I 语法 Grammar 1. 定语从句 2. 名词性从句 3. 状语从句 4. 情态动词 5. 非谓语动词 6. 代词 7. 特殊句式 II 词汇 1. 高考单选+完型-2013 2. 必修1-5 重点动词及动词词组 常见名词 形容词副词褒贬意义
1. 语法当堂理解，记忆重要考点句型 笔记：要求背诵的固定句式，真题中 自己不会的
词，词组 2. 当堂解决所有高考完型生词即单词辨 析， 笔记：整理在完型上面，重新整理到 笔记本上 3. 必修1-5 动词背诵 笔记：重点动词基本用法，简单例句 （高考考点） 作业：背+题
1.calm down 2. be concerned about 3.be crazy about ； fall in love with 4. ignore , go through ; suffer 5. make a list of 必修一unit1- 龟兔赛跑的真相 6. add up to 7get along with. cheat 8. share sth. with sb. ; 9. join in 10.communicate with 12. happen to do 12. laugh at 13. set down
14. go on holiday 15.. Be/get tired of 16 walk the dog I got tired of my usual life so I went on holiday on the beach, where I met an old friend of my mom’s. After greeting her politely, I asked what she was doing here. She answered, ―I am walking my dog now.‖ Surprised, I asked，“But where is your dog? ”Then she cried ― Oh, dear, I forgot to take her out with me!‖
friendship nature situation habit, culture
? upset ? loose ? selfish grateful favorite
Unit2 Include Settle recognize play a role (in) play a part(in) be based on make use of
Unit2 Latter apartment/flat Direction Government culture rule
Unit2 international native modern polite
Unit3 Unit2 1.get sb interested in afford 2.dream of doing separate 3. persuade sb to do prefer 4.insist on sth /doing encourage sth 5.put up one’s tents 6.care about 7. care for sth/sb 8. make up one’s 9.be familiar with sth be familiar to sb
Unit2 finally brave reliable proper determined
Uni4 1.rise 2. ruin/destroy 3. injure 13.be proud of 4.judge useless 5.imagine strange/stranger 6.rescue 7.express 8. Be trapped in 9.organize 10.prepare to do sth/get prepared 11. Shake hands with sb. 12. Burst into laughter/tears
Unit5 1.fight 2. mean 3. advise 4. continue 5. accept 6. Save 7. offer
8. found 9. come to power 10. devote … to … 11. set up 12. lose heart 13. worry about 14. believe in
1. mean 2.selfish 3. cruel 4. easy-going 5. equal 15. put…in prison 6. generous 16. realize one’s 7. lawyer dream of
My Attributive Clause
定语: 修饰名词或代词的成分叫做定语。 ? 定语可以由adj，n，to do，done，doing 或clause(从句)来充当。 She is a beautiful girl. （adj.） I met someone funny on my way to Beijing. （adj.) He is an English teacher. （n.） The meeting to be held next week is of great importance to our company.（不定式） The book written by a schoolboy is very popular now.(过去分词) We can see the rising sun. （现在分词） He is in the reading room. （现在分词） The boy who broke the window is Tom’s brother. （定语从句）
I. 定语从句的本质及概念 II. 定语从句的九个关系词 ---—长长99的定语从句 III.高考中的定语从句
? ? ?
I.定语从句的本质及概念 1. 定语从句的本质 两个句子中含有一个相同的名词或代词， 则可以将这两句话合成一个复合句，即 定语从句。
I love the snow I love the snow. The snow is breathtaking. which I love the snow the snow is breathtaking.
先行词和关系词的关系 Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.
Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine the machine can fly.
Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that /which can fly.
1)（2013山东卷） Finally he reached a lonely island. The island was completely cut off from the outside world.
Finally he reached a lonely island the island was completely cut off from the outside world.
Finally he reached a lonely island which/that was completely cut off from the outside world.
2). 【2012浙江】 Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature. A painter of birds and of nature, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society. Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, a painter of birds and of nature, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society. Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, who, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society.
3). (江西卷) 介词＋关系词+从句 ? The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs. They are being trained for the jobs. ? The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs the jobs they are being trained for. ? The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs which they are being trained for.
The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs (for which they are being trained).
4).（全国卷1）介词＋关系词+从句 I have many friends. Some of my friends are businessmen . I have many friends, +some of my friends are businessmen. I have many friends, some of whom are businessmen . I have many friends , of whom some are businessmen .
5).关系副词的情况 where I walked in our garden. Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees in our garden. I walked in our garden, in our garden Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. I walked in our garden, in which Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. I walked in our garden, where Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees.
I- 2定语从句的概念： a）什么是定语从句？
起定语作用，修饰一个名词或代词的从句 （定语从句从成分和意义上讲都包括关系词） b）什么是先行词和关系词？ 关系词有什么 作用？ 先行词即被从句修饰的名词或代词；
2.代替先行词在从句中充当成分;（先行词在 从句中做什么成分，关系词就做什么成分） 关系词的选择要看： 1.先行词是人是物
定语从句类型 1. 限定性定语从句： 2. 非限定性定语从句：不用that引导
一 定语从句类型： 1. 限定性定语从句： 1. Happiness and success often come to those who are good at recognizing their own strengths.(13湖南) 2. He wrote a letter where he explains what had happened in the accident.(13 江西)
2. 非限定性定语从句：不用that引导 1. Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, which made one of the Chinese people’s long-held dreams come true.（13安徽） 2. There is no simple answer, as is often the case in science. (13)
3: 定语从句有时会远离先行词： 1. I was the only person in my office who was invited. 2. I sent a card to my friend Jane which is very beautiful. I sent a card to my friend Jane who is very beautiful. 3. You can’t tell anyone the news who ___ ought not to know it.
4（2013江苏卷）The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China， which _____he remembers starting as early as his childhood.
II. 定语从句的九个关系词 ---—长长99的定语从句 6个关系代词：who, whom, which, that, as, whose 3个关系副词：when，where， why
whom which 关系代词 that（限） as
人 物 人或物 人或物
主, 宾， 定（这个那个； 这些那些） 主，宾，表 主，宾，表
where 关系副词 when why
地点 时间 reason
状 状 状
1.The man______ I am going to meet at the station is Professor Smith. A. with whom B. which C. whom D. whose 2.This is the factory where we visited last year. 3. The house in that we live is very small. 4. The person to who you spoke is a student of Grade Two. 5. The sun gives off light and warmth, that makes it possible for plants to grow.
一 关系代词 6个 1. who ; whom 2. which 3. that 4. whose 5. as
关系代词1– who, whom 1. Who whom 指人， who在从句中做主语，宾语 Whom在从句中做宾语 2. 介词+whom，不可加who 3. who/whom 作宾语可以省略， 但介词+whom时，whom不可省略 1.The tall man who is standing over there is my brother. 2. The man who/ whom I saw is called Smith. 3. I just met a lady who/whom we both know. 4. Do you happen to know the guy to whom Lucy is talking?
介词+whom 高考常考点 5. The gentleman about whom you told me yesterday proved to be a liar. 6. Alec asked the policeman with whom he worked to call him whenever there was an accident. 7. The person from whom the message came did not say his name. 8. He is the person to whom you can turn for help.(05)
1. –Why does she always ask you for help? -- There is no one else___ , is there?(05) A who to turn to B she can turn to C for whom to turn D for her to turn 2. American women usually identify their best friends as someone ____ they can talk frequently.（04） A who B as C about which D with whom
3. I have many friends, ___ some are businessmen.(05) A of them B from which C who of D of whom 4. Women __ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ___ don’t. (06) A who; / B / ; who C who; who D /; /
5.(2013浙江卷)The children, ______ had played the whole day long, were worn out. A. all of what B. all of which C. all of them D. all of whom
2. Which 1）基本用法 2）介词+which 3）which指代前面整个句子 1. China is a country which has a long history.
2. New York, which I visited last year, is a nice city. 3. The road conditions there turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect. 4. This is the house in which he once lived. 5. She was educated at Beijing University, after which she went on to have her advanced study abroad.
1）. which 基本用法 ：先行词为物且在从句中做 主宾表 1.He made another wonderful discovery,_____ of great importance to science. (98) A which I think it B which I think it is C which I think is D I think which is 2.（2013山东卷）Finally he reached a lonely island _________ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom
3.【2012江西】28. By 16:30, ____ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that
Which 做定语，翻译成“这个那个，这些那些” （理解）whose—某某的 1.Tom spent 4 years in college, during which time he learned French. =and during that time he learned French. 2.We travelled together to Paris, at which place we broke up. =and at that place we broke up. 3.I told him to go to a doctor, which advice he took.=and this advice he took.=and he took this advice. 4. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., by which time many people have gone home.
Which 做定语，翻译成“这个（ 种）那个（种），这些那些”（
（2013辽宁卷）He may win the competition, _______he is likely to get into the national team. A. in which case B. in that case C. in what case D. in whose case
（重庆卷）32. Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, ____ he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students' Union. A. during which time B. for which time C. during whose time D. by that time
II 介词 + which ; 高考频繁考点 形容词最高级/代词/ 数词+介词+which
2. China has a lot of rivers, the second longest __________is the Yellow River. of which 3. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most of whichhadn’t been ______ cleaned for at least a year.
4.Henry came up and gave me two books, ___ seemed to be interesting judging from the titles. A none of which B either of that C neither of which D both of them
5.The English play___ my students acted at the New Years was a great success. (04) A for which B at which C in which D on which 6. He was educated at a local grammar school, ____ he went to Cambridge.(05) A from which B after that C after which D from this 7. It is reported that two school, ____ are being built in my hometown, will open next year. (07) A they both B which both C both of them D both of which
8. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ____ are sold abroad.(04) A of which B which of C of them D of that 9. I was given three books on cooking, the first ____ I really enjoyed.(06) A of that B of which C that D which 10. Wind power is an ancient source of energy ____ we may return in the near future.(10) A on which B by which C to which D from which
III. Which 可以指代前面整个句子 主句, which… . 1. Jack drove too fast, which was dangerous. 2. He said he had never seen her before, which was not true. 3. Carol said the work would be done by October, which personally I doubt very much. (99) 4. The road conditions there turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect.(00)
5. He was very rude to the customs officer, which of course made things even worse.(98) 6. Wilma became the first American woman to win 3 Olympic gold medals in track, which made her mother very proud. (91)
Which 指代前面整个主句 1. Whenever I met her, ____ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile.(09) A who B which C when D that 2. After graduating from college, I took some time off to go travelling, ___ turned out to be a wise decision. (10 ) A that B which C when D where 3. My friend showed me round the town, ____ was very kind of him.(09) A which C that C there D it
4. They’ve won their last three matches, ____ I find a bit surprising actually. (09) A that B when C that D which 5.（2013天津卷）We have launched another man-made satellite, is announced in today’s newspaper. A.that B.which C. who D. what
用于写作 读文章可以帮助你提高写作能力。 =你要读文章，这可以帮助你提高写作能力。 You should read a lot, which will help you improve your writing skills. 2013 期末高二作文 太多私家车造成交通堵塞。-路上有太多私家车，几乎每天高峰时段都会造成 严重拥堵。 There are too many private cars, which contributes to serious traffic jam in rush hours almost everyday.
3. 关系代词 that
1）先行词可以是 人， 物，人+物 2）有两种情况不用that： a. 非限定性定语从句 b. 介词+关系代词 3）that 只有在引导定语从句时必须且肯定在 从句中做成分，引导其他从句时都不做成 分 4）当先行词为物时，that与which有区别 （ 死记硬背，很少考）
5) that – 先行词为 time/way This is the first time (that) I have been here. I don’t like the way (that) you talk to him. in which
1）. that 1. All that I want to do is (to) spend a lifetime with you. 2. This is the very book that I was looking for. 3. He is not the person that he used to be He is not what he used to be. 4. The women that spoke to me just now used to live here. 5. I still remember the persons and the school that I visited during that summer.
1.(2011· 山东卷)32.The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other. A. they B. where C. what D. that
2.【2012江西】 By 16:30, ____ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that
3.【2012山东】 Maria has written two novels, both of ___ have been made into television series. A. them B. that C. which D. what
4.（2013辽宁卷）He may win the competition, _______he is likely to get into the national team. A. in which case B. in that case C. in what case D. in whose case
5.（2013重庆卷）John invited about 40 people to his wedding, most of_______are family members ? A them B. that ? C.which D. whom
4）只用that, 不用which 的情况 1. 先行词前面有不定代词，最高级，序数词， the only, the very, the right, last, just 2. 不定代词做先行词且指物 3. 即有人又有物作先行词 4. Who is the person that is working over there? 5. He is not the person that he used to be. He is not what he used to be. The school is not the one that it used to be 10 years ago. =? 6. There is a story that I want you to know. (There is a lady who wants to see you. )
that , which or who?
1.He did all / everything _______he could to help me. that 2.This is the very thing _______ I am after. that 3.We talked about the men and the things _______ that we remembered at school. that 4.He is the only man _______ can do the work. 5.This is the first thing _______ I want to say. that 6.He is the finest man _______ I have ever worked that with. 7.Who is the man _______ spoke to you at the gate. that 8.Which is the star _______ is nearest to the earth. that
1. When she came back from London, she told us about the schools and teachers_____ she had visited. A. who B. that C. which D. where 2. Who is the boy ______is speaking there A. whom B. which C. that D. who 3 . David is one of the foreign teachers who_____ in China.(主谓一致) A. is working B. works C. has worked D. work 4 . David is the only one of the foreign teachers who_______ in our county. （主谓 一致） A. is working B. work C. have worked D. are working
关系代词4-- Whose – 1）基本意义为… 的, 只做 定语，指代人或物的2）介词+whose 1. Recently I bought an Ancient Chinese vase, whose price is very reasonable. 2. Have you seen the film ―Titanic‖, whose leading actor is world famous? 3. Mark Twain, whose real name was Samuel Langhorne Clemens, wrote many humorous novels. 4. Noriko Sakai (酒井法子) is a famous star from whose house the police found drugs.
5. We should remember Nelson Mandela from whose life we can learn a lot.
Whose可指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语 (1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (2) I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. whose指物时，常用以下结构来代替 (3) The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom of which the door is broken will soon be repaired. (4) Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?
1.Do you know the girl _____necklace has been stolen? A. her B. which C. that D. whose 2. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ___ was very reasonable.(00) A which price B the price of which C its price D the price of whose
16. (2013福建卷)The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ____ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which
【2012天津】7. I wish to thank Professor Smith, without ____ help I would never have got this far. A. who B. whose C. whom D. which
2.（2011· 江西卷）34.She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction______ has taken more than three years. A. for which B. with which C. of which D. to which
that , which ,whose, whom or who? 9.Is there anything else _______ you want to say? that 10.He often speaks the role he played in the play, which _______ made others upset. which 11.He opened the door, in front of _______ sat a boy. 12.The man to _______ I spoke is a famous scientist. whom 13.The boy _______ mother is dead was brought up whose by his father.
讲完who; whom; which; that; whose后 扩展总结： 介词+ which/ whom/whose 考察重灾区 1. 纯介词+ which/ whom/whose 2.形容词最高级（the biggest）/代词/(some/all)/ 数词(one third/80%)+介词+which / whom (频 繁考点) 3. 介词短语+which+全部倒装定语从句 He lives in a big house, in front of which stood a big tall tree. He opened the door, in front of which sat a boy 4. 介词+ which/ whom+ to do
跟你说话的那个人是个科学家 The man whom you spoke to
was a scientist.
which she lives in is far away.
Are these two sentences right?
The man The city
who/whom you spoke to was a scient that/which she lives in is far away.
Are these two sentences right?
who/whom you spoke was a scienti in that/which she lives is far away.
Are these two sentences right?
to who/whom you spoke was a scienti in that/which she lives is far away.
Are these two sentences right?
to who/whom you spoke was a scienti in that/which she lives is far away.
Are these two sentences right?
who/whom you spoke in
was a scienti
that/which she lives
is far away.
Are these two sentences right?
The man to who/whom you spoke ×
was a scienti
The city in that/which she lives ×
is far away.
注意： a. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如： look for, look after, take care of等 (1) This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T) (2) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F)
介词+which; 介词+ whom; 介词+ whose (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. (2) We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
(3) He is the very person in whose pocket I found my lost watch.
b. ―介词+关系代词”前可有代词或者数词： (1)代词（some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few ）+ 介词+ 关系代词
I picked up the apples 有一些是坏的 , some of which were bad. ( , ) and/ but some of them were bad. ; some of them were bad. . Some of them were bad. （标点！）
(2) 数词或形容词最高级+ 介词+ 关系代词 There are 64 students in our class, 15 of whom are boys. 十五名男生。 more than超过半数是女生。 half of whom are girls. two-thirds三分之二是女生。 of whom are girls. 最高的是Tom。 the tallest of whom is Tom. Henny came up and gave me two books, ___ seemed to be interesting judging from the titles. A none of which B either of that C neither of which D both of them
1.根据从句中动词与先行词的逻辑关系，请体会 ： e.g. Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles? 2. 根据从句中动词或形容词的习惯搭配，如： e.g. She has only ten yuan with which she can buy a gift for her mom. Can you explain to me how to use these machines about which I’m not sure. 3. 根据先行词与介词的搭配习惯，请体会： e.g. 1988 was the year in which she was born.
1.根据从句中动词与先行词的逻辑关系，请体会 ： e.g. Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles? 2. 根据从句中动词或形容词的习惯搭配，如： e.g. She has only ten yuan with which she can buy a gift for her mom. Can you explain to me how to use these machines about which I’m sure. 3. 根据先行词与介词的搭配习惯，请体会： e.g. 1988 was the year in which she was born.
on which 1. Do you like the book ______ she spent $10? for which 2.Do you like the book ____she paid $10? 3.Do you like the book about which she _________ often talks? 4.He lived in a big in front of which house,_____________(门前) stood a tall tree. to whom 5.The man ________ I spoke on the phone last night is very good at wrestling.
6. China has a lot of rivers, the second of which longest __________is the Yellow River.
7. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most of whichhadn’t been ______ cleaned for at least a year.
8.Recently I bought a second-hand car, _________________was reasonable. the price of which
of which the price whose price
? 注意： ? Now he works in the factory in which his father used to work. ? A in B / C with D to ? (拆分为两句) ? Now he works in the factory. ? His father used to work in the factory. 主从句的介词是互不影响的。 We work for My Smith to whom you can turn when you are in trouble.
回忆 5).关系副词的情况 when I walked in our garden. Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees in our garden. I walked in our garden, in our garden Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. I walked in our garden, in which Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. I walked in our garden, where Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees.
1.（山东卷）30.He was educated at a local grammar school, ______ he went on to Cambridge. A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this
2. (江西卷)25．The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs ______ they are being trained. A．in that B．for that C．in which D．for which
3. Eric received training in computer for one year, _____ he found a job in a big company. [2007 辽宁卷] A. after that B. after which C. after it D. after this
4. （全国卷1）24． I have many friends , some are businessmen . A．of them B．from which C．who of D．of whom
5. We shouldn’t spent our money testing so many people, most of _____are healthy. [2007 北京卷] A. that B. which C. what D. whom
6. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _______ wanted to buy it. [2007 安徽卷] A. none of them B. both of them C. none of whom D. neither of whom
7.(2006辽宁卷.25) I was told that there were about 50 foreign students _________ Chinese in the school, most _________ were from Germany. A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom
8.(2006湖南卷.30) We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, ________ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which
9.(2006浙江卷.13) I was given three books on cooking, the first _______ I really enjoyed. A. of that B. of which C. that D. which
10. (广东卷)35. Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes ______ people were eaten by the tiger. A. in which B. by which C. which D. that
11. （湖南卷）27. Frank's dream was to have his own shop ____ to produce the workings of his own hands. A. that B. in which C. by which D. how
5. 最后一个关系代词-- as
As 在定从中 1.As 指前面整个主句，意思是正如正像， 可放于句首。 2. the same …as; such… as
3. 常见句型 As is often the case,… As often happens,… As is the case with sb/sth,… As is known to all,… As we all know,… As is expected/ reported/announced/believed,… As we expect, … As we can see,…
1、as 可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代 表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。
2、as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、 主句之后，甚至还可以分割主句。 另外，as 常 常有“正如、正像”的含义。如： As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知，中国是发展中国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人，从他的口音我们就可以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知， 约翰是个著名作家。
3、当先行词受such, the same 修饰时，关系词 常用as。 如： I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。
? 注意： 当先行词受the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句，但与as引导的定语从句意 思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的那个同一条连 衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿就像着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。
He is such a good teacher _____ we love and respect. A.that B.so C.who D.as
解答：如果选A, 那么就是such...that...句型，其 中that 是没有词义，也不做句子成分的；但是显 然及物动词love and respect 没有宾语，所以选 A不合适。 选D是因为：as 这里用作关系代词， 引导定语从句，as 作宾语。 as引导的定语从句， 通常和such, the same 连用。例如： He made the same mistake as I had made.
考点 1. As 基本用法 2. 与主语从句区别 It is well known that the sun is a star What is well known is that the sun is a star. As is well known, the sun is a star.
1.（2013陕西卷） is often the case with children, Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived. A. It B. That C. What D. As
2.（2013山东卷）There is no simple answer, _____ is often the case in science. A. as B. that C. when D. where
3.【2012福建】23. The air quality in the city, _____ is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. A. that B. it C. as D. what
4.【2012安徽】29. Ａlot of language learning, has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during that period. A. as B. it C. which D. this
二关系副词 3个 1. when 2. where 3. why
关系副词在从句中只作状语 where; when; why;
状语： 1. 什么是状语？ 修饰 v., adj., adv., 以及全句的句子成分，叫 状语。 1) He was badly/ seriously/ severely injured. 2) The weather is extremely cold. 3) He runs unbelievably fast. 4) Unfortunately, he failed the exam.
2. 什么可以作状语？ Adv., 介词短语， to do， done，doing, 状 语从句等。 1) He works there/here. We think well of him. He is well thought of (by us). 2) He lives in a big house. In the end, he came home safely. China was founded on October 1st, 1949. He left for no reason.
3) To get up early, I turn on my clock. 4) Devoted to his business, he ignored his family. She shouted at us, waving her hands excitedly. 5) Where there is a will, there is a way. When he arrived home, he found his house broken into.
关系副词 ：1. Where 1. He returned to the small town __ which he grew up as a child. in He returned to the small town where he grew up as a child. He returned to the small town. He grew up as a child in the small town. He returned to the small town. He grew up as a child there.
1. Mankind has searched the moon on which we find no living things. 2. We went to the beach on which there were many tourists. =?
1. Shanghai is the city where I was born. 2. The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 3. This is the place where he used to live. 4. I walked in our garden, where Tom and Jim were playing tennis. 5. He now lives in a house where two men were killed ten years ago. 6. A fast food restaurant is the place where eating is performed(进行) quickly. 什么时候用where 1. 先行词常常为地点名词 2. 先行词在从句中做地点状语 3. where= 适当介词+which
特殊名词+where ? We are trying to reach a point where both sides will sit down together and talk. ? I work in a business where almost everyone is waiting for a great chance ? she was in a situation where she had to make a big decision all by herself.
关系副词： when 1.先行词常常为时间名词 2.先行词在从句中做时间状语 3. when= 适当介词+which 1.He was born on October 1st, 1949, on which China was founded. He was born on October 1st, 1949, when China was founded. 2. We will never forget the year of 2008, in which the 29th Olympic Games was held. We will never forget the year of 2008, when the 29th Olympic Games was held. 3. I still remember the day when I first came to the school.=
含有When定语从句的常见句式： ? Gone are the days when we lived a careless life at a young age. ? There was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. ? The time when I first met him was a very difficult period of my life.
关系副词： why=for which The reason why he was late was that he was caught in the heavy snow.
1.(2013浙江卷) The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform ______ visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. A. what B. where C. when D. why
2. (2013四川卷)Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment they live. A. what B. which C. when D. where
3.（2013北京卷）Many countries are now setting up national parks_____ animals and plants can be protected. A. when B. which C. whose D. where
4. （上海卷）40. If a shop has
chairs________ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. A. that B. which C. when D. where
5. (08山东卷’ 26)Occasions are quite rare ______ I have the time to spend a day with my kids. A. who B. which C. why D. when
6. It’s helpful to put children in a situation they can see themselves differently. (09福建) A. that B. when C. which D. where
7. Because of the financial crisis, days are gone _ _ local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. (09江苏) A. if B. when C. which D. since
8. The house I grew up ________ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. (09江西) A. in it B. in C. in that D. in which
9.（2011· 江苏卷）24．Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, ______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A．When B．Where C．that D．which
? 注意：关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系 代词”引导的从句替换 ? (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, ? (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. ? (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which./where I was born.
1. The eggs were not fresh. I bought them yesterday.
The eggs that/which I bought yesterday were not fresh.
2. I don’t like the people. They smoke a lot.
I don’t like the people who/that smoke a lot.
3.The noodles were delicious. You cooked them.
The noodles (that/which) you cooked were delicious.
4.This is the person. Her story surprised everybody.
This is the person whose story surprised everybody.
? （九）as,which引导的非限定性定语从句 ? 由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句，as和which可 代整个主句，相当于and this或and that。As一般放在 句首，which在句中。 ? As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. ? The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. ? 典型例题 ? 1）Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. ? A. it B. that C. which D. he ? 答案C. 此为非限定性从句，不能用 that修饰，而用 which.，it 和he 都使后句成为句子，两个独立的句子 不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。
? 2）The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. ? A. what B. which C. that D. it ? 答案B。 ? which可代替句子，用于非限定性定语从句，而 what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句， it不为连词，使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起 在英语语法上行不通。
? 3）It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. ? A. that B. which C. as D. it ? 答案B. ? as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时，这两个关系代 词都指主句所表达的整个意思，且在定语从句中都可以 作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点： ? (1） as 引导的定语从句可置于句首，而which不可。 ? (2） as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时，从 句中的谓语必须是系动词；若为行为动词，则从句中的 关系代词只能用which.。 ? 在本题中，prevent由于是行为动词，所以正确选项应 为B。
? As 的用法例 ? 1. the same… as；such…as 中的as 是一种固 定结构, 和……一样……。 ? I have got into the same trouble as he (has). ? 例2. as可引导非限制性从句，常带有'正如'。 ? As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. ? As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health. ? As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语； ? 例2中，它充当从句的主语，谓语动词know要用 被动式。
? ? ? ? ? ?
（十）关系代词that 的用法 (1)不用that的情况 (a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。 (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, Is very famous here. (b) 介词后不能用。 We depend on the land from which we get our food. We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. (2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
二、将下列句子合并成带有定语从句的复合句。 16. He is the young writer. He wrote the book〃→ 17〃Do you know the doctor? He comes here once a month and examines the workers〃→ 18〃The foreign guest is Mr〃Green〃 You saw him at the school gate〃→ 19〃He is the new head〃 I was talking about him this morning〃→ 20〃I've received the book〃 Father sent it to me→
21〃The factory has got one success after another〃 We visited the factory last week〃→ 22〃What's the name of the girl? Her grandpa took part in the Long March〃→ 23〃The man looks like the actor〃 I've heard his songs on TV〃→ 24〃This letter is from my elder brother〃 He serves in the army〃→ 25〃Do you see the bridge? It was built last year→〃 ?
26〃The old man is a professor〃 He teaches chemistry in a college〃→ 27〃We visited the singer yesterday〃 Her performances we all like very much〃 28〃The old worker is still working hard with us〃 His hair has turned gray→〃 29〃The bike was not good〃 You wanted to buy it〃→ 30〃The medicine didn't help me〃 Dr〃Chang had given it〃→
31〃The exercise is wrong〃 We did it last night〃→ 32〃The woman is here now〃 You were talking about her〃→ 33〃The bus was the wrong one〃 Xiao Li was running after it〃→ 34〃The wallet has been found〃 Mr〃Hopkins was looking for it〃→ 35〃The recorder has been stolen〃 Wang spent all the money on it〃→
16. He is the young writer who wrote the book. 17. Do you know the doctor who comes here once a month and examines the workers? 18. The foreign guest whom you see at the school gate is Mr. Green. 19. He is the new head whom I was talking about this morning. 20. I've received the book which father sent to me. 21. The factory which we visited last week has got one success after another. 22. What is the name of the girl whose grandpa took part in the Long March? 23. The man looks like the actor whose songs I've heard on TV. 24. This letter is from my elder brother who serves in the army. 25. Do you see the bridge which was built last year?
26. The old man who teaches chemistry in a college is a professor. 27. We visited the singer yesterday whose performances we all like very much. 28. The old worker whose hair has turned grey is still working hard with us. 29. The bike which you wanted to buy was not good. 30. The medicine which Dr. Chang had given didn't help me.
31. The exercise which we did last night is wrong. 32. The woman whom you were talking about is here now. 33. The bus which Xiao Li was running after is the wrong one. 34. The wallet which Mr. Hopkins was looking after has been found. 35. The recorder on which we spent all our money has been stolen.
A huge crack that was eight kilometers long cut across houses, roads and canals. The earthquake was felt in Beijing, which is more than 200 km away. The number of people who were killed or injured reached 400, 000. Where is the man whom I saw this morning? Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.
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