1. Unit 1 Festivals around the world 2. Teaching aims of this unit Talk about festivals and celebrations Talk about the ways to express request and thanks Learn to use Modal verbs Write a sim
ilar story with a different ending 3. Sentence patterns: Request: Could/ Would you please…? Could I have…? Could we look at…? I look forward to… May I see…? Thanks: It?s very kind of you… Thank you very much/ Thanks a lot. I?d love to. It was a pleasure… Don?t mention it. You are most welcome. 4. Modal verbs: May might, can could will would shall should must
The first period Speaking 1. Teaching aims: Vocabulary: take place, lunar, festival, Army Day, Christmas, dress up Phrases: Would you like … Could I have…? Might I offer help…? May I see…? You should try…Could we like at…? Can you suggest…? We might take… Teaching Procedures Step I Leading in T: Hello, everybody! Welcome back to school! Did you have a good time in your winter holidays? Ss. Yes. Of course! T: When did you feel most happy and excited? Ss: At the Spring Festival. T: Who can tell us why? Any volunteers? S1: Because it is the most important festival in our country. S2: Because I got a lot of lucky money from my parents. S3: Because I needn?t study at festivals and there was a lot of delicious food to eat. How great.
S4: Because I met my cousins and friends who I hadn?t seen for a long time. T. Very food! I am glad to hear that. Today we will talk about festivals, which are meant to celebrate important events. Please think about some other festivals. Can you name just a few? Ss: New year, Yuan xiao festival… :T: Quite right. That?s called the Lantern?s Festival. How about some other festivals? Ss: The Army Day, International Labour?s Day, National Day, Tomb Sweeping Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-autumn Day… T: You have done a good job, boys and girls! . Step ⅡWarming –up Festivals are meant to celebrate important events. Different countries have different festivals. Work in groups and lost five Chinese festivals that you know. Discuss when they take place, what they celebrate and one thing that people do at that time. The first one is given to you as an example. Festivals Mid-Autumn Festival Time of year/date Autumn/Fall What does it celebrate The beauty of the full moon, harvest, time with family and friends What do people do Give/Eat mooncakes and watch the full moon with family and friends
Step Ⅲ Pre- reading Discuss in groups of four 1. What?s your favourite holiday of the year? Why? 2. What festivals or celebrations do you enjoy in your city or town? Do you like spending festivals with your family or with friends? What part of a festival do you like best---the music, the things to see, the visits or the food? Step ⅣAssignment 1. Consolidation 2. Listening to the material again after class to be familiar with it. 3. Homework: Collect as much information about festivals as possible.
The second period
Teaching Aims 1.Vocabulary: starve, starvation, plenty, satisfy ancestor lamps lead feast bone origin in memory of dress up trick poet arrival national gain independence gather agricultural European custom awards watermelon handsome rooster admire look forward to religious as though have fun with daily 2.To enable the students to know the earliest festivals with reasons for them and four different kinds of festivals that occur in most parts of the world 3.To enable the students to master some English expressions and phrases about festivals. 4. Teach the basic reading skills: skimming and scanning. 5. Try to compare and make conclusion s of different festivals.
Step ⅠRevision 1. Greetings. 2. Review the new words of this part. 3. Check the students? homework---festivals Step ⅡReading 1.Scanning T: Open your books and turn to page one. I?d like you to do the scanning. Read the text quickly and accurately to get the main idea and answer the 6 questions on Page3. ( Ask the student to look through the questions and then read the text silently.) ( Four minutes later, check the answers with the whole class. Show the suggested answers on the screen.) 2.Intensive reading ( Allow the students to read aloud and carefully this time to understand the main ideas of each paragraph and the important details) T: Read the text loudly for a second time and them try to tell if these sentences are True or False. 1. The ancient people needn?t worry about their food. ( F ) 2.Halloween used to be a festival intended to honor the dead. ( T) 3.Qu Yuan was a great poet who people honor a lot in China. ( T ) 4.Mid-autumn Festival is held to celebrate the end ot autumn( F ) 5.Easter celebrates the birth of Jesus. ( F ) 3.Reading and discussion T: Read the text a third time and then work impairs to do Exercise 2 on Page 3. ( Let the students have enough time to read the passage carefully and discuss the chart with their partners. Encourage them to expand their answers according to their own
experiences.) 4.Explanation (In this part try to help the students analyse the difficult, long and complex sentences and guess the meaning of the new words; ask them to deal with the language points in the context.) T: Now I will discuss some important sentences and phrases in the passage. a. Some festivals are held to honor the dead, or satisfy and please the ancestors, who could return either to help or to do harm. b. In memory of c. In India there is a national festival on October 2 to honor Mahatma Gandhi, the leader who helped gain India?s independence from Britain. d. People are grateful because their food is gathered for the winter, and because a season of agricultural work is over. e. The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring. f. The country is covered with cherry flowers so that it looks as though it might be covered with pink snow.
The suggested explanation: a. An attributive clause. The sentence means people hold some festivals either to show respect to the dead or to make their ancestors happy in case they might come back to do harm. b. in memory of … serving to recall sb, to keep him fresh in people? minds. He wrote a poem in memory of his dearest wife, who died in an accident. in honor of ( showing great respect or high public regard) in hopes/the hope of (hoping) in defence of (defending) c. a noun phrase followed by an attributive clause as the appositive d. two clauses for reason e. energy→energetic adj. ( full of or done with energy) look forward to ( to is a preposition here.) devote to, be/get used to, get down to , stick to e.g. I?m looking forward to hearing from you.
Step Ⅲ Listening T: Now I will play the tape for you. You can just listen with your books closed or look at your books or read in a low voice together with the tape. It?s up to you. After listening, please write down three things that most festivals seem to have in common.( Comprehending Ex.3 on Page 3).
The third period Learning about language Teaching aims: 1. Let the students know the usage of modal verbs. 2. Enable the students to recognize the words and expressions in the reading passage according to what mean the same as them. Step Ⅰ Greeting and Revision ( Ask some students to retell the text we learned .) StepⅡ. Practicing the useful words and expressions T: As we know, there are two important kinds of verbs---transitive verbs and intransitive verbs. But many intransitive verbs have the structure “verb+preposition+objects ” Can you give me some examples? Ss: Sure. Such as look at the picture, hear from my friends, listen to the radio and so on. T: Ok. Now turn to page 4, Ex. 4. You are to make some sentences of your own, using the words given. S1. I?m looking forward to hearing form my friend S2: We are talking about verbs. S3: Would you like to talk with me? S4: Who can think of an effective solution to the problem? S5: Please think about my proposal. Step Ⅲ Useful Structures T: Let?s come to the next part. This part is about modal verbs. You are to read the sentences in Ex. 1 and then to find out and write down different sentences with modal verbs form the reading passage and try to explain their meanings. If you have any difficulty in understanding them you can refer to Grammar in Pages 92---94 Step Ⅳ Summing up and home work T: Boys and girls, today we have practiced useful words and phrases of this unit and the usage of modal verbs. I think it is not easy for you to master them, after class you should review them. Homework 1. Practice of WBP42EX.1,2,3. 2. Please find out10 sentences with modal verbs, and try to get their meanings.
The fourth period
Teaching aims: 1. Vocabulary: go with, the big bands, musicians, over and over again, for sale, get
used to, the winners of this year?s awards for the best costumes 2. Enable the students to know how to get the key words to understand the conversation about the carnival parade, to talk about sth happened and express request and thanks.
Step Ⅰ Revision After checking the WB Ex. 1,2,3 the teacher ask the students to give examples about modal verbs and try to explain them. Step Ⅱ Warming up T: By the way, what?s the topic of this unit? Ss: Festivals around the world. T: Would you like to know something more about festivals around the world? Ss: Of course. T: Now I will show you several pictures. What?s the festival called? Ss: Carnival. T: Yes. This class we will listen to a dialogue about carnivals. First look through the four questions in listening part to find out the listening points. Step Ⅲ Listening T: I will play the tape for you twice. Please listen carefully and pay much attention to the important points. For the first time you are to make notes beside the questions. For the second time, you should write down the answers and then check them with your partners. ( It?s important to encourage the students to adapt their present knowledge any skill to a variety of situations wherever they can. Make sure to allow various expressions of the answers. Do not demand the same words form all students.) Step Ⅳ Speaking This part is intended to give the students the opportunity to practice a telephone conversation using the functional items for requests and thanks. The polite form of English are important and should be practiced in a variety of situations. Step Ⅴ Listening task T: There are about 10 minutes left. Let?s come to listening task. Turn to page 43 and look at the pictures. They have something in common. Can you find it out? Ss: They are all about festivals bout the dead. T: That?s right. I will play the tape for you. For the first time you should try to write down the name of the country where the festival are held. For the next two times you should do Ex2. You can make a brief note first and then complete the chart,
according to which you can make a report. The fifth period Extensive reading Teaching aims: 1. Vocabulary: heart-broken, turn up, keep one?s word, hold one?s breath, drown one?s sadness in coffee, set off for, remind somebody of something, 2. Learn to compare the festivals in China and in western countries. Step ⅠRevision Check homework Step ⅡReading (1) T: As we know, there are all kinds of festivals around the world. We have talked about two Chinese festivals for the dead. Today we are going ti read a sad story, which is to introduce a cross cultural view of lovers? festival—Qi Qiao and Valentine?s Day. Now please read it quickly and find out the sentence below are true or false. The girl Li Fang loved and waited but she didn?t turn up. But he didn?t lose heart.(F….) Because her most lovely daughter got married to a human secretly, the Goddess got very angry. .(…T.) Zhinv was made to return to Heaven without her husband. They were allowed to meet once a year on the seventh day of the tenth lunar month, .(F….) Hu Jin had been waiting for Li Fang for a long time with a gift for him. .(…T.) T: I think you have got the general idea of the passage. Now please read the passage once more and answer the questions on Page 8. Some language points: 1. turn up: appear 2.keep her word: keep her promise 3.hold his breath: wait without much hope 4.drown one?s sadness/sorrow in coffee: drink coffee in order to forget the sadness/ sorrow 5.remind sb of sth: make sb think of sth Step Ⅲ Discussion and writing T: That?s for the reading part of the passage. Please think about the ending of the story. Are you satisfied with the ending? Different people have different opinions to a matter. Now any one of you have an opportunity to make up an ending to the story. Please engage imaginatively in the story and use your own ideas. Try to use the vocabulary and structures you have learned of you like. Step Ⅳ Reading(2)
T: Let?s come to another passage about carnival in Quebec. Please turn to Page 44, read it quickly and answer the questions in Page 45. Five minutes for you. Added material: Thanksgiving Day Fourth Thursday in November is celebrated as ?Thanksgiving Day? People thank God for his blessings. People can ?Thank? friends, foes and anyone for the experiences, happiness and sunshine they bring into their lives. Pilgrims celebrated the first Thanksgiving Day in America during the second winter in the new world. The first winter had been bad as nearly half of the people had perished due to lack of food and bad weather. But the following year, with the help of Indians who showed them how to plant Indian corn, the pilgrims had successful harvest. Governor William Bradford decided that December 13, 1621 be set aside for feasting and prayer. The Indians were invited to share the festival. Since than, Thanksgiving Day is been celebrated in America. However, it was only in 1941, the Congress in a joint resolution named the fourth Sunday in November as the official Thanksgiving Day. Dating back, it is known that the Council thought to appoint and set apart the 29th day of June, as a day of Solemn Thanksgiving and praise to God for his Goodness and Favour. The First Thanksgiving Proclamation was however on June 20, 1676. The governing council of Charlestown, Massachusetts, held a meeting to determine how best to express thanks for the good fortune that had seen their community securely established. By unanimous vote they instructed Edward Rawson, the clerk, to proclaim June 29 as a day of thanksgiving, It is also known that the Pilgrims set ground at Plymouth Rock on December 11, 1620. Their first winter was devastating. At the beginning of the following fall, they had lost 46 of the original 102 who sailed on the Mayflower. But the harvest of 1621 was a bountiful one. And the remaining colonists decided to celebrate with a feast -- including 91 Indians who had helped the Pilgrims survive their first year. It is believed that the Pilgrims would not have made it through the year without the help of the natives The feast was more of a traditional English harvest festival than a true "thanksgiving" observance. It lasted three days. Thanksgiving, as we know it today, has come a long way from the Pilgrim's harvest festival in 1621. It is an event that seems, as each year goes by, to reinvent itself and to expand its meaning to larger vistas. Maybe this is the real significance of the occasion; for as we continue to change and grow as a people, there are an increasing number of things for which we can be thankful.
Halloween The ancient Druids 督伊德教(古代高卢人与不列颠人的一种宗教)的教徒 who inhabited what we now call Great Britain placed great importance on the passing
of one season to the next, holding "Fire Festivals" which were celebrated for three days (two days on either side of the day itself). One of these festivals was called Samhain (pronounced Sha-Von) and it took place on October 31 through to November 1. During this period, it was believed that the boundaries between our world and the world of the dead were weakened, allowing spirits of the recently dead to cross over and possess the living. In order to make themselves and their homes less inviting to these wayward spirits, the ancient Celts（凯尔特人）would douse （插入 水中, 把弄熄, 弄湿）all their fires. There was also a secondary purpose to this, after extinguishing all their fires, they would re-light them from a common source, the Druidic fire that was kept burning at Usinach, in the Middle of Ireland. Samhain was considered to be a gateway not only from the land of the dead to the land of the living, but also between Summer and Fall/Winter. For the Druids, this was the last gasp （喘息, 气喘）of summer (it was also the Celtic New Year), so therefore they made sure it went out with a bang before they had to button down （把...弄清楚）for the winter ahead. They would dress up in bizarre costumes and parade through their villages causing destruction in order to scare off any recently departed souls who might be prowling （巡游）for bodies to inhabit, in addition to burning animals and other offerings to the Druidic deities（神, 神性）. It is also a popular belief that they would burn people who they believed to be possessed, but this has largely been debunked （揭穿, 拆穿假面具, 暴露）as myth. This tradition was later brought to the North American continent by Irish immigrants who were escaping the Potato Famine in their homeland. In addition to the festival itself, the immigrants brought several customs with them, including one of the symbols most commonly associated with Halloween -- the Jack 'O Lantern. According to Irish folklore, there once lived a man named Jack who was known for being a drunk and a prankster （顽皮的人, 爱开玩笑的人）One night Jack tricked the . devil into climbing a tree, and quickly carved an image of a cross on the trunk, trapping the devil. Jack then made him promise that, in exchange for letting him out of the tree, the Devil would never tempt him to sin again. He reluctantly agreed, but was able to exact his revenge upon Jack's death. Because of his mischievous ways in life, Jack was barred from entering heaven and because of his earlier trick, he was also barred from hell. So he was doomed to wander the earth until the end of time, with only a single ember（灰烬, 余烬） (carried in a hollowed out turnip.[植]芜箐, 芜箐甘蓝) to warm him and light his way.
In Ireland, they originally also used turnips for their "Jack Lanterns", but upon arriving in the new world, they discovered that pumpkins were abundant and easier to carve out.
Easter On Good Friday, Jesus Christ was executed by crucifixion. His body was taken down from the cross, and buried in a cave. The tomb was guarded and an enormous stone was put over the entrance, so that no-one could steal the body. On the following Sunday, some women visited the grave and found that the stone had been moved, and that the tomb was empt y. Jesus himself was seen that day, and for days afterwards by many people. His followers realised that God had raised Jesus from the dead. Hot Cross Buns Hot Cross buns are still made all over England around Easter time. At one time, buns with a cross on them were made all through Lent. They were banned by Oliver Cromwell and brought back again at the time of the Restoration. For a ti me they were onl y available on Good Friday but now they can be bought during the month leading up to Easter. Whole meal hot cross buns are becoming more popular each year. The Easter Egg As with the Easter Bunny and the holiday itself, the Easter Egg predates the Christian holiday of Easter. The exchange of eggs in the springtime is a custom that was centuries old when Easter was first celebrated by Christians. From the earliest times, the egg was a symbol of rebirth in most cultures. Eggs were often wrapped in gold leaf or, if you were a peasant, colored brightly by boiling them with the leaves or petals of certain flowers. Today, children hunt colored eggs and place them in Easter baskets along with the modern version of real Easter eggs -- those made of plastic or chocolate candy. O-bon Festival Bon Dance During o-bon, bon odori (folk dances) are held all over Japan. The kind of dance varies from area to area. People wearing yukata (summer kimono) go to the neighborhood shrine, temple, or park and dance around a yagura (stage) set up there.
Anyone can participate in the dance. Join the circle and imitate what others are doing. Awa odori of Tokushima and bon odori at Yasukuni Shrine, Tokyo are very famous. Also, Toro Nagashi (floating paper lanterns) are held in some areas. On the evening of the 15th, people send off ancestor's spirits with a paper lantern, lit by a candle inside and floated down a river to the ocean. Fireworks displays (Hanabi-taikai) are often held during o-bon. It is a typical Japanese summer scene to see hanabi. Since o-bon is an important family gathering time, many people return to their hometowns during o-bon. Most businesses are closed during this time. Although it is crowded everywhere, it is common for many people take trips during o-bon, too. The beginning and end of o-bon are marked with terrible traffic jams. Airports, train stations, and highways are jammed with travelers. I recommend you do not travel around o-bon!
Unit2 Healthy eating Teaching Aims of this unit 1. Talk about healthy eating 2. Making suggestions or giving advice on diet 3. Distinguish the meanings of Modal verbs 4. Make a balanced menu 5. Vocabulary: 6. fiber,digestion,bean,slim,curiosity,lie,debt,glare,limit,benefit,item,protective get rid of, throw away, get away with, tell lies, earn one?s living in debt ,set out run one?s business ,carry on 7. Speaking: Practice talking about your ideas; practice giving suggestions and advice, practice seeing the doctor. 8. The use o f ought to
The first period Warming up and reading Step Ⅰ Warming up Review the words of foods by showing their pictures. First, ask students to list the foods they like best. Then tick off 3 of them they eat most often. Second, show the three groups of foods and see which group their foods belong to. Third, ask the students to tell us in what ways their foods help them grow.
Step Ⅱ Pre-reading Get the students to discuss the questions with their partners in this part. Then ask them to report their work. This part will help the students understand the text.
T: Please look at the slide show and discuss the questions with your partners. Then I?ll ask you to report your work. Are you clear? Which more… Sugar Fat Fiber protein food contains Examples of foods Chocolate or grapes Cakes or bananas Cream or rice Chocolate or chicken Peas or nuts Pork or cabbage Potato crisps or ham Eggs or cream Answer Chocolate Cakes Cream Chocolate Nuts Cabbage Ham eggs
Step Ⅲ Reading Get the students to comprehend the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the students to form a good habit of reading. Give the students a couple o f minutes to look through the whole passage. Tell the students to read the text silently and then ask for the main idea of the text on the slide show with their partners. Encourage the students to express their ideas. 1. Fast reading In this part ask the students to read the text quickly for the first time and find out the main idea of the text. Then ask them to read the text again carefully to obtain some details. Before reading show the tasks and let the students read the tasks first. This text will help them have a good understanding of the text. a. The two restaurants supplied the healthy diet. b. The reason why Yong Hui’s restaurant was so popular with customers. c. Wang Pengwei found out why he had lost his customers and decided to win them back 2. Careful reading T: Now it is time for us to read the text carefully and decide which sentences are true. Then correct the false ones. First read the sentences. a. Usually Wang Pengwei’s restaurant was full of people. (T ) b. Yong Hui served a balanced diet. ( F) c. Yong Hui could make people thin in two weeks by giving them a good diet. (F) d. Wang Pengwei’s customers often became fat after eating in his reataurant. (T) e. Yong Hui’s menu gives them energy foods. (F ) f. Wang Pengwei’s menu gives tem foods containing fiber. (F )
g. Wang Pengwei admired Yong Hui’s restaurant when he saw the menu. (F ) h. Wang Pengwei decided to copy Yong Hui’s menu. (F ) Step Ⅳ Comprehending By now, the students have had a further understanding of the text. Let the students read the text again and find out the differences between the two restaurant. T: Now please read the text again and fill in the chart together with your partner. disadvantages Wang Pengwei?s Not giving enough foods restaurant containing fiber Yong Hui?s restaurant Not giving enough energy foods advantages Provide plenty of energy foods Providing plenty of fiber foods
T: Until now we have known what?s wrong with both restaurant. What does it matter if you only eat at one of the restaurant? S1:… S2:… S3:… T: You all have a point here. But what will they do? We will see it next period. Facing the serious competiton Wang wasn?t lost in sadness and he didn?t quarrel with his competitor either. He went to the library to learn more about healthy eating and made his menu better than Yong Hui?s menu. Do you think we should follow his example? Ss: Yes. T: Now let?s deal with some language points. Turn to page 10, let?s look at the sentences: a. Wang Pengwei sat in his empty restaurant feeling very frustrated. This sentence means that the second action “ feeling very frustrated” happened together with the main action “sat”. Pay attention to the form (v-ing) of the second action. b. Nothing could have been better. This sentence tells us that everything has worked out the way you would like. It?s a sentence that we can use in any situation. c. He couldn?t have Yong Hui getting away with telling people lies! This sentence means that he will punish Yong Hui for her telling lies. Step Ⅴ Homework 1. Try to retell the text. 2. Prepare for the language learning and do Using words and Expressions on WB (Page 49-50)
The second period Language study Step ⅠRevision 1. Check the students’ homework. 2. Ask some of the students to retell the text. Step Ⅱ Word study This part is a consolidation of the words in the text. Ask the students to do the exercise individually. T: Now please open your books and turn to page 11. Fill in the chart using the correct forms of the words which have the same root. Next activity is to match the definitions with the words we have learnt form the text. I necessary, you can discuss with your partners. ? Step Ⅲ Grammar The students will learn the usage of modal verbs. First try to make the students clear the functions of modal verbs, with the help of the practice 1on page 12. Then give them some examples. T: Please pick out all the sentences containing modal verbs in the text. a. By lunchtime they would have all be sold---It indicates possibility. b. His restaurant ought to be full of people.---It indicates possibility. c. What could have happened?--- It indicates possibility. d. Nothing could have been better.--- It indicates possibility. e. Something terrible must have happened if Maochang was not coming to eat with him as he always did.---It indicates guessing. f. He could not believe his eyes. ---It indicates intension. g. He wonder if he should go to the library to find out ---It indicates duty. h. He wouldn?t have Yong Hui getting away with telling people lies!---It indicates intension. … Step Ⅳ Homework 1. Review the rules of word formation and the meanings of modal verbs. 2. Prepare the Using Structure on page 50 by making a dialogue in pairs.
The third period Listening Step Ⅰ Revision 1. Check the using structure on page 50. 2. Ask the students to make a short dialogue in pairs. Step Ⅱ Listening( using language) The students will hear what Wang Pengwei did after leaving Yong Hui’s restaurant. Ask the students to finish the chart and answer the
questions. T: OK. We have studied the text and know neither of the restaurant supplied a balanced diet. Let’s listen to the tape and see how the story went on. Go through the text quickly on page 14. ( Play the tape. Students write down the answers and check the answers with their partners.) T: Now listen to it again and try to make sure your answers are right. Energy-giving Rice Noodles Nuts butter Body-building Meat Fish Tofu Protective Fruit vegetables
Step Ⅲ Listening (WB P48) The students will heat a conversation between Hong Mei and the doctor. They are asked to do exercise according to the tape. T: Doctor know that there are illnesses you may get if you do not eat properly. In the following part, we are going to listen to a dialogue. Hong Mei is going to see the doctor. Let’s see how the doctor gives her some advice. Listen carefully and do the exercises. Red foods: (Only a little) stop Orange foods: be careful( some every day) Butter, cream, nuts, Bread, noodles, rice, cakes, foods fried in neat, cheese, egg, fat tofu Green foods: go( more every day) All vegetables( potato, cabbage, carrots..)
Step Ⅳ Homework 1. Pre-view the reading(2) and reading task on Page 52. See how the story ended. 2. Find some information about healthy eating on the Internet.
The fourth period
Step ⅠRevision 1. Check the homework 2. Share the information the students have got form the Internet. Step Ⅱ Pre-reading
Ask the students to read some proverbs and translate them into Chinese. T: Today we are going to see the end of the story. First, please look at the blackboard and try to translate the proverbs into Chinese. a. You are what you eat. b. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. c. First wealth is health. The students discuss with their partners. a. 人如其食. b. 一天一个苹果,医生不来找我. c. 健康是人生的第一财富. Step Ⅲ Reading The purpose of this reading is to complete the story of Wang Pengwei and Yong Hui and show the students that it is never too late to change bad eating habits and begin afresh. After the fast reading, let the students do the exercises on page 15. Then let them match the words with their definitions. T: Eating healthily means that no food in itself is good or bad. Eating properly depends on eating the right variety of foods in the right amount. Let’s read the passage quickly and say what they did with their menu. Ask the students to report their work. What did they do? Result 1. cut down the fat Combine their menu and provide 2. increase the fibre a balanced one 1. raw vegetables with 3. a big success hamburgers 2. the boiled potatoes, not fried 3. fresh fruit with ice cream Then find the words from the text to match the definitions. Definitions words Stare angrily or fiercely Glare Take a long deep breath Sigh Keep alive in a certain style Earn one?s living Advantage or profit Benefit Join or mix together to form a Combine whole Owe a lot of money In debt Step Ⅳ Homework 1. Collect eating attitudes from the Internet 2. Practice presenting reasons to support your ideas.
The fifth period Speaking Step ⅠRevision Check the students’homework. Step Ⅱ Warming up T: Work in pairs to act out the dialogue on page 13. One plays as the role of Jane and the other plays the role of Susan. You are shopping in a supermarket. First let the students make a good preparation themselves. Then ask several pairs to act out the dialogue before the class. In this part the, try to make the class get active. Step Ⅲ Talking If young people are too thin or too fat, it shows that they are not eating a balanced diet. So this exercise is to encourage the students to discuss how their diets may affect their quality of life. ( Divide the class into two groups: team A and team B.) T: Now team A will take the role o f the patient who is worried about being too fat and has gone to the doctor for advice. Team B will take the role of the doctor and advise the patient how to change his or her diet. Here are some useful expressions. Imagine what you will say to the doctor or patient. Discuss with your group members. Doctor Patient What’s the matter? What should I do ? How long have you been like What seem to be the trouble? this? I think you ought to.. Do you think you could give me some advice? Perhaps you should? I suppose you had better? Step Ⅳ Speaking task This is the opportunity for the students to discuss their reaction to the information they have received. It allows students to have their own point of view and to practice explaining why they think as they do. T: In the reading task we have read two speakers’arguments. Now it is your turn to discuss what you have heard at the meeting in groups of four. Two of ou argue for and two against building the restaurant. The following is useful to you. Please look at the table. I don’t agree I’m afraid not That’s a good idea. Certainly/ Sure.
Of course not. I don’t think so.
All right. No problem. Yes, I think so.
Step Ⅴ Homework 1. Review the sentence structures, new words and expressions. 2. Imagine the old local restaurant has gone. What do you think should be built there. Present the advantages of your idea.
The sixth period
Writing and re-viewing
Step ⅠRevision Check the homework and take a dictation. Step Ⅱ Writing This is an opportunity for students to practice their persuasive writing skills and try to encourage others to support their point of view. The idea of a new library is chosen because it would be very useful in a town. T: You know, we have mad ea decision that we won’t build a Mcdonal’s. But what do you think should be built on the land? Can you write an article to support your idea? Give you 20 minutes and finish your articles. Pay attention to the orders. 1. Describe the new design 2. Draw a plan 3. explain the advantages of your ideas
Unit Three The Million Pound Bank-Note Teaching aims: 1. Talk about short stories and dramas. 2. Learn how to act out a play 3. Learn how to request and order food 4. Learn noun clauses as the object and predicative
The first period Intensive reading Step I.Warming up 1.Mark Twain is probably one of the few American writers with whom students are already familiar. This exercise makes the teacher find out how much the students know about this writer and decide how much they need to know about the author before they read the play.
T: Do you know something about the American writer Mark Twain? Ss: A little. T: Today we will learn something about this great writer in the American history. Now please read “About Mark Twain” on page 23 so that you can know more about him. 3. Students read the passage about Mark Twain and answer the questions given in the form on page 23. a. What’s the real name of Mark Twain? b. When was he born and when did he die? c. Do you know all the places where he lived? d. Can you name three of his famous stories? T: As we know, Mark Twain is known as a humorist during his life. And this is reflected in THE MILLION POUND BANK-NOTE. So, today we will learn some parts of this famous play. Step ⅡPre-reading Get the students to discuss the question with their partners and then ask them to report their work. Encourage to express their opinions freely. T: If a rich person gives you a large amount of money to use as you like, for example, one million pound, what will you do? Why? ( Students have a discussion on this question. Whatever choice students make here, they should be ready to offer their classmates a good reason for it.) ? T: I think all of you have a good idea. Do you want to know what happened to Henry Adams in THE MILLION POUND BANK-NOTE written by Mark Twain? Have you ever read the story? So this class we will learn the story together. Step Ⅲ While reading 1. Scanning Get the students to comprehend the whole scene quickly and accurately and meanwhile help them form a good habit of reading. Give the students some time to read through the scenes and then answer some questions a. How did Henry Adams come to England? b. Where did Henry work before? How much did he have? c. What did the two gentlemen give Henry? d. When can Henry open the letter. 2. After the students discuss the questions and then check the answers with the whole class. T: Listen to the tape and try to find out the characteristics of the whole passage. Ss: This is part of a play. So, the narration is written in the present tense. T: OK. All of you have done a good job. Next, let’s read the scene again
and do some exercises. Step Ⅳ Post-reading Do comprehending exercises and explain : a. a large amount of: a large quantity of; a great deal of e.g. They bought a large amount of furniture before they moved their new house. b. make a bet: make an arrangement to risk money, etc. on an event of which the result is doubtful. e.g. We made a bet on the result of the match. c. permit sb to do something: allow somebody to do something e.g. My mother doesn’t permit me to ride in the street after it rained. d. by accident: as a result of chance e.g. I only found it by accident. e. stare at: look at somebody or something with the eyes wide open in a fixed gaze( in astonishment, wonder, fear, etc) f. to be honest: to tell you the truth; to be frank e.g. To be honest, I don’t think we have a chance of winning. Step Ⅴ Homework 1. Review the key sentences in this part 2. Preview the words in the second period. 3. Act out the play in groups The second period: Acting Step I Acting T: Are you ready to act out the play now< class? Ss: Yes. T: Good. Let’s welcome the first group and the second group please get prepared. ? T: Class, we should pay attention to some examples of Mark Twain’s humor in this scene, which will help us better understand the play and act it out more appropriately. Do you agree with me? Ss: Yes, of course. Step II Homework Review what we learned in this unit The Third period Watching the movie The Million Pound Banknote
Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of stars
Teaching aims: 1. Talk about the science of stars 2. Practise giving instructions 4. Learn to use noun clauses as the subject 5. Learn to write an essay to show your problems and the way to overcome them. 6. Vocabulary: astronomy, atmosphere, violent, explode, surface, disappointed, gradually, cheer, mass, harmful, presence, in time, prevent ?from? depend on, now that, get the hang of, break out
The first period
Step Ⅰ Presentation T: Hello, everyone! Today we will come to Unit 4, Astronomy. Before that I have a question: where do we come from? Or we can say: Who are our ancestors? S1: Monkeys! S2: Beijing Ren who lived many years ago. S3: dinosaurs ? T: Very good! Do you know what it was like before life appeared on earth? S4: Full of water? Bs: I don’t know. T: Do you want to get more information? Ss: Yes, we do. T: Today we will learn something about how life began on earth. Turn to page 25. Let’s come to Warming up first.
Step Ⅱ Warming up 5. Read the three questions, while the students listen and follow. 6. Give the students several minutes to discuss the questions. 7. Collect answers from the class. 8. Check answers while discussing.
Step Ⅲ Pre-reading Get the students to discuss the questions on page 25 with their partners. Then ask the students to tell their stories. Encourage them to tell different stories, If they don’t know any, tell them some. T: Now discuss these questions with your partners. Then I will ask
some of you to tell us your stories. Are you clear? Ss: Yes. a. Do you know each religion or culture has its own ideas about the beginning of the universe? Give an example if you know. b. Do you know what a scientific idea is? Read some stories to the students. Pangu separates the sky from the earth; The Biblical Account; India; Japan; Europe; ? Step Ⅳ Reading 1. Scanning Get the students to read the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the students to form a good habit of reading. Give the students a couple of minutes to look throuth the whole passage. Tell them to read silently and then ask some detailed questions about the text. Encourage them to express their ideas. T: We are going to learn a passage about how life began on the earth. Now read the text quickly and then answer my questions. a. What was there on the earth before life began? b. Why do scientist think there has never been life on the moon? c. Why do animals first appear in the sea? d. Why do green plants help life to develop? e. Why were mammals different from other animals? Discuss the answers with the whole class. 2. Skimming In this part, students will read the text again and finish part 1,2,3 T: Now skim the passage fast to finish part1,2,3,4 Then we will check the answers together. Key to part 1: DBIGEHACFJ Discuss the rest with the students. Step Ⅴ Listening
Listen to the tape for the students to follow and have further understanding of the passage. T: Read after the tape, then answer me some questions with your book closed. a. How did water come into being on the earth? b. Why is water important on earth?
Step Ⅵ Language points T: Turn to page 25. Let’s look at the sentences: a. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour. Which leads non-restrictive attributive clause. in time: sooner or later; eventually I will see him in time. In time ( for sth/to do sth): not late She will be back in time to prepare dinner. In/out of time: in/not in the correct time The audience clapped in time to the music. b. Nobody knew that it was going to be different from other planets going around the sun. Be different from: not like someone or something else in one or more ways City life is quite different from country life. c. Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved. To come: serves as attributive She is the last person to do such a thing. Depend on: something might only happen or be true if the circumstances are right for it Our success depends on whether everyone works hard or not. d. Walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed. Now that: because of the fact that Now that I am free, I can enjoy music for a while. Now that you have grown up, you can decide it by yourself. Step Ⅶ Homework 1. Retell the passage 2. Remember important language points The second period Language study
Step Ⅰ Revision 1. Check retelling of the passage 2. Translate the following sentences. a. 你迟早会成功的. b. 我的车与你的不一样. c. 站在门旁边的那个人是谁? d. 他总是第一个来,最后一个走. e. 既然你已经长大了,你自己决定吧. Suggested answers:
a. b. c. d. e.
You will succeed in time. My car is different from yours. Who is the person standing by the door? He is always the first to come and the last to go. Now that you have grown up you can decide it yourself.
Step Ⅱ Word study This part is a consolidation of the words learnt in this unit. Ask the students to do the exercises individually. a. Page 27. First let students finish part 1,2 b. Check the answers with the whole class. c. Give students 3minutes to finish part 3. d. Let the students read part 4 for a while and finish it. e. Turn to page 63. First let the students finish 1and 2 and check the answers. Step Ⅲ Preparation Show some sentences on the blackboard. a. A tree has fallen across the road. b. You are a student. c. To find your way can be a problem. d. Smoking is bad for you. e. “How do you do?” is a greeting. f. What she said is not yet known. g. That we shall be late is certain. h. It’s certain that we shall be late . T: What part does the underlined part serve as in each sentence? Or find its subject in each sentence. Step Ⅳ Grammar 1. Give the students some time to find the sentences in the passage. The collect answers from the class. 2. Show typical examples of how to make a subject clause. Guide the Ss to find out what changes we have to make when we make a sentence or combine two sentences using subject clause. Teacher shows the example and Ss write down the sentences. 3. Turn to page 64. Read the following passage quickly and finish the eight sentences. 4. Have a discussion in pairs. The topic is My dream. One talks about the problems in his study or life, another gives some advice. Remind the students to use the following structures a. My problem is?
b. c. d. e. f. g.
My trouble is? The question is? My advice is? What I think about it is? The fact is? My suggestion is?
Step ⅤHomework 1. Finish part 3(P23) 2. Finish part 3(P64) Added material: 什么是黑洞？ 就是在宇宙中有那么一些点，这些点的体积趋向于零而密度变得无穷大，由 于具有强大的吸引力， 物体只要进入离这个点一定距离的范围内，就会被这个强 大的引力吸收掉， 连光线也不例外。因此任何进入这个范围的物体都无法再逃出 来，就是说，没有任何信号能够从这个范围内传出，因此这个范围的界限被称作 视界，里面的情形人类无法看到。所以科学家给它起了个名字叫黑洞，英文就是 black hole。 一颗燃烧尽了的恒星由于自身的重力而不断坍缩，最后就会形成黑 洞。 历时 30 年霍金改观点 称黑洞能“吸”能“吐” 从事宇宙黑洞研究近三十年的世界天体物理学泰斗斯蒂芬· 霍金在前不久承 认“黑洞悖论”有误之后，21 号，他在爱尔兰都柏林举行的一个学术研讨会上 终于就自己的新发现向外界进行了详细阐述。 黑洞是宇宙中引力极强的区域。19 世纪 70 年代，霍金首次提出黑洞能够辐 射能量的理论， 但是在引入这一理论的同时，霍金也制造了物理学上的一个巨大 难题，因为他认为 黑洞辐射不包含以前吸入物质的相关信息，而且随着黑洞的消失，曾经存在 的黑洞的相关信息也会消失于无形。 这与量子力学中认为物质信息不会完全消失 的理论相矛盾。对此，过去近 30 年来，霍金的解释是：黑洞中的量子运动是一 种特殊情况，这种说法受到了许多科学家的质疑。 如今，霍金终于改变了观点，在当天召开的学术研讨会上，霍金说，根据他 的最新发现， 黑洞并非只是吞噬物质。除了会在星系形成的过程中扮演重要角色 外， 在经过一段相当漫长的时间后，黑洞也会把一些曾被它吸入的物质信息向外 界释放出来。 霍金的最新阐述被不少人称为黑洞理论的一个重要逆转。 美国加州理工学院 的理论物理学家约翰·普雷斯基就是其中之一。20 多年前，霍金提出黑洞辐射 理论时，普雷斯基就一直坚持物质信息不会完全消失，当时两人还因此打赌。所 以，在当天结束演讲后，霍金将一本百科全书赠予普雷斯基，作为打赌输了的代 价，而普雷斯基则获得了全场的热烈掌声。 Black holes (1) What is a black hole? Well, it's difficult to answer this question, since the terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space (not a thing )
into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape---- not even light. So we can't see a black hole. A black hole experts a strong gravitational pull and yet it has no matter. It is only space ---- or so we think . how can this happen? (2) The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point; they collapse and sometimes a supernova occurs. Form earth , a supernova looks like a very bright light in the sky which shines even in the daytime. Supernovae were reported by astronomers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Some people think that the Star of Bethlehem could have been a supernova. The collapse of a star may produce a White Dwarf or a neutron star--- a star , whose matter is so dense that it continually shrinks by the force of its own gravity. But if the star is very large (much bigger than our sun) this process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results. Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble, but still having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull, and you have some idea of the force of a black hole. Any matter near the black hole is sucked in. It is impossible to say what happens inside a black hole. Scientists have called the boundary area around the hole the " event horizon." We know nothing about events which happen once objects pass this boundary. But in theory, matter must behave very differently inside the hole. (3) For example , if a man fell into a black hole, he would think that he reached the center of it very quickly. However an observer at the event horizon would think that the man never reached the center at all. Our space and time laws don't seem to apply to objects in the area of a black hole. Einstein's relativity theory is the only one which can explain such phenomena , so that there is no " absolute" time and space depend on the position of the observer. They are relative. We do not yet fully understand the implications of the relativity theory; but it is interesting that Einstein's theory provided a basis for the idea of black holes before astronomers started to find some evidence for their existence. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes. In August 1977, a satellite was launched to gather data about the 10 million black holes which are thought t be in the Milky way. And astronomers are planning a new observatory to study the individual exploding stars believed to be black holes. (4) The most convincing evidence of black holes comes from research into binary star systems. Binary stars, as their name suggests ,are twin stars whose position in space affects each other. In some binary systems, astronomers have shown that there is an invisible companion star, a "partner" to the one which we can see in the sky. Matter from the one we can see is being pulled towards the companion star. Could this invisible star, which exerts such a great force , be a black hole? Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too, which might have black holes as companions. (5) The story of black holes is just beginning . Speculations about them are endless. There might be a massive black hole at the center on our galaxy swallowing up stars at a very rapid rate. Mankind may one day meet this fate. On the other hand, scientists have suggested that very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind. These speculations sound like science fiction. But the theory of black holes in space is accepted by many serious scientists and astronomers .they show us a world which operates in a totally different way from our
own and they question our most basic experience of space and time. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer for the following questions 1) Black holes are related to ____ A. geography B. astronomy C. physics D. economic 2) A black hole is ____ A. a dark star B. a large heavenly body C. a region of space D. a great mass of matter 3) what causes some stars to explode, theoretically speaking ? A. their density B. their gravity. C. their movement D. their light
4) Scientists call the area around the black hole ____. A. a White Dwarf B. a supernova C. the event horizon D. the star of Bethlehem
5) according to Einstein's relativity theory, there is no "absolute " time and space. Is it true or false? A. true B. false 6) which of the following statements is not true? The story of black holes in space____ A. is accepted by many serious scientists and astronomers B. has to some extent been proved by research into binary star system C. is questioning our basic idea of space and time D. Sounds like science fiction 7) according to the passage , our earth may be swallowing by the black hole one day, is it true or false ? A. true B. false 8) according to the passage , the human being one day may make use of the energy of black hole by advanced technology. Is it true or false? A. true B. false
Unit 5 Canada---The true north
Teaching aims: 1. Talk about the basic information about Canada. 2. Learn how to read a traveling report and use maps. 3. Learn to express locations and directions. 4. Master the noun clauses--- appositive clause 5. Vocabulary: minister, continent, surround, dawn, booth, slightly, settle down, have a gift for, figure out, as far as, all the way, rather than The first period Step Ⅰ Revision 1. Check the students’ homework 2. Check the assignment. Step ⅡLead-in and warming up Show the students the maple flag and ask them some questions. T: Do you know which country uses this national flag? Ss: Canada. T: What continent is Canada in? Ss: In North America. T: How large is it? Ss: It is the second largest country in the world. T: Yes. It occupies an area of 9,984,670 square kilometers. It is a bit bigger than China. Which country is its neighbor? Ss: The United States. (Show a map of Canada to the students) T. Right. The United States is . Canada is a beautiful country. First let’s have a quiz and see how much do you know about Canada. ( Give the Ss one minute to finish the quiz.) T: OK. Time is up. Let’s check the answers. 1.C 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.A Step Ⅲ Pre-reading T: Now I want to ask you a question: Do you like travelling? Ss: Yes. T: I know most of you do. So have you ever been abroad? Ss: Yes/No. T: What’s the longest trip you have ever taken? ? T: Very good. If we want to make our motherland more beautiful and more developed, we should know more about other countries. Here are two questions, you may ask your partner for answers and give your answers to him/her.
a. If you take a trip to Canada, what do you expect to see? b. What three words would you use to describe Canada? (Ask some pairs to tell their ideas to their classmates.) Step Ⅳ Fast reading Get the students to read the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the students to form a good habit of reading. T: Do you feel puzzled when you read the title? What is the true north? Now read the passage and get the general idea of the passage. Underline the main places mentioned in the text. Give the Ss 5 minutes for reading. a. What the passage is mainly about? b. What are the main places mentioned in the text? c. Draw the traveling route of the two girls on the map. T: Do you have any difficulty in reading? Now let’s discuss some difficult points together. Step Ⅴ Homework 1. Remember the underlined sentence. 2. Write a short passage to report what Li Daiyu and Liu Qian saw in Canada.
The second period Step ⅠRevision 1. Have a dictation. 2. Ask two students to write on the blackboard. 3. Ask one student to make a short report.
Step Ⅱ Lead-in T: Li Daiyu and Liu Qian were on the train yesterday. The train rushed across the top of the Lake Superior. Which is the next city it runs towards? Ss: Toronto. T: Toronto is an important city. It is the finance center of Canada. It has rich popular arts and culture. How much do you know about Toronto? Ss: There are Chinatowns where you can buy Chinese medicine. T: Quite right. Do you want to know more about Toronto? Ss: Yes. Step Ⅲ Reading T: Read the passage on 38. In this passage, you can learn a lot about Toronto, and Montreal, which is Canada’s second largest city. I will give you four minutes to read the passage, then answer the questions on 37—38.
Four minutes later, check the answers with the class. Step Ⅳ Intensive reading(reading task) T: Read the passage and fill in the chart using the information of the text.
Points in the What Beth thought passage The temperature How to travel Holidays How people live What the Inuit do Daylight hours
T: You can have a discussion with your partner. Step Ⅴ Discussion T: We have known a lot about Canada. Now let’s compare China with Canada. Same as China Different from China Large land Six time area Weather is different from No places as hot as south area to area, long and hard china winter Different people speak Canada has two official different languages languages, smaller population Many rivers and lakes World famous rivers and lakes Much coal, oil gas and other Much fresh water, a lot of natural resources forest Step Ⅵ Homework 2. Read the two passages again and find the main characters of Toronto, Montreal and Iqaluit. 3. Read fun reading by yourself.
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