilson and other plant collectors introduced many new plants to Western gardens. 威尔逊及其提前植 物收集者为西方人的花园引进了许多新的物种。

8.选修九 Unit4 THEIR ANIMAIL POLLINATORS 花朵及其动物传媒 Over time, many flowering plants and their animal pollinators have evolved together. 许多开花的植物 长期以来是和它们的动物传媒一起发展的。 The plant needs the animal to pollinate it and the animal is rewarded with food called nectar when it visits the flowers. 植物需要动物帮它授粉, 动物从中得到回报——当其接触花 时,能够得到被称作花粉的食物。 Pollen becomes attached to the animal during its visit to a flower and is then passed on to another plant's blossom on its next visit. 动物接触一朵花时,花粉就附着在它的身上,动物接触 下一朵时,就把这些花粉传到另外的那朵花上。So pollination takes place, therefore increasing the chances of the survival of the plant species. 这样通过授粉就增加了植物物种生存的机会。 Through evolution, most flowers have adapted to attract specific types of pollinators. 通过进化,大部 分花朵变得适于吸引某种花粉传播者。Bees, moths and butterflies are the most important pollinators. Flies, wasps, beetles and other animals such as birds and bats are less common. 蜜蜂、飞蛾和蝴蝶是最重要的传媒。 而苍蝇、黄蜂、甲虫和其他诸如小鸟、蝙蝠之类的动物则是较为少见的传媒。 The type of pollinator depends on the characteristics of the flower such as its colour, shape, size and smell. 花粉传播者的类型取决于花朵的特性, 如花朵的颜色、 形状、 大小和气味。 For example, yellow flowers attract bees, while red flowers attract butterflies. 举例来说,黄色的花吸引蜜蜂,而红色的花则吸引蝴蝶。The nectar in some flowers can only be reached by a bird with a long bill or a long-tongued moth or butterfly. 有些花

的花粉只有长嘴鸟、长舌蛾或者蝴蝶才可以够得着。The chart below describes some features of flowers that attract certain kinds of pollinators. 下面这张图表记述了吸引某种花粉传播者的花朵特性: Pollinator 虫媒 Typical flower characteristics 花朵的典型特性 Bees 蜜蜂 Colour: bright yellow, blue; the flower often has a special pattern to guide the bees to the nectar inside. 颜色:嫩黄色、蓝色;这种花常有一种特殊的花纹,吸引蜜蜂找到里面的花蜜。 Shape: the petals are wide enough for bees to land on; usually the nectar is at the end of a small, narrow tube whose length is the same as the tongue of a particular species. Smell: delicate, fragrant. 形状:花瓣宽大,足够蜜蜂落在上面,花粉通常在狭小的花管子的一段,其长度于 特定花粉传播者的舌头相当。 气味:微弱,芳香 Butterflies 蝴蝶 Colour: red, orange. 颜色:红色、橙色 Shape: the petals form a tube of a suitable length for butterflies. Tiny flowers are often in tight bunches that provide a place for butterflies to land on, eg daisies. 形状:花瓣聚为管状,其长度适应蝴蝶,纤小的花朵经常 聚在一块儿,自成一束,以便蝴蝶能有地方降落,如雏菊。 Smell: odourless. 气味:无味。 Moths 飞蛾 Colour: white, light-coloured so moths can see them at night. 颜色:白色、浅色,以便飞蛾在夜晚 能看清。 Shape: the petals form a deep tube to match the length of a specific moth's tongue. The petals lie fiat or bend back so the moth can get close to the flower. 形状:花瓣开成一个深管子,其长度与特定蛾子的舌头长度相当。花 瓣伸展或向后弯曲,以便飞蛾靠近花朵。 Smell: strong, sweet perfume, typically only given out at night. 气味:浓烈的香甜味,特别只在夜晚散发出来。 Flies 苍蝇 Colour: dull-coloured, brownish red. 颜色:灰暗色、褐红色。 Smell: strong like rotting meat. 气味:浓烈的像腐肉似的气味。 Humming-birds 蜂鸟 Colour: brightly coloured, especially red and orange. 颜色:线颜色,特别是鲜红色和橙 色。 Shape: tube-shaped; petals bent back so birds can get close.形状:管状,花瓣向后卷,以便鸟儿接近。 Smell: no odour. 气味:无臭味。 Bats 蝙蝠 Colour: white, light-coloured so bats can see them at night. 颜色:白色、浅色,这样蝙蝠夜晚能够 看到。 Shape: open at night; large, strong with wide mouths for long tongues. 形状:夜晚开花;大而坚,嘴宽,可供 长舌伸入。 Smell: musty, fruity smell. 气味:发霉的果子味。

9.选修九 Unit 5 Inside advertising 广告内情 HOW ADVERTISINC WORKS 广告是如何起作用的 Do you know how many advertisements you are exposed to in your daily life? 你知道你在日常生活中要面对多 少广告吗?Every day, we pass by advertisements on buses and billboards, on trains and in train stations, in shop windows, outside restaurants and on public notice boards. 每天在公共汽车上和广告牌上, 在火车和火车站里, 在商店的橱窗里,在餐馆的外边以及公告牌上,我们都会遇到广告。 At home, we see advertisements in magazines and newspapers and in the middle of our favourite television programmes. 在家里,我们从报刊、杂 志上,在我们喜欢的电视节目间隙中都可以看到广告。We hear advertisements on the radio and come across them on the Internet. 我们还可以从广播中听到广告,在网络上看到广告。 Even some of the casual garments we wear have brand names attached to them which turn us into walking advertisements. 至在我们穿的有些休闲 服上也印着品牌的名字,这就把我们变成了―移动广告‖。With so many messages from advertisers filling our daily lives, it is important to understand how advertisements work. Then we can avoid being controlled by them. 甚我们的日常生活中充满了众多的广告信息,可见了解广告如何发挥作用是很重要的事情,这样我们才有 可能避免被广告左右。 What is an advertisement? 什么是广告? An advertisement is a message or announcement that informs or influences people. 广告是告知人们或对人们起 影响作用的信息或告示。 It can use words, pictures, music or film to communicate its message. 它可能用文字、 图片或影片来传达其信息。Adverts are not only made and paid for by business, but also by individuals, organizations and associations that wish to inform or educate the public. 广告不仅可由商家付费制作, 也可以由 想要向公众传达或教育公众的个人、组织或协会来出资制作。 How do advertisers make effective advertisements? 广告商是如何制作有效的广告的? Identify your target 识别你的目标 Advertisers must pay the media for displaying their ads. 广告上必须付费给展示广告的媒体。 Their money would be wasted if the message didn't reach its target audience, in other words the people the advertisement intends to persuade. 如果信息不能传达给她的信息群体,也就是广告意图说服的人群的话,那么他们的钱 就白花了。 For example, adolescent boys are more likely to buy computer games than any other group, so it makes sense to make computer game ads that appeal to this group. 举例说, 进入青春期的男孩子就可能比任何 其他人群更愿意购买电脑游戏,因此,针对这个目标群体制作有吸引力的电脑游戏广告才是有意义的。 Having identified the target group, researchers find out as much as possible about those in the target group, such as their likes and dislikes, and how the product would fit into their lives. 明确了广告的目标群体后,研究人员 就会尽量收集这个群体的有关信息,例如他们的好恶,以及如何使产品适应他们的生活。This information

then forms the basis for decisions about what type of advertising techniques to use with this group. 于是,这个信 息就构成了针对这部分人采用何种广告技术的决策基础。 Appeal to your target 迎合你的目标 In order to persuade people to do something, advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emotions. 为了说服某人采取某种行动,广告常常要迎合我们的希望、梦想或情感。For example, the one on the right, which advertises sports shoes, shows young people doing exciting things. 譬如右图的运动鞋广告,它 表现的是年轻人正做着一些刺激的运动, (广告的)颜色和其中的火焰也使人感到兴奋。The colours and the flames also suggest excitement. The message it is sending is: "Buy our shoes and you'll live an exciting life in the 'fast lane'." 它所传递的信息是: ―购买我们的运动鞋, 你就能在?快车道‘过上令人兴奋的生活‖。 The ad above, with the star in it, is for a new radio station. 上方的那幅广告(上面有一个五角星)是为一个新的无线电台制 作的。It appeals to people's desire to "fit in" and be part of the group. 它迎合了人们想要―适应‖并成为其中一 员的愿望。 The message is: "Everyone else is listening and if you want to be part of the group, you'd better listen too." 它传达的信息是:―其他人都在听。如果你想成为其中的一份子,你最好也听一听。‖ Some advertisements appeal to people's desire to save money. Others are more likely to be noticed if they are funny. 有的广告迎合人们省钱的愿望,另外一些广告则因为有趣而受人注目。 Ads that feature rich and famous people will grab the attention of those who admire people like that. 而以有钱人和名人为特色的广告则 会抓住那些对他们羡慕的人的注意力。Some adverts, like the environmental protection advertisement below, appeal to our conscience or our desire to be worthy citizens.还有一些广告就像下面那种有关环境保护的广告, 就符合我们的良知,或者就迎合了我们想成为有价值的公民的愿望。 Use a suitable medium 采用合适的媒体 As well as reaching the right audience with the right technique, advertisers must also place their ads in the right medium. 正如要用恰当的方式吸引合适的消费者,广告商还得将广告置于恰当的媒体上。 Obviously, cost will play a.big part in this decision. 很明显, 做这个决定的时候, 花销起很大的作用。 Television adverts are expensive to make and to show. 电视广告的制作与播放是非常昂贵的。You have to be a big corporation with a big budget to afford television ads. 你必须是一家大公司, 有大笔经费, 才能做得起电视广告。 Advertisements in newspapers, on the other hand, are much cheaper. 而另外一方面,用报纸做广告就会便宜得多。 As well as worrying about the expense, advertisers must also consider which media are most appropriate for their product and which their target audience is most likely to see or hear. 正如担心费用一样,广告客户还必须考虑 哪种媒体最适合他们的产品,并且他们的目标群体最愿意收看或收听哪种媒体。Because most cars have radios, ads broadcast via radio can reach a lot of drivers very easily. 因为大多数汽车都有收音机,司机们很容 易地就能收听到通过无线电广播传送的广告。 For this reason, it would be appropriate to use radio to advertise goods and services relating to cars. 因为这个缘故,用无线电播送与汽车有关的产品与服务就很合适。

However, it would be no use advertising products on radio if the ad relies on visual effects.但是如果一项产品的 广告要依靠视觉效果,那么它在收音机里播出就毫无意义了。 Television adverts are great for generating emotional responses to a product, but magazines and newspapers can give more detail. 电视广告能够激起人们 对某种产品产生情感反应,但报刊杂志能够给更详细的介绍。 How effective are advertisements? 广告的效果如何? However good an advertisement is, people are unlikely to be persuaded if the product is unsuitable for them. 一则广告无论如何制作得多么好,如果产品不合适,也不可能使人信服。For example, no matter how good an ad for a car stereo system is, people who don't own cars are unlikely to run out and buy one. 举例来说, 不管一个汽车的立体声系统多么好,那些没有汽车的人是不可能跑去买它的。Look at the advertisements in this unit. 看一看本单元中的这些广告吧。How many of the goods or services suit your interests or lifestyle? 你 对其中多少商品或服务感兴趣,它们是否符合你的生活方式呢?Would really good advertising persuade you to buy products and services you are not interested in or have no use for? 是不是有好的广告会说服你去买并不 感兴趣或对你没有用处的商品服务呢? On the other hand, being constantly exposed to advertisements can help to change our opinions over time. 另一方面, 经常处于广告的包围中, 我们的想法有可能随着时间的流逝而发生变化。 This is why governments all over the world pay a lot of money for ads on such things as road safety. 这就是为什么世界各地的政府会花 大量的金钱来制作诸如道路安全之类的广告,They believe these adverts will affect the way people think about their driving habits and will subsequently reduce the number of road accidents.它们认为这些广告让人们认真思 考他们的驾驶习惯,从而减少交通事故的数量。

10.选修九 Unit 5 KEEPING ADVERTISEDRS HONEST 做广告的人应守诚信 Organizations and individuals advertise because they want to persuade people to behave in certain ways, for example to buy a certain brand of rice, stop speeding or see a movie at their cinema. 组织和个人都做广告, 因为 他们都说服别人按某种方式来行事,例如要你买某个牌子的大米,或者要你停止高速驾车或在他们的电影 院里看一场电影。 Advertisers go, to a lot of trouble and expense to make adverts and so they want to make sure they achieve their purpose. 广告制作者在广告上花了不少精力和财力, 因此, 他们要确保能达到他们的目的。 Unfortunately, not all advertisers are good or honest people. Unless we have ways to protect ourselves, these dishonest advertisers will tell lies or use methods that may mislead us. 不幸的是, 并不是所有的广告商都诚实、 正直。除非我们有办法进行自我保护,否则这些不老实的广告上就会说谎,或者采用误导我们的手段。 Fortunately, most countries have developed ways to control advertising and prevent false or unsuitable advertising. 好在多数国家都采用了一些办法来控制广告业,防止虚假不实的广告。 The law 法律

One way to control advertising is to make laws that prevent advertisers doing the wrong thing. 控制广告的办法 之一就是制定法律以约束广告商们的不法行为。 Many countries have laws that forbid ads being shown at inappropriate times or in unsuitable places. 许多国家制定了法律,禁止在不恰当的时间和不适宜的地点播放 广告。 For example, an ad that has an adult theme cannot be shown during children's television programmes. 譬 如有成人内容的广告就不能在儿童电视节目的时间里播放。In some countries advertising alcoholic drinks or tobacco is banned altogether. 在有些国家里,酒类及烟草的广告都是一概被禁止的。There are also laws in most places that prevent advertisers making false statements about their products or from promoting immoral or harmful behaviour. 在许多地方还制定了法律,以防止广告商为他们的产品说假话,或者宣传不道德或有害 的行为。 Advertising organizations 广告组织 Most advertisers are decent and honest, and they are as interested as everyone else in making sure ads are ethical. 多数广告商都是正派、诚实的。他们和其他人一样也致力于确保广告合乎道德规范。For this reason, most advertisers belong to advertising organizations that not only educate and support their members, but also make rules for everyone in the organization to follow. 为此,多数广告商都是从属于某个广告组织。广告组织不仅 仅对其成员进行教育和支持,而且还制定多种规则让组织中的每个成员都必须遵守。They are called a code of ethics and include such rules as: Advertisements must not be untruthful or misleading; Advertisements must not say bad things about other people's products. 这些规则被称为道德规范,他们包括以下规则:广告一定不能 失实或误导;广告一定不能说别人产品的坏话。If well-known people are used in advertisements, they must be honest and truthful about products they advertise. 如果广告中用到人名, 那么他们必须对所宣传的产品确保诚 信。 Complaints organization 投诉机构 Even though there are laws and advertisers' codes of conduct, some bad ads do get made. 虽然有法律和广告的 行为规范, 还是有很多糟糕的广告被制作出来了。 This is why many countries have a government organization which examines complaints about ads. 这就是为什么许多国家都设有检查有关广告投诉的政府机构。 A consumer can complain to the organization, giving reasons for their complaint, and if the complaint is correct, the organization can make the company stop using the offending advertisement. 消费者可以向这个机构投诉,提出 投诉的理由。如果投诉是正确的,该机构可以责令该公司停止用这种令人不愉快的广告。 The consumer 消费者 You may have heard the saying: "Buyer Beware".你可能听说过―买者自负‖的说法。 This means that the consumer is responsible for checking the product before buying. 这就是说消费者有责任在购买其产品之前对 产品进行检查。 When it comes to advertising, consumers need to be educated about techniques used by advertisers so they can judge the claims for themselves and not blindly accept everything that is said in

advertisements. 涉及广告时,消费者需要了解广告商所使用的伎俩。这样他们才能对各种广告主张做出自 己的判断。而不致盲目地接受广告中所说的一切。As we are flooded with advertisements in our modem world, many schools believe it is their duty to educate students about advertising. 当今社会上广告泛滥成灾, 许多学校 认为它们有责任对学生进行有关广告的教育。


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