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外文赏析41-50


41.外刊赏读|《经济学人》 The dawn of artificial intelligence
本文选自《经济学人》中一篇名为 The dawn of artificial intelligence 的文章。文 章介绍了人工智能技术未来可能会给人类带来危险,但是没必要担忧过度。作者 认为要用理性的态度看待人工智能,清楚人工智能能做到什么,不能做到什么, 人工智能已

经带来哪些危害, 未来发展成熟后又存在哪些风险,人类如何做到未 雨绸缪,从而既从人工智能中获益,又能避免灾难发生。本文的话题人工智能属 于自然科学, 但讨论的是社会科学的问题,切合当下科技发展和社会之间的关系 的热点,值得一读。 原文 I①Surveillance and dislocations are not, though, what worries Messrs Hawking, Musk and Gates, or what inspires a phalanx of futuristic AI films that Hollywood has recently unleashed onto cinema screens. ②Their concern is altogether more distant and more apocalyptic: the threat of autonomous machines with superhuman cognitive capacity and interests that conflict with those of Homo sapiens. II①Such artificially intelligent beings are still a very long way off; indeed, it may never be possible to create them. ②Despite a century of poking and prodding at the brain, psychologists, neurologists, sociologists and philosophers are still a long way from an understanding of how a mind might be made—or what one is.③And the business case for even limited intelligence of the general sort—the sort that has interests and autonomy—is far from clear. ④A car that drives itself better than its owner sounds like a boon; a car with its own ideas about where to go, less so. III①But even if the prospect of what Mr Hawking calls ?full? AI is still distant, it is prudent for societies to plan for how to cope. ②That is easier than it seems, not least because humans have been creating autonomous entities with superhuman capacities and unaligned interests for some time. ③Government bureaucracies, markets and armies: all can do things which unaided, unorganized humans cannot. ④All need autonomy to function, all can take on life of their own and all can do great harm if not set up in a just manner and governed by laws and regulations. IV①These parallels should comfort the fearful; they also suggest concrete ways for societies to develop AI safely. ②Just as armies need civilian oversight, markets are regulated and bureaucracies must be transparent and accountable, so AI systems must be open to scrutiny. ③Because systems designers cannot foresee every set of circumstances, there must also be an off-switch. ④These constraints can be put in place without compromising progress. ⑤From the nuclear bomb to traffic rules, mankind has used technical ingenuity and legal strictures to constrain other powerful innovations.

V①The spectre of eventually creating an autonomous non-human intelligence is so extraordinary that it risks overshadowing the debate. ②Yes, there are perils. ③But they should not obscure the huge benefits from the dawn of AI. 词汇短语 1*.surveillance [s?'ve?l(?)ns] n. 监督;监视 2*.dislocation [,d?sl?(?)'ke??(?)n] n. 转位;混乱;[医] 脱臼 3*.phalanx ['f?l??ks] n. 方阵;密集阵 4*. Apocalyptic [?'pɑk?'l?pt?k] adj. 启示录的;天启的 5. cognitive ['k?ɡn?t?v] adj. 认知的,认识的 6. Homo sapiens 智人(现代人的学名) 7. neurologist [,nj??'r?l?d??st] n.神经学家 8. unaligned [,?n?'la?nd] adj. 不结盟的,不一致的 9. bureaucracy [,bj?(?)'r?kr?s?] n. 官僚机构 10. scrutiny ['skru?t?n?] n. 详细审查 11. off-switch 关闭 12. compromising ['k?mpr?ma?z??] adj. 妥协的 13. ingenuity [,?nd??'nju??t?] n. 独创性;精巧 14*.stricture ['str?kt??] n. 限制,约束 15*.spectre ['spekt?] n. 幽灵;妖怪;恐惧 16*.peril ['per?l] n. 危险;冒险 注:标*的为超纲词 翻译点评 I①Surveillance and dislocations are not, though, what worries Messrs Hawking, Musk and Gates, or what inspires a phalanx of futuristic AI films that Hollywood has recently unleashed onto cinema screens. ②Their concern is altogether more distant and more apocalyptic: the threat of autonomous machines with superhuman cognitive capacity and interests that conflict with those of Homo sapiens. 翻译:霍金、马斯克和盖茨担心的并非监视和错位,好莱坞最近上映的一系列关 于未来人工智能的电影也并非由此找到的灵感。他们有更加长远和重大的担忧: 具有超出人类认知能力而利益与人类相冲突的自动化机器会给人类带来巨大的 威胁。 点评:段 I 是前文的转折,前文介绍了目前人工智能已经带来的危害,句①指出 下面要讨论的是更加深远和严重的危险。句②指出这个危险具体是什么:当人工 智能技术可以发明出超出人类认知能力的机器, 而它们又与人类利益矛盾的时候, 这才是人工智能给人类带来的真正灾难。 II①Such artificially intelligent beings are still a very long way off; indeed, it may never be possible to create them. ②Despite a century of poking and prodding at the brain, psychologists, neurologists,sociologists and philosophers are still a long way from an understanding of how a mind might be made—or what one is. ③And the business case for even limited intelligence of the general sort—the sort that has interests and autonomy—is far from clear. ④A car that drives itself better than its

owner sounds like a boon; a car with its own ideas about where to go, less so. 翻译:这种人工智能距离我们还很遥远。事实上,这种人工智能有可能永远无法 创造出来。尽管对大脑的研究已经持续了一个世纪,心理学家、神经学家、社会 学家和哲学家还远远无法了解思想是如何产生的,或者说思想是什么。即便对于 一般类型的有限的智能, 即有兴趣和自主性的智能类型, 其运作情况也很不明确。 一辆车比它的车主驾驶技术更好,听起来是好事,但是一辆车对去哪儿有自己的 想法,那可就不是好事了。 点评:段 II 是上一段的让步,说明这种灾难虽然可怕,但现在还不太可能发生。 句①指出上面说的人工智能机器可能要未来很久才能发明出来, 或者永远都发明 不出来,所以不需要太恐慌。句②给出原因,虽然科学家们在研究大脑方面做出 了不懈努力, 但要真正解开大脑的秘密还任重道远。 poke and prod 都有 ?刺、 戳、 拨弄?的意思,这里作?研究?讲。句③指出即便是具备简单兴趣和自主性的智 能机器现在都是难题,进一步说明,过度担心是没必要的。句④举了一个有趣的 ?开车?例子,增强文章的可读性和说服力。 III①But even if the prospect of what Mr Hawking calls ?full? AI is still distant, it is prudent for societies to plan for how to cope. ②That is easier than it seems, not least because humans have been creating autonomous entities with superhuman capacities and unaligned interests for some time. ③Government bureaucracies, markets and armies: all can do things which unaided, unorganized humans cannot. ④All need autonomy to function, all can take on life of their own and all can do great harm if not set up in a just manner and governed by laws and regulations. 翻译:即使被霍金称为?全面?人工智能化的前景还很遥远,社会仍然需要谨慎 对待,计划好应对方案。这其实不难,人类创造具有超人能力并且利益不一致的 自主实体已经有一段时间了。政府机关、市场和军队,都可以做到孤立无组织的 个人无法做到的事,都需要独立自主的运作,都可以主宰自己的生活,而如果不 是以正当的方式建立并受法律法规管控,都会造成巨大的损失。 点评:段 III 继续转折,指出虽然危险不是迫在眉睫,但要未雨绸缪。句①作者 建议社会要想出应对办法。 句②指出提前预防是可行的,因为人类已经有过相关 经验。句③举出政府机构、市场和军队的例子,因为这些机构与个人相比都具有 更强的能力和不可控性, 这是与人工智能的相似之处。句④指出这些机构之所以 能良好运转,服务人类和社会,是因为以正当的方式建立(in a just manner) ,有 法律法规约束。 IV①These parallels should comfort the fearful; they also suggest concrete ways for societies to develop AI safely. ②Just as armies need civilian oversight, markets are regulated and bureaucracies must be transparent and accountable, so AI systems must be open to scrutiny. ③Because systems designers cannot foresee every set of circumstances, there must also be an off-switch. ④These constraints can be put in place without compromising progress. ⑤From the nuclear bomb to traffic rules, mankind has used technical ingenuity and legal strictures to constrain other powerful innovations. 翻译: 这些类似产物应该能够宽慰害怕人工智能的人,也为社会安全地发展人工 智能指出具体路径。正如军队需要人民监督,市场需要规范,政府部门要透明负

责一样,人工智能系统也要接受公开监管。由于系统设计者无法预测所有情况, 所以必须还要设立停机开关。 这些限制可以在不妨碍人工智能发展的前提下进行。 无论是核弹还是交通规则, 人类都已经运用过科技创新和法律约束来限制一些强 大的发明。 点评: 段 IV 承接上文, 提出了控制人工智能的具体措施。 句①是本段的主题句, 指出既利用这些机构又约束这些机构的概念同样适用于人工智能。 句②提出第一 个措施,那就是要严密监管人工智能。句③提出第二项措施,要提前设臵关闭按 钮,以预防想象不到的情况的发生。句④打消顾虑,指出这些限制措施不会干扰 人工智能的发展。 句⑤以人类经验为例,进一步说明对人工智能施以限制是可以 的。 V①The spectre of eventually creating an autonomous non-human intelligence is so extraordinary that it risks overshadowing the debate. ②Yes, there are perils. ③But they should not obscure the huge benefits from the dawn of AI. 翻译:人们始终担心最终创造出自主的非人类智能,这种担忧如此强烈,几乎盖 过了争论。是的,人工智能具有风险。但是这不应掩盖人工智能技术发展初期带 来的巨大利益。 点评:段 V 总结全文,进一步阐明作者观点:对人工智能没必要过度担心,危 险是存在的,但不能否定人工智能带来的益处,也不能就此放弃发展人工智能。 句①指出现状,人们对人工智能的恐惧非常强烈。句②让步,承认确实有危险。 句③转折, obscure: 掩盖, 使…模糊不清, 是上句 ?overshadow? 的同义词;dawn : 黎明,开端,此处暗示人工智能虽然处于发展初期,但前景是光明的,在呼应文 章题目的同时,点明文章主题,彰显作者态度。

42.外刊赏读| 《发现》 Getting Good People to Go Bad
本文选自《发现》2016 年 2 月 18 日一篇名为 Getting Good People to Go Bad 的 文章。 文章援引多项实验研究, 由表及里论述为何人们愿意违背良心服从命令做 不道德的事情的原因,从而解释了?好人变坏?的原因。 原文 I ①How easily can good people be convinced to do bad things? ②That all depends on how much control that individual feels over his or her own choices, and that ?sense of agency? affects the way the brain processes the outcome of those actions, a new study published in the journal Current Biology finds. II ①In 1963, psychologist Stanley Milgram of Yale University published the results of experiments to gauge obedience to authority, a topic he became interested in following the trials of Nazi war criminals, many of whom defended themselves by claiming they were simply following orders. III ①Milgram sought to examine how people could be persuaded to act in ways that betrayed their own consciences in an experiment that involved not members of the

Nazi party, but rather ordinary college students.②At the behest of an authority figure — the scientist running the experiment — student participants asked a series of questions and then delivered increasingly painful electric shocks for wrong answers to an unseen individual, who was in fact an actor in on the study. ③Despite the controversy over the ethics of Milgram’s methods — many of the students showed signs of emotional distress even as they followed orders — his experiment showed that the majority of participants were willing to follow a command even if it went against their own judgment. IV ①Taking the Milgram experiment a step further, researchers at University College London and Université Libre de Bruxelles in Belgium have determined that when coerced into taking an action that adversely affects another person, individuals experience reduced agency, altering their perceptions of cause and effect. V ①For their study, the researchers conducted a series of experiments. ②After analyzing the results, the researchers found that the coercion condition led to a significant increase among study participants in the amount of time the ?agents? perceived between an action and its outcome compared with the free choice condition. ③This sense of disconnect between an action and its consequences was also reflected in participants’ brains. ④When ordered to perform a task, participants’ brain activity more closely resembled processing of a passive movement rather than a voluntary action. VI ①Being told to do something morally objectionable is certainly no defense for indefensible behavior. ②But the latest study at least helps to explain why people are seemingly so willing to cause harm to another simply because an authority figure told them to. (“Getting Good People to Go Bad” by Talal Al-Khatib. Feb. 18th, 2016.Discovery) 词汇短语 1.sense of agency 控制力 2.*gauge [ge?d?] v.测量 3.conscience ['k?n?(?)ns] n.良心,良知 4.Nazi party 纳粹党 5.*behest [b?'hest] n. 命令;请求 6.authority figure 权威人士 7.ethics ['eθ?ks] n.道德标准; 行为准则 8.emotional distress 精神痛苦 9.*coerce [k??'??s] vt. 强制,迫使 10.adversely [?d'v?sli] adv. 不利地;逆地; 11.disconnect [d?sk?'nekt] vt. 拆开,使分离 12.objectionable [?b'd?ek?(?)n?b(?)l] adj.会引起反对的;有异议的 注:标*的为超纲词

翻译点评 I ①How easily can good people be convinced to do bad things? ②That all depends on how much control that individual feels over his or her own choices, and that ?sense of agency? affects the way the brain processes the outcome of those actions, a new study published in the journal Current Biology finds. 翻译:说服好人做坏事有多难?《当代生物学》的最新研究发现,这全取决于那 个好人能在多大程度上控制他或她自己的选择,这种?控制力?影响大脑处理行 为结果的方式。 点评:段 I 探讨了如何让好人做坏事的问题,并借用研究发现给出答案——人们 做不做坏事取决于?控制力? (sense of agency) ,agency 指个人对自己行为的控 制感。句①为设问句,抛出问题,激发读者兴趣,引出话题;值得注意的是,设 问句用在开头通常是为了引出话题。句②回答问题,点出话题。 II ①In 1963, psychologist Stanley Milgram of Yale University published the results of experiments to gauge obedience to authority, a topic he became interested in following the trials of Nazi war criminals, many of whom defended themselves by claiming they were simply following orders. 翻译:1963 年,耶鲁大学的心理学家斯坦利〃米尔格拉姆发表了衡量服从度的 权威实验的研究结果, 他在跟踪纳粹战犯的审判时对这个课题产生兴趣,审判过 程中许多战犯辩称他们只是服从命令。 点评:段 II 单句成段,讨论了本文的话题来源——心理学家斯坦利〃米尔格拉 姆在跟踪纳粹战犯审判的过程中的发现。本句包括两个定语从句,第一个修饰 a topic,说明该话题产生的特殊情境——纳粹战犯的审判席,第二个修饰 many of whom,解释心理学家对该话题产生兴趣的原因——因为许多战犯辩称自己之所 以犯下滔天罪恶是听令办事的结果,这里进一步点出文章接下来的讨论中心 following orders,gauge 意为借用测量工具的精确衡量, ?If you gauge an amount, you measure or calculate it, often by using a device of some kind.? ,用在这里表明研 究结果的精确度和权威性。 III ①Milgram sought to examine how people could be persuaded to act in ways that betrayed their own consciences in an experiment that involved not members of the Nazi party, but rather ordinary college students.②At the behest of an authority figure — the scientist running the experiment — student participants asked a series of questions and then delivered increasingly painful electric shocks for wrong answers to an unseen individual, who was in fact an actor in on the study. ③Despite the controversy over the ethics of Milgram’s methods — many of the students showed signs of emotional distress even as they followed orders — his experiment showed that the majority of participants were willing to follow a command even if it went against their own judgment. 翻译: 米尔格拉姆试图研究人们如何能被说服做违背自己良心的事情,他进行了 一组实验,实验参与者不是纳粹党成员,而是普通大学生。在一位权威人士—— 主持实验的科学家——的要求下,学生参与者对一个人进行一系列提问,听到错 误答案时对其实施强度越来越大的电击,接受电击的人实际是一位演员,学生参

与者全程看不见演员。 尽管米尔格拉姆的实验方法存在道德争议——许多学生在 服从命令时表现出精神痛苦的迹象;但是他的实验表明,大多数参与者即便违背 自己的意愿也愿意服从命令。 点评:段 III 详细介绍了斯坦利〃米尔格拉姆的实验,证明违背自己意愿服从权 威人士命令的现象不是个例,而是一种普遍现象,为段 IV 实验的开展提供现实 依据。其中句①描述实验条件,强调实验参与者不是前面提及的纳粹党员,而是 普通人,从而保证得出的实验结果具有普遍适应性。句②破折号中间的内容 the scientist running the experiment 做前面的 authority figure(权威人士)的同位语, 起解释说明的作用, 值得注意的是,英文语篇中出现的破折号大多都是为了解释 说明符号前面的内容,句③的破折号也是同样的作用。句③指出,虽说米尔格拉 姆的实验方法本身存在争议, 但是依然得出相当可靠的结果,即多数人宁愿违背 自己的意愿也要服从权威的命令, 这里的 went against their own judgement 与句① 的 betrayed their own conscientces 属于同义替换。 IV ①Taking the Milgram experiment a step further, researchers at University College London and Université Libre de Bruxelles in Belgium have determined that when coerced into taking an action that adversely affects another person, individuals experience reduced agency, altering their perceptions of cause and effect. 翻译: 伦敦大学学院和比利时布鲁塞尔自由大学的科学家对米尔格拉姆的实验进 行进一步研究,他们认为,在被迫采取对他人有害的行为时,人们的?控制力? 会降低,对相关原因和结果的认知随之改变。 点评:段 IV 也是单句成段,介绍了后来的研究人员以从前的实验结果为依托, 针对探究人们违背自身意愿、 听令行不道德之事的原因进一步提出新的观点,即 人们在听令办事,被胁迫采取行动时,也就是文中提及的 coerced into taking an action, 对行动和行为后果的认知产生变化, 这意味着个人的 ?控制力? 的变化。 V ①For their study, the researchers conducted a series of experiments. ②After analyzing the results, the researchers found that the coercion condition led to a significant increase among study participants in the amount of time the ?agents? perceived between an action and its outcome compared with the free choice condition. ③This sense of disconnect between an action and its consequences was also reflected in participants’ brains. ④When ordered to perform a task, participants’ brain activity more closely resembled processing of a passive movement rather than a voluntary action. 翻译:为此,两所大学的研究人员进行了一系列的实验。分析实验结果后,他们 发现与在自由选择的条件下相比, 胁迫条件下的实验参与者感知到的行为和结果 的时间间隔显著增大。 这种行为和结果之间的脱节也反映在参与者的大脑上。在 被要求执行一项任务时, 参与者的大脑活动更类似于在处理被动运动而非自愿行 为。 点评:段 V 则是针对段 IV 观点的实验论证,实验得出两个结论,句②是第一个 结论,即从时间方面论证段 IV 提出的?行动和行为后果的认知变化? ,句③④从 大脑活动方面论证这一结论。句②中的 coercion condition 和 free choice condition 说明开展的是对比实验,实验结果比较可靠。

VI ①Being told to do something morally objectionable is certainly no defense for indefensible behavior. ②But the latest study at least helps to explain why people are seemingly so willing to cause harm to another simply because an authority figure told them to. 翻译: 强调被人要求做了不道德行为的辩护肯定站不住脚。但是最近的研究至少 能够帮助解释为何只要权威人士有要求,人们似乎很愿意伤害他人这种现象。 点评:段 VI 呼应前文,回归主题,句①回到前文提到的纳粹党员审判,从常识 角度批判纳粹党员的辩护理由不成立, 句②根据文中的实验调查结果——人们在 听令于人时大脑认知会发生变化, ?控制力?随之降低——解释人们为何会违背 意愿、服从权威做不道德的事情,同时再次侧面回答了文首的设问句,并与段 I 句②形成呼应,实现结构上的圆合。

43.外刊赏读 | 《读者文摘》 What’s Your Addiction Risk?
本文选自 《读者文摘》3 月刊中一篇名为 What’s Your Addiction Risk? 的文章。 文章全文采用总分结构, 介绍了容易增加成瘾风险的三种性格特点,并相应地提 出建议,让读者在积累常识的基础上也警醒自身,避免成为自身性格的牺牲品。 原文 I ①Personality alone doesn’t determine who is prone to addiction, but if yours puts you at a greater risk, it won’t hurt to make health-related decisions accordingly. ② Here are three personality traits that seem to be associated with an increased addiction risk. II ①Sensation seekers have an increased addiction risk. ②Why do some people become addicted—to alcohol, gambling, sleeping pills—while others who use the same substances or engage in the same activities don’ t fall prey? ③It’ s a puzzle that seems to involve genetics, environment, personal history and temperament. III ①One of the personality traits under investigation is ?sensation seeking,? which denotes an appetite for new, varied, intense experiences—and a willingness to take risks to get them. ②This characteristic increases the likelihood of substance abuse, but it’s also associated with hobbies such as scuba diving, mountain climbing and travelling to far-flung places. ③Some experts encourage sensation seekers to focus on these healthier habits as an addiction-prevention strategy. IV ①Impulsive people have an increased addiction risk. ②A tendency to act based on instincts or immediate desires rather than longer-term outcomes is known as impulsivity.③Health researchers around the world have observed that people who are dependent on certain drugs—including cocaine and alcohol—frequently have abnormalities in parts of the brain that are connected with restraint. ④?What’s not clear at this point is to what extent the impulsive personality trait pre-exists and

predisposes someone toward drug use, versus how much of it is caused by the drug use,? says Karen Ersche, a lecturer on drug addiction at the University of Cambridge in England who is exploring this question. ⑤In the case of alcohol, experiments suggest that abstinence helps regrow damaged neurons and reverse impairments to self-control. V ①Anxious people have an increased addiction risk. ②Also among those who run a heightened risk of addiction: anxious people. ③This is because alcohol and other substances can offer temporary stress relief. ④Ironically, drinking can aggravate anxiety over the long run by, among other things, interfering with the normal functioning of the brain’s neurotransmitters. ⑤Finding other ways to relax—talking to friends, exercising or eliminating stressors, for example—is a good way to avoid potential problems. (“What’s Your Addiction Risk?” by Samantha Rideout. Mar. 2015. Reader’s Digest) 词汇短语 1、sensation [sen'se??(?)n] n. 感觉;轰动;感动 2、gambling ['ɡ?mbl??] n. 赌博;投机 3、sleeping pill 安眠药 4、temperament ['temp(?)r?m(?)nt] n. 气质,性情,性格 5、denote [d?'n??t] vt. 表示,指示 6、substance abuse 滥用药物 7、*scuba diving 潜水 8、*far-flung ['fɑ:'fl??] adj. 遥远的;广泛的;广布的 9、abnormality [?bn??'m?l?t?] n. 异常;畸形,变态 10、*predispose [,pri?d?'sp??z] vt. 预先处臵;使…偏向于 11、abstinence ['?bst?n?ns] n. 节制;节欲;戒酒;禁食 12、neuron ['nj??r?n] n. [解剖] 神经元,神经单位 13、impairment [?m'pe?m(?)nt] n. 损伤,损害 14、*neurotransmitter [,nj??r??tr?nz'm?t?] n. [生理] 神经递质;[生理] 神经传递 素 注:标*的为超纲词 翻译点评 I ①Personality alone doesn’t determine who is prone to addiction, but if yours puts you at a greater risk, it won’t hurt to make health-related decisions accordingly. ② Here are three personality traits that seem to be associated with an increased addiction risk. 翻译:单凭性格不能决定谁易于上瘾,但是如果你的个性让你上瘾的风险增大, 那相应地做一些有益健康的决定不是什么坏事。 以下三种性格特点似乎与成瘾风 险增加有关。 点评:段 I 两句成段,开篇点题,句①指出虽然个性不能决定成瘾与否,但是能 增加成瘾风险。prone(To be prone to something, usually something bad, means to

have a tendency to be affected by it or to do it.)易于,倾向于,put X at risk 使 X 臵于危险境地。句②启下,总说有三种性格特点与成瘾风险增加有关。 II ①Sensation seekers have an increased addiction risk. ②Why do some people become addicted—to alcohol, gambling, sleeping pills—while others who use the same substances or engage in the same activities don’ t fall prey? ③It’ s a puzzle that seems to involve genetics, environment, personal history and temperament. 翻译:寻求刺激者成瘾风险增加。为什么有些人会沉溺于酒精、赌博、安眠药, 而其他使用相同药物或参与相同活动的人不会受其毒害?这一难题似乎与基因、 环境、个人经历和性格有关。 点评:段 II、III、IV、V 依次介绍增加成瘾风险的三种性格特点。段 II 介绍?寻 求刺激?的特点,句②采用疑问句式引发读者好奇心,while?然而?表示对比, substance 原意为 ?物质、 实质? , 这里指 ?药物? , 与上文的 sleeping pills 相吻合, fall prey (to) ,成为受害者,成为……的牺牲品,句③总体概括产生句②差距 的原因,temperament 与 personality 同义,意为?个性、性情、气质? ,呼应段 I 句②,形成段间衔接。 III ①One of the personality traits under investigation is ?sensation seeking,? which denotes an appetite for new, varied, intense experiences—and a willingness to take risks to get them. ②This characteristic increases the likelihood of substance abuse, but it’s also associated with hobbies such as scuba diving, mountain climbing and travelling to far-flung places. ③Some experts encourage sensation seekers to focus on these healthier habits as an addiction-prevention strategy. 翻译:正在接受研究的一个性格特点是?寻求刺激? ,渴望新鲜的、多样的、紧 张激烈的经历,并且愿意为此而冒险。这一特点增加了滥用药物的可能性,但同 时也与潜水、 登山和去遥远的地方旅游等爱好相关。一些专家鼓励寻求刺激者关 注这些健康的习惯作为预防上瘾的策略。 点评:段 III 承接段 II 继续解释为何寻求刺激的性格特点会增加成瘾风险,并给 出建议。句①通过阐述?sensation seeking?的内涵作出解释,句②对这种性格特 点进行客观评价, 指出其既能增大滥用药物的可能性,也与一些健康的生活习惯 密不可分,句③基于句②给出建议。 IV ①Impulsive people have an increased addiction risk. ②A tendency to act based on instincts or immediate desires rather than longer-term outcomes is known as impulsivity.③Health researchers around the world have observed that people who are dependent on certain drugs—including cocaine and alcohol—frequently have abnormalities in parts of the brain that are connected with restraint. ④?What’s not clear at this point is to what extent the impulsive personality trait pre-exists and predisposes someone toward drug use, versus how much of it is caused by the drug use,? says Karen Ersche, a lecturer on drug addiction at the University of Cambridge in England who is exploring this question. ⑤In the case of alcohol, experiments suggest that abstinence helps regrow damaged neurons and reverse impairments to self-control. 翻译:冲动的人成瘾风险增加。不考虑长远结果,倾向于根据本能或直接的欲望

采取行动的表现被称为冲动。 世界各地的健康研究人员观察发现依赖于特定药物 ——包括可卡因和酒精——的人的大脑与克制力有关的部分经常存在异常情况。 ?目前尚不可知的是, 吸毒在多大程度上由先天的冲动性格特征决定,又有多大 程度受药物本身影响。 ?凯伦〃尔茨如是说,她是英国剑桥大学研究药物成瘾问 题的讲师,目前正在研究这一问题。与酒精相关的实验表明,戒酒帮助受损神经 元再生,将损害反转变成自制力。 点评:段 IV 介绍?冲动?的性格特点。句②对冲动性(impulsivity)作出解释, instinct、immediate 和 longer-term 对比说明冲动的特点。句③引用研究结果,从 科学的角度表明冲动的性格特点与成瘾风险的关系:大脑负责自制力(没有自制 力就会冲动) 的部分异常导致一些人对药物产生依赖。句④借助专家的话引证科 学研究存在的疑问: 冲动性对成瘾影响多大, 药物本身对成瘾影响多大。 pre-exist 先于而存在,前缀 pre 意为?在……之前? ,相同的结构还出现在 predispose?预 先臵于,使偏向于?中,predispose someone toward 为固定词组,意为?使某人 日后倾向于 (或易于接受) ? 。 句⑤通过戒除酒瘾后对大脑神经元以及自制力的影 响反向论证成瘾与冲动的关系。 V ①Anxious people have an increased addiction risk. ②Also among those who run a heightened risk of addiction: anxious people. ③This is because alcohol and other substances can offer temporary stress relief. ④Ironically, drinking can aggravate anxiety over the long run by, among other things, interfering with the normal functioning of the brain’s neurotransmitters. ⑤Finding other ways to relax—talking to friends, exercising or eliminating stressors, for example—is a good way to avoid potential problems. 翻译:焦虑的人成瘾风险增加。还有一类人也面对较高的成瘾风险:焦虑的人。 这是因为酒精和其他药物可以暂时缓解压力。颇具讽刺意味的是,长期饮酒会干 扰神经传递物质的正常功能,从而加重焦虑。寻找其他方法进行放松——例如, 跟朋友聊天,锻炼或消除压力源——是避免潜在问题的好办法。 点评:段 V 介绍第三种性格特点?焦虑? 。句②指出成瘾风险大的另一人群?焦 虑的人? 。句③解释原因:因为酒精、药物等能暂时缓解焦虑(所以人们才会对 其上瘾) 。句④继续就句③酒精的作用展开讨论,指出长期食用酒精不仅不会缓 解压力,反而会加重焦虑,两句进行对比,temporary、over the long run 长短时 间对比,ironically 是态度指示词,由此也可以看出下文的酒精作用与上文不同。 among other things 做插入语,这里指长期食用酒精不只有一项危害,而在这里 只是点出其中之一而已,by 引导方式状语,说明酒精造成危害的方式。句⑤再 次提出建议, 劝导人们不要依靠酒精, 而应采取其它方式进行放松。 stressor (any agent that causes stress to an organism) ,意为压力源,压力因素。

44.外刊 | Why Canada embraces Syrian refugees, while US is still wary
本文选自 《基督教科学箴言报》 中一篇名为 Why Canada embraces Syrian refugees, while US is still wary?的文章。文章由对比加美两国对叙利亚难民救助力度的差 距,从历史传统、加拿大人的观念以及叙利亚儿童艾伦〃科迪的事故等方面,分

析了加拿大热心救助叙利亚难民的原因。 原文 Ⅰ① On a chilly Canadian night in December, the country’s new prime minister,Justin Trudeau, greeted the first planeload of Syrian refugees to reach Canadian soil with handshakes, hugs, and warm puffy coats. Ⅱ①Trudeau’ s welcome party at the Toronto airport that night reflected a campaign pledge he’d made in the fall campaign to open Canada to up to 25,000 Syrian refugees within months – and to double that to 50,000 by the end of 2016. Ⅲ①But behind that campaign pledge was something deeper, a national ethic and tradition of welcoming the victims of the world's conflicts that contrasted sharply with the much more modest goals and contradictory responses to Syrian refugees in the United States. ②Mr. Obama’s comparatively diminutive pledge to take in 10,000 Syrian refugees this year was met with a chorus of outrage from largely Republican governors and anti-immigration groups. Ⅳ①In Canada’ s case, the bighearted welcome reflects a number of both intrinsic and practical factors: Canadians generally pride themselves on an openness to the world and a desire to share their national good fortune with the world’s less fortunate. ② On a practical level, Canada has for decades welcomed refugees under a three-tiered national system of public, private-sector, and individual responses. Ⅴ①The system includes a ?Private Sponsorship of refugees? program, under which Canadian organizations and even groups of as few as five adults can essentially adopt refugees, taking on the financial, social integration, and other responsibilities of the new arrivals’ first year in Canada. Ⅵ①?I’d really say it’s in our national DNA to stand up and respond to these situations of upheaval and humanitarian crisis around the world,? says Louisa Taylor, director of a grassroots coalition of individuals and nongovernmental organizations advocating refugee resettlement in Ottawa. ②?We see ourselves as a nation of immigrants, we can empathize with people in these situations,?sheadds. ③ ?It’ s also important that we’ve responded to these refugee crises for a long time, going back at least to the Vietnamese in the ’70s. ” Ⅶ①References to Canada’s traditional openness to refugees aren’t the full story behind the recent open door that contrasts so sharply with the experience to Canada’s south.②There’s another key factor: the impact on Canada’s national psyche of the death of Alan Kurdi. ③Alan was the three-year-old Syrian boy who drowned while crossing the Mediterranean with his family last September and whose body washed up on a Turkish beach.

Ⅷ①That Alan’s story struck Canadians in the midst of a national campaign turned refugees and Canada’s continued openness to them into an election issue.②Trudeau seized on the issue and appealed to the country’s welcoming tradition to win support for his own election by championing his now-famous plan to quickly receive 25,000 Syrian refugees. ③?Before the election, we thought we were going to have to be a pressure group pushing the government to do more,? says Taylor, whose organization only got going in October.④?But instead it’s been the government challenging groups like us to organize and do more.? 词汇短语 1. chilly ['t??l?] adj.寒冷的,怕冷的 2. planeload ['ple?nl??d] n.飞机负载量;飞机载客量 3. pledge [pled?] n.保证,誓言 4*.diminutive [d?'m?nj?t?v] adj. 小的,微型的 5. chorus ['k??r?s] n.合唱队;齐声 6. intrinsic [?n'tr?ns?k] adj. 本质的,固有的 7. take on 承担;呈现 8*.coalition [,k???'l??(?)n] n. 联合,结合,合并 9*.resettlement [ri's?tlm?nt] n. 重新安臵 10. empathize ['emp?θa?z] vt. 移情,神会 注:标*的为超纲词 翻译点评 Ⅰ① On a chilly Canadian night in December, the country’s new prime minister,Justin Trudeau, greeted the first planeload of Syrian refugees to reach Canadian soil with handshakes, hugs, and warm puffy coats. 翻译:在一个寒冷的 12 月的夜晚,加拿大新任首相贾斯丁〃特鲁多接待了从叙 利亚来的第一批难民,亲切的与他们握手、拥抱,送上温暖的外套。 点评:段Ⅰ和段Ⅱ介绍加拿大对叙利亚难民的政策:加大收留难民的力度。段Ⅰ 通过介绍加拿大首相寒夜为叙利亚难民接机, 引出加拿大为叙利亚难民敞开国门 的政策。chily 表示寒冷的,在 12 月的寒夜,首相亲自去机场接机,表明加拿大 对接收难民的态度。 Ⅱ①Trudeau’ s welcome party at the Toronto airport that night reflected a campaign pledge he’d made in the fall campaign to open Canada to up to 25,000 Syrian refugees within months – and to double that to 50,000 by the end of 2016. 翻译: 特鲁多那晚在多伦多机场的欢迎派对是在兑现他的竞选承诺,在秋季的竞 选中,他曾许诺加拿大将在数月内接收 25000 名叙利亚难民,到 2016 年年底, 接收难民的总数要翻倍,达到 5 万人。 点评: 段Ⅱ是对段Ⅰ的进一步解释。 说明首相此举是出于其在竞选时所作的承诺: 几个月内要接收 25000 名难民。 Ⅲ①But behind that campaign pledge was something deeper, a national ethic and tradition of welcoming the victims of the world's conflicts that contrasted sharply with

the much more modest goals and contradictory responses to Syrian refugees in the United States. ②Mr. Obama’s comparatively diminutive pledge to take in 10,000 Syrian refugees this year was met with a chorus of outrage from largely Republican governors and anti-immigration groups. 翻译: 但是竞选承诺背后有更深层的含义,那就是加拿大全国范围内的人道主义 精神以及加拿大欢迎遭受国际冲突的受害者的传统, 美国与加拿大形成强烈的对 比, 他们制定的接收叙利亚难民数量要少得多,国内对接收叙利亚难民的反应也 与加拿大相反。 奥巴马承诺接收叙利亚难民的数量为 1 万名,他的这个相对较小 的承诺却遭受了美国共和党官员以及反移民组织的强烈反对。 点评:段Ⅲ将加拿大和美国对叙利亚难民的不同态度进行对比。①句指出,对叙 利亚难民友好的人不只首相一个,而是全体加拿大人民,并指出美国对难民的支 援力度与加拿大相差甚远。sharply 修饰 contrast(对比) ,表示差距的程度,more modest(更温和的)是将美国救援目标与加拿大救援目标进行比较,说明美国的 目标更小, 更突显美国对叙利亚难民的救援不力。②句具体给出奥巴马政府的救 援目标。给出具体数字(10000)说明美国准备救援的人数不足加拿大的一半, 但是去在国内遭到一致的反对。突显了作者对美国的不满。chorus 本意是?合唱 队、齐声? ,用在此处形象的描绘了共和党以及反移民组织对奥巴马政府政策反 对的一致性。 Ⅳ①In Canada’ s case, the bighearted welcome reflects a number of both intrinsic and practical factors: Canadians generally pride themselves on an openness to the world and a desire to share their national good fortune with the world’s less fortunate. ② On a practical level, Canada has for decades welcomed refugees under a three-tiered national system of public, private-sector, and individual responses. 翻译: 加拿大对难民的热烈欢迎反映的是一系列本质的和现实的原因:加拿大人 大多为其对全世界开放、愿意与世界上贫困的国家分享他们的财富而感到骄傲。 从现实角度来说, 加拿大由政府、私人部门和公民个体组成的全国性的接收世界 难民系统已有几十年的历史了。 点评: 段Ⅳ至段Ⅷ从多角度分析了加拿大乐于援助难民的原因。段Ⅳ从加拿大人 的本质和现实角度分析。 句①首先提出加拿大人愿意帮助难民的两个原因:本质 以及现成因素, 并解释为何加拿大人本质上愿意帮助难民:加拿大人为其对世界 各国人民敞开怀抱以及乐于分享其财富而骄傲。句②从现实角度解释:加拿大收 留难民的历史长,并且有由政府、个人以及机构组成的帮助难民的机制。 Ⅴ①The system includes a ?Private Sponsorship of refugees? program, under which Canadian organizations and even groups of as few as five adults can essentially adopt refugees, taking on the financial, social integration, and other responsibilities of the new arrivals’ first year in Canada. 翻译:这个系统包含了一个?私人救助难民?的项目,加拿大的各组织、甚至五 个成年人组成的团体都能够救助难民,为难民到达加拿大的第一年提供财政、社 会融合和其他方面的责任。 点评:段Ⅴ是对上文提到的系统的详细介绍。以?难民私人救助?项目为例,说 明加拿大帮助难民的组织机构多。five adults can essentially adopt refugees 说明加 拿大成立救助难民小组的便利:只要 5 个成人就可组成一个救援团体。

Ⅵ①?I’d really say it’s in our national DNA to stand up and respond to these situations of upheaval and humanitarian crisis around the world,? says Louisa Taylor, director of a grassroots coalition of individuals and nongovernmental organizations advocating refugee resettlement in Ottawa. ②?We see ourselves as a nation of immigrants, we can empathize with people in these situations,?sheadds. ③ ?It’ s also important that we’ve responded to these refugee crises for a long time, going back at least to the Vietnamese in the ’70s. ” 翻译: 路易莎〃 泰勒——渥太华主张安臵难民的由个人和非政府组织机构组成的 草根组织的负责人——说: ?不得不说,愿意站出来为其他地区出现的动乱以及 人道主义危机提供帮助,这是植根于加拿大人的基因里的。 ?她补充道: ?我们认 为加拿大本身就是一个由移民组成的国家,对身处困境的人我们感同身受。我们 为难民提供援助已经很多年了, 至少可以追溯到上世纪七十年代我们为越南难民 提供帮助的时期。 ? 点评: 段Ⅵ以非政府机构负责人的观点进一步解释加拿大人愿意援助难民的原因。 句①从基因角度解释, 表示愿意为难民挺身而出的意愿是植根于加拿大人的基因 里,意味着每个加拿大人都愿意帮助难民。句②从历史和情感方面解释,表示加 拿大人认为加拿大是个移民国家, 因此对难民 (漂泊他乡) 能感同身受, empathize 的含义是?移情,神会? ,表示能感受到他人的感受。句③则从加拿大援助难民 的经历解释,表示加拿大援助难民已有多年,并举出越南内战的例子加以证明。 Ⅶ①References to Canada’s traditional openness to refugees aren’t the full story behind the recent open door that contrasts so sharply with the experience to Canada’s south.②There’s another key factor: the impact on Canada’s national psyche of the death of Alan Kurdi. ③Alan was the three-year-old Syrian boy who drowned while crossing the Mediterranean with his family last September and whose body washed up on a Turkish beach. 翻译: 加拿大人为难民敞开国门并不能完全解释加拿大与美国在救助难民方面态 度为何差异巨大。 还有一个关键原因, 那就是艾伦〃 科迪的死导致全国性的伤痛。 艾伦是叙利亚的一名 3 岁难民儿童, 去年 9 月在与家人横渡地中海的时候溺水身 亡,他的尸体被冲到土耳其海滩上。 点评: 段Ⅶ给出了加拿大援助难民情绪高涨的最重要的原因: 叙利亚儿童艾伦〃 科 迪的死。句①指出,加拿大(援助难民)的传统并不能完全解释加拿大对叙利亚 难民如此上心的原因,引出下文。句②顺承上句,给出真实原因:艾伦的死带来 巨大的伤痛。句③介绍艾伦的事件。 Ⅷ①That Alan’s story struck Canadians in the midst of a national campaign turned refugees and Canada’s continued openness to them into an election issue.②Trudeau seized on the issue and appealed to the country’s welcoming tradition to win support for his own election by championing his now-famous plan to quickly receive 25,000 Syrian refugees. ③?Before the election, we thought we were going to have to be a pressure group pushing the government to do more,? says Taylor, whose organization only got going in October.④?But instead it’s been the government challenging groups like us to organize and do more.?

翻译:在加拿大首相竞选期间,艾伦的事件震惊了全加拿大,使加拿大对难民的 收留问题与选举挂钩。特鲁多抓住了这个事件,呼吁全国发扬援助难民的传统, 宣传其著名的?短期内收留 25000 名难民?的计划,因而赢得了选举。泰勒说: ?在选举以前, 我们还认为我们将成为督促政府为难民提供更多援助的组织,但 是现在正好反过来了, 是政府鼓励像我们一样的组织更多的去关注和帮助难民。 ? 点评: 段Ⅷ进一步分析了艾伦事件带来巨大影响的原因:其发生在加拿大首相竞 选期间。 句①直接指明艾伦的事件发生在竞选期间,因而将加拿大传统的为难民 敞开国门升级为竞选热点。句②分析首相特鲁多赢的原因:抓住了竞选热点,切 中了国民的要点: 承诺短期内收留 25000 名难民。句③④通过民间组织负责人泰 勒的话,突出强调竞选后政府对收留难民的决心更大。句③表示,竞选前,民间 组织认为他们需要给政府施压, 督促政府为收留难民做更多努力。句④表示竞选 后, 反而是政府不断催促他们为难民做更多事情。表现了政府对难民救助工作的 认真程度不断提高。

45 外刊赏读 |US adds 242,000 jobs in February, but stuck wages frustrate
本文选自 《基督教科学箴言报》 3 月 4 日一篇名为 US adds 242,000 jobs in February, but stuck wages frustrate 的文章。 文章讲述了美国 2 月份新增就业岗位数量惊人, 然而在此现象背后,却是工资水平下滑的景象,作者对此两方面进行了分析,并 最后通过经济学家的观点,表达对新增就业岗位能否保持大幅增长的担忧。 原文 Ⅰ①There was plenty of good news and a bit of bad news in the February jobs report. Ⅱ①On the one hand, the labor market continued its now years-long streak of robust monthly gains, and people who had previously opted out of the market were encouraged to look for jobs – and found them. ②On the other hand, wages, the major sticking point of the current jobs picture, took an unwanted stepback. Ⅲ①US employers added 242,000 jobs last month, well above the 195,000 analysts were expecting and a huge bump from the 172,000 jobs added in January. ②The unemployment rate held steady at 4.9 percent. ③It was the 72nd straight month of positive jobs numbers, dating back to 2010. ④Healthcare, retail, and food service all saw big gains, making up for losses in the energy sector. Ⅳ①Additionally, the continued improvement of the employment picture is encouraging more potential workers who had been on the sidelines to jump back in and look for jobs. ②Labor force participation ticked up 0.2 percent last month, to 62.9 percent.③Participation has increased 0.5 percent since September of last year. ④That the employment rate didn’t move even though participation went up is a particularly encouraging sign; it means that on the whole, those who started looking for jobs typically found them.

Ⅴ①Wages, however, remained the job market’s lingering dark spot.②Hourly earnings ticked down 0.1 percent last month, a frustrating performance for those who have been waiting for years for wage inflation to pick up steam. ③Wages have increased 2.2 percent since a year ago but remain historically low. ④According to a CAP analysis released earlier this week, today’s 30-year-olds make the same amount on average as 30-year-olds did in 1984,despite the fact that they have higher education levels and work in a far more productive overall economy. ⑤They make approximately $1 less, before adjusting for inflation, than 30-year-olds a decade ago. Ⅵ①?Although the unemployment rate held at an eight-year low of 4.9 percent, the current pace of job creation should continue to bring the jobless rate down in coming months? economist Chris Williamson wrote in an e-mailed report. ② ?However, this is where the uncertainty lies. ③Survey data have signaled a marked slowing in the pace of economic expansion so far this year, …[and] a marked slowing is normally a precursor to a slackening in the rate of job creation.? (“US adds 242,000 jobs in February, but stuck wages frustrate” by Schuyler Velasco, Mar. 4, 2016) 词汇短语 1. robust [r?(?)'b?st] adj. 强健的,健康的 2. opt out 决定退出 3. sticking point 症结,关键,阻塞点 4. bump [b?mp] n.肿块,隆起物,撞击 5. sideline ['sa?dla?n] n. 副业;球场边线;局外人的观点 6. approximately [?'pr?ks?m?tl?] adv. 大约;近似地;近于 7. signal ['s?gn(?)l] vt. 标志 8. expansion [?k'sp?n??n] n. 膨胀;阐述;扩张物 9*.precursor [pr?'k??s?] n. 先驱,前导 10. slacken ['sl?k(?)n] v. 缓慢,松弛 注:带*的为超纲词汇 翻译点评 Ⅰ①There was plenty of good news and a bit of bad news in the February jobs report. 翻译:2 月份的就业报告里有不少好消息,也有一些坏消息。 点评:段Ⅰ引出文章话题:2 月就业报告中有积极的一面,也有消极的一面。 Ⅱ①On the one hand, the labor market continued its now years-long streak of robust monthly gains, and people who had previously opted out of the market were encouraged to look for jobs – and found them. ②On the other hand, wages, the major sticking point of the current jobs picture, took an unwanted stepback.

翻译:一方面,劳动力市场月度涨幅继续保持强劲势头,鼓励待业的人出门找工 作—也都顺利找到工作。 另一方面,工资水平——当前就业形势的关键——却在 倒退。 点评:段Ⅱ是对上一段的具体阐述,详细介绍了积极的一面是就业形势好,以及 消极的一面是工资水平下降了。①句指出积极面的具体内容,其中 years-long 表 示劳动力市场强健的持续时间长,②句则指出消极面的具体内容, ?the major sticking point of the current jobs picture? 做 ?wages? 的同位语, 用来解释工资 (wage) 在就业形势(jobs picture)中的地位, ?unwanted?表示?讨厌的、不需要的? , 传达出人们对工资水平下降的不满。 Ⅲ①US employers added 242,000 jobs last month, well above the 195,000 analysts were expecting and a huge bump from the 172,000 jobs added in January. ②The unemployment rate held steady at 4.9 percent. ③It was the 72nd straight month of positive jobs numbers, dating back to 2010. ④Healthcare, retail, and food service all saw big gains, making up for losses in the energy sector. 翻译:上个月,美国雇主增加了 242000 个就业机会,比分析师预计的 19500 个 多很多,比一月份增加的 172000 个也多出一大块。未就业率稳定保持在 4.9%左 右。这是自 2010 年以来,连续 72 个月出现积极的就业数据。医疗保健、零售、 食品服务大幅盈利,弥补了在能源方面的损失。 点评:段Ⅲ和段Ⅳ讨论积极的一面:新增了大量就业机会。段Ⅲ具体分析美国上 个月新增了大量的就业机会。 ①句以具体的三个数据(实际新增就业岗位和分析 师预估的就业岗位)对比,清楚的表明 2 月份美国新增就业机会总数确实不少。 ②则从另一个方面证明:失业率保持在低水平。steady 表示的是?稳定的,不变 的?含义,暗示 4.9%的失业率已经保持了一段时间。③句指出就业职位多这个 现象从 2010 年就已经开始,与②句相呼应,straight month 指连续……个月,表 示?positive job numbers?已经连续出现了 72 个月。④句指出医疗保健、零售以 及食品服务业大幅盈利,暗示新增的就业岗位可能是这几个行业提供的。 Ⅳ①Additionally, the continued improvement of the employment picture is encouraging more potential workers who had been on the sidelines to jump back in and look for jobs. ②Labor force participation ticked up 0.2 percent last month, to 62.9 percent.③Participation has increased 0.5 percent since September of last year. ④That the employment rate didn’t move even though participation went up is a particularly encouraging sign; it means that on the whole, those who started looking for jobs typically found them. 翻译: 此外, 持续改善的就业形势鼓舞了许多徘徊在就业边缘的潜在工人回到就 业市场,寻找工作。上个月的劳动参与率上升了 0.2%,达到 62.9%。自去年 9 月以来,劳动参与率上升了 0.5%。劳动参与率的提高没有影响就业率,这是一 个尤其积极的现象,意味着整体上,找工作的人最终都找到了工作。 点评:段Ⅳ分析就业岗位增多带来的影响:劳动参与率提高。①句直接指明由于 就业形势的持续好转, 越来越多人开始找工作。 continued 与上文的 straight month、 steady 呼应。②句是①句的结果:劳动参与率提高了 0.2%。③句顺承②句进一 步指出去年一年劳动参与率提高的总幅度为 0.5%,两个数据对比,更显示 2 月 就业岗位的增多对劳动参与率提高的贡献之大 (过去一个月提高的幅度占去年一

年总幅度的四成) 。④句总结本段,指出意义更深远之处在于劳动参与率的提高 没有影响就业率,说明找工作的人都找到了工作。 Ⅴ①Wages, however, remained the job market’s lingering dark spot.②Hourly earnings ticked down 0.1 percent last month, a frustrating performance for those who have been waiting for years for wage inflation to pick up steam. ③Wages have increased 2.2 percent since a year ago but remain historically low. ④According to a CAP analysis released earlier this week, today’s 30-year-olds make the same amount on average as 30-year-olds did in 1984, despite the fact that they have higher education levels and work in a far more productive overall economy. ⑤They make approximately $1 less, before adjusting for inflation, than 30-year-olds a decade ago. 翻译:但是,工资仍是就业市场难以消除的暗点。上个月,时薪下降了 0.1%, 这让那些多年来一直期望工资涨幅能渐渐加速的人感到焦虑。一年前,工资水平 增长了 2.2%,但是自此以后工资水平就保持在历史低水平上。根据本周初发布 的一份 CAP 的分析报告,尽管如今员工的学历更好,经济生产力更盛,但是当 今 30 多岁的员工的平均工资与 1984 年 30 多岁员工的平均工资一样。在为通货 膨胀调整工资前,他们比 10 年前同龄员工少赚 1 美元。 点评:段Ⅴ分析报告中消极的一面:工资水平降低。①句总领本段,指出工资是 强健的就业市场中的一个难以消除的黑点。lingering 表示?拖延的,徘徊的? , 即不肯离去,引申意义即:工资水平下降是强劲的就业市场的污点。②句具体给 出工资下降的幅度:时薪下降 0.1%。句③为下文做铺垫,先指出去年工资水平 提高了 2.2%,继而以 but 转折道明工资水平处于历史低位,给人震感的感受: 已经增长过的工资水平居然处于历史低位!为后文将新旧工资进行对比做铺垫。 ④句指出, 当今 30 多岁的人与 1984 年同龄人赚的一样多, despite 意为 ?不管? , 表示学历高, 经济生产力高居然不能给人们带来更高的工资这一事实的批判。⑤ 句又将当今 30 度岁的人与 10 年前的同龄人所赚工资进行比较, 现在的工资水平 比 10 年还低 1 美元。 作者用这两个对比, 极大地突出了现在工资水平低的事实。 Ⅵ①?Although the unemployment rate held at an eight-year low of 4.9 percent, the current pace of job creation should continue to bring the jobless rate down in coming months? economist Chris Williamson wrote in an e-mailed report. ② ?However, this is where the uncertainty lies. ③Survey data have signaled a marked slowing in the pace of economic expansion so far this year, …[and] a marked slowing is normally a precursor to a slackening in the rate of job creation.? 翻译:经济学家克里斯〃威廉姆森在一封电子邮件报告中指出: ?尽管失业率保 持在八年内的最低水平(4.9%) ,但是当前创造就业机会的速度还能在未来的几 个月内将失业率拉到更低水平。但是,这也是不确定存在之处。调查数据显示出 今年经济扩张速度显著下降……, 经济扩张速度下降通常是就业机会减少的预告。 点评:段Ⅵ用经济学家的观点总结全文。句①表达对未来失业率的观点:失业率 将持续下降。job creation 指?创造就业机会? ,the current pace of job creation 回 指前文的话题之一:2 月新增就业岗位数量大。②句以 however 转折,表示接下 来讨论的情况将于前面谈到的情况相反。③句具体指出 uncertainty 所指:调查数 据暗示今年经济扩张的步伐变小,这是就业机会减少的前兆,表示了经济学家对 未来新增就业岗位的增量幅度的担忧。

46.外刊赏读| 《科学》 As world warms, ocean habitats shrink
选段出自美国《科学》杂志的一篇题为 As world warms, ocean habitats shrink 的 文章。在这篇文章中,作者综合近期以来的科学研究,得出了全球气候变暖导致 海洋生物栖息地不断缩减的结论。它是一篇典型的科普类文章,主题明确,层次 清晰。开篇开门见山,提出了全球变暖侵蚀海洋生物栖息地的观点,并指出这一 观点源于两项新的科学研究。 后面几段则介绍了两项研究的研究过程及研究发现。 最后一段作者对海洋生物如何应对气候变化做出预测。他指出,面对气候变化, 自然界及其生命体也必须随机应变,调节自身,因为只有适者才能生存。选文截 取部分段落,集中分析其中的一项研究。通过阅读本文,读者可以了解气候变化 方面最新的科学发现, 进一步熟悉此类文章的行文思路和论证方法,积累相关词 汇。 原文 I①Large swaths of the ocean could become inhospitable to many kinds of marine life as the world warms. ②That’s the conclusion of a new study, which finds that rising water temperatures will make perhaps 20% of the ocean less habitable for many fish and crabs by reducing available oxygen. ③Another study warns that corals fleeing the tropics for cooler waters may find themselves without enough light to photosynthesize adequately in the winter. II①Most kinds of coral require water that is relatively warm, which generally limits them to the tropics. ②But if water gets too hot, corals may die. ③So the common wisdom is that over the next decades coral will expand north and south into water that used to be too nippy. III①But marine biologist Paul Muir of the Museum of Tropical Queensland in Townsville, Australia, thinks they will face a limit. ②While studying corals in eastern Australia and Japan, he was startled to notice that these species—inhabiting some of the southernmost and northernmost ranges of staghorn coral—seemed restricted to shallow water. ③That was intriguing, because the shallows are risky places for them: Strong waves can break their delicate branches, and water can occasionally get too warm or salty for comfort. IV①Curious to see if there were any general patterns to the depth ranges of coral species, Muir surveyed museum specimens and graphed the depths at which 104 species of staghorn coral had been collected at various latitudes. ②When he saw the results, he says, ?my heart definitely skipped a beat.?③For every degree of latitude farther north or south of the equator, species of staghorn coral live 0.6 meters closer to the surface, his team reports online today in Science.

V①The reason, he and colleagues say, is how sunlight varies with latitude. ②Corals require light for their symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, to photosynthesize; sunlight is most intense at the equator and weakens to the north and south, especially in the winter. ③That would explain why corals at higher latitudes move to shallower water, where light is stronger. ④Muir and his colleagues conclude that limited light could ?severely constrain? how far north and south corals might be able to expand. ⑤As the tropics get too warm, this would mean their overall habitat will shrink, with uncertain ecological consequences. VI①It’s possible that natural selection will help species respond to the stresses of warming. ②Oxygen stressed fish, for example, might eventually evolve more efficient gills. ③And corals have tricks for dim conditions, such as flattening branches to collect more light and relying less on photosynthesis and more on catching plankton with stinging tentacles. ④Given the pace of climate change, nature will need to be resourceful. (As world warms, ocean habitats shrink By Erik Stokstad 4 June 2015)

词汇短语 1. inhospitable [??nhɑ:?sp?t?bl] adj.不好客的,不友好的;不适于居住的 2. habitable [?h?b?t?b?l] adj.适于居住的 3. flee [fli?] vt. 逃离,逃避 4. * photosynthesize [?fo?to??s?nθ?sa?z] v.(植物等)进行光合作用 5. * nippy ['n?p?] adj.(天气)寒冷的;冷飕飕的;敏捷的;动作快的 6. * staghorn coral 鹿角珊瑚 7. intriguing [?n?tri:g??] adj.有趣的;迷人的 8. specimen [?sp?s?m?n] n.样品;范例 9. latitude [?l?t?tu:d] n.纬度;范围 10. equator [??kwet?] n.赤道 11. * symbiotic algae 共生藻类 12. * zooxanthellae [zu:k'se?ntheli:]n. 虫黄藻 13. * gill n.(鱼等的)鳃;深谷 14. * plankton [?pl??kt?n] n.浮游生物 15. * tentacle [?t?nt?k?l] n.(动)触手;触角;触须 16. resourceful adj.资源丰富的;灵活多样,善于随机应变 注:标*的为超纲词汇。 翻译点评 I①Large swaths of the ocean could become inhospitable to many kinds of marine life as the world warms. ②That’s the conclusion of a new study, which finds that rising water temperatures will make perhaps 20% of the ocean less habitable for many fish and crabs by reducing available oxygen. ③Another study warns that corals fleeing the tropics for cooler waters may find themselves without enough light to photosynthesize adequately in the winter.

翻译: 随着全球气候变暖, 大片的海洋对于多种海洋生物来说可能会变成不适宜 生存的环境。这一结论源于一项新的科学研究,它发现:水温升高导致海水中可 用氧含量减少, 这使得 20%的海域将变得不适宜许多鱼类和蟹类生存。 另一研究 警告: 从热带逃往较为凉爽水域的珊瑚可能会发现,在冬天它们没有足够的阳光 来进行充足的光合作用。 点评:选文是一篇科普类文章。第一段开门见山,提出论点,即①句所说,全球 气候变暖导致大面积的海域变得不适宜海洋生物生存了。 关键词是 inhospitable。 ②③句则为论点提供科学依据。That’s the conclusion of 表明上述结论不是随随 便便得出了,而是有研究事实作为支撑,强调文章的科学性和客观性。这两句分 别介绍了两项研究发现。 ②句指出海水温度升高使得部分海域不适宜海洋生物生 存的原因在于水中可用氧气含量的减少。③句是一项关于珊瑚的研究,它发现面 对气候变暖, 尽管珊瑚可以迁往高纬度的凉爽海域,但光照不足导致其分布不得 不局限于浅水海域, 这印证了文章的主题: 全球变暖正在侵蚀海洋生物的栖息地。 II①Most kinds of coral require water that is relatively warm, which generally limits them to the tropics. ②But if water gets too hot, corals may die. ③So the common wisdom is that over the next decades coral will expand north and south into water that used to be too nippy. 翻译:大多数珊瑚需要相对温暖的水环境,这一般将它们限制在热带地区。但是 如果水温过高,珊瑚也有可能会死亡。所以科学家们的普遍看法是,在未来的几 十年里,珊瑚可能会向南北相对寒冷的海域扩散。 点评:第二到五段作者集中介绍了珊瑚研究,这也是选文所截取的主要部分。第 二段主要介绍研究背景。 ①②句谈了珊瑚的一般习性。 珊瑚喜欢生活在热带地区, 但过热的水温也有可能导致其死亡。基于此,在未来几十年里全球气候变暖,海 水温度上升的情况下, 科学家们推断珊瑚将会向高纬度寒冷海域扩散。这就是③ 句的主要内容。Most, relatively,generally, may, common 等词的使用为作者论述留 有余地,避免了绝对性,体现了科普类文章的一般特点。 III①But marine biologist Paul Muir of the Museum of Tropical Queensland in Townsville, Australia, thinks they will face a limit. ②While studying corals in eastern Australia and Japan, he was startled to notice that these species—inhabiting some of the southernmost and northernmost ranges of staghorn coral—seemed restricted to shallow water. ③That was intriguing, because the shallows are risky places for them: Strong waves can break their delicate branches, and water can occasionally get too warm or salty for comfort. 翻译:但是,澳大利亚维汤斯尔市昆士兰热带博物馆的海洋生物学家保罗〃缪尔 认为, 珊瑚生存范围的扩散会面临一个局限。他在研究澳大利亚东部海域和日本 海域的珊瑚时吃惊地发现, 这些珊瑚的栖息地可以延伸至鹿角珊瑚分布范围的最 南和最北的一些地方,但它们似乎都被局限于浅水区域。这是一个有趣的现象, 因为浅水区对于珊瑚而言是非常危险的:大波浪会折断它们脆弱的分枝,这些水 域有时会变得太热或太咸,让珊瑚感到很不舒服。 点评:第三段紧接第二段谈及保罗〃缪尔是如何开始这样一项研究的。①句是主 旨句,针对上段中科学家们的普遍认识,缪尔进一步指出珊瑚扩散会受到限制, 若非如此,它们只会换个地方生存,何来栖息地缩小一说。But 增加了两段间的

连贯性。 ②③句则为具体论述, 缪尔在研究中偶然发现的有趣现象促使他去开展 了一项新的研究,即海水中各类珊瑚分布的深度是否存在一般规律。由此可见, 对于科学研究而言,好奇心和求知欲是必不可少的。 IV①Curious to see if there were any general patterns to the depth ranges of coral species, Muir surveyed museum specimens and graphed the depths at which 104 species of staghorn coral had been collected at various latitudes. ②When he saw the results, he says, ?my heart definitely skipped a beat.?③For every degree of latitude farther north or south of the equator, species of staghorn coral live 0.6 meters closer to the surface, his team reports online today in Science. 翻译: 缪尔对于珊瑚分布的深度范围是否有一个大体的模式很好奇,他研究博物 馆的样本,将在不同纬度收集的 104 种鹿角珊瑚在海水中分布的深度绘制成图。 当他看到研究结果时他说, ?我的心脏肯定停跳了一拍? 。 他的团队今天在 《科学》 杂志的官网上发表报告, 指出在纬度上每向北或向南远离赤道一度,各种鹿角珊 瑚的分布就会靠近海面 0.6 米。 点评: 第四段则介绍了具体的研究过程和研究发现。缪尔通过研究博物馆的珊瑚 样本, 将不同纬度上收集的珊瑚所分布的深度范围绘制成图,从而发现在纬度上 每向北向南远离赤道一度,各种鹿角珊瑚的分布就会靠近海面 0.6 米。 V①The reason, he and colleagues say, is how sunlight varies with latitude. ②Corals require light for their symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, to photosynthesize; sunlight is most intense at the equator and weakens to the north and south, especially in the winter. ③That would explain why corals at higher latitudes move to shallower water, where light is stronger. ④Muir and his colleagues conclude that limited light could ?severely constrain? how far north and south corals might be able to expand. ⑤As the tropics get too warm, this would mean their overall habitat will shrink, with uncertain ecological consequences. 翻译:缪尔及其同事说,原因是阳光的强度会随纬度的变化而不同。珊瑚需要分 布在光线充足的地方,这样其名为?虫黄藻?的共生藻才能进行光合作用。赤道 地区的阳光最为强烈, 而自赤道开始向南向北阳光强度逐渐削弱,这一情况在冬 天尤为突出。 这就解释了为什么高纬度地区的珊瑚会分布在浅水海域,因为浅水 区的光线更强。 缪尔及其同事总结道,有限的阳光可能会严重制约珊瑚向北向南 能够扩散的范围。 当热带地区变得过于温暖时,这将意味着珊瑚整个栖息地的萎 缩,其所带来的生态后果是无法估计的。 点评:第五段中,①②③句深入分析了出现这一规律的原因:高纬度海域光照相 对较弱, 珊瑚需要在浅水区域使其共生藻类获得充足光线进行光合作用。④⑤两 句则是研究最终得出的结论:气候变暖侵蚀珊瑚栖息地。至此,整个研究论述完 毕,从研究背景,到过程,到发现,到原因分析,到最后结论,层层递进,逻辑 清晰,值得一读。 VI①It’s possible that natural selection will help species respond to the stresses of warming. ②Oxygen stressed fish, for example, might eventually evolve more efficient gills. ③And corals have tricks for dim conditions, such as flattening branches to collect more light and relying less on photosynthesis and more on

catching plankton with stinging tentacles. ④Given the pace of climate change, nature will need to be resourceful. 翻译:当然,自然选择可能会帮助各物种应对气候变暖带来的诸多压力。例如, 用氧受限的鱼类可能最后会进化出更高效的鱼鳃。 而珊瑚也会有对付暗环境的小 窍门,如将分枝扁平化以收集更多的阳光,减少对光合作用的依赖,更多地依靠 带刺的触角来捕捉浮游生物。 鉴于气候变化脚步越来越快,自然界也将需要随机 应变。 点评:最后一段作者对海洋生物如何应对气候变化做出预测。①句中,他从自然 选择的角度指出,面对气候变化,自然界及其生命体不会坐以待毙。物竞天择、 适者生存的原则要求它们必须发展进化。②③句分别举了两个例子,推测未来鱼 类和珊瑚会如何进化来适应环境和气候变化。 ④则是作者对文章主题的最后总结 和升华:面对多变的气候,自然万物需要随机应变。其中 resourceful 的意思不是 资源丰富的,而是灵活多样、善于随机应变的意思。

47.外刊赏读| 《卫报》 Solitary confinement isn't punishment. It's torture.
选文出自 《卫报》 中一篇名为 Solitary confinement isn't punishment. It's torture. ( 《单 独拘禁不只是惩罚,更是折磨》 )的文章。文章开头以情景再现的方式呈现了一 位 68 岁老人被单独拘禁的孤独感和无助感,表露出作者对单独拘禁酷刑的强烈 反对,引发读者唏嘘。文章继而用大量篇幅,并上升到侵犯人权、践踏尊严的高 度来驳斥用单独拘禁的方式关押犯人的刑罚,令人信服。首先,作者搬出联合国 人权会酷刑问题研究员的观点斥责单独监禁对人权的残害; 接着文章用更多的例 证说明对误判的?疑似嫌疑人?强加以漫无天日的拘禁,致其不堪重负,最后诉 诸以自杀来结束自己生命的现象,说明单独监禁是对生命的肆意践踏。为了进一 步说明单独拘禁的不合理性, 作者又援引各类研究数据,从高自杀率和高花销等 方面将单独拘禁的灾难性后果显露无疑。文章感情色彩浓烈,围绕人权这个热议 话题,论证循循善诱,步步逼近。阅读此文可以积累相关词汇,增加背景知识。 原文 Ⅰ①Albert Woodfox sits alone in a cell smaller than the average parking space.② Unless it is one of the three days that he gets to stretch his legs in the prison yard, the 68-year-old will likely remain caged in these conditions for 24 hours today. ③The four walls are solid —— save a single small window that looks onto the parking lot —— as is the metal door in front of him. ④His isolation is complete, even from others prisoners in nearby cells. ⑤He has spent more than half of his life in this nightmare. Ⅱ①Woodfox —— who has the dubious honor of being the United States’ longest serving prisoner in solitary confinement —— is just one of an estimated 80,000 people held in solitary confinement on any given day in the United States. ②He has described the physical and mental anguish of solitary as “standing at the edge of nothingness, looking at emptiness.”

Ⅲ①The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture has specifically condemned Woodfox’s treatment as torture and called on the United States to eliminate the use of prolonged isolation. ②Albert’ s case has returned to the spotlight in thepast month because he is no longer a convicted man —— a federal judge ordered his unconditional release in early June, two years after his conviction had been overturned for a third time. ③The ruling on Albert’s behalf came only two days after the devastating news that 22-year-old Kalief Browder killed himself. ④Browder wasn’t guilty of a crime — — in fact, he was never even convicted. ⑤A judge eventually dismissed his case, but only after he had spent two years in solitary confinement for fighting with other inmates inside the notoriously brutal prison. Ⅳ①Their stories further illuminate the need for urgent and long-overdue reform of the United States’ use of prolonged solitary confinement. ②Albert and Kalief’ s ordeals are particularly devastating because of their strong arguments of innocence and the glaring flaws their cases expose in the criminal justice system. ③But solitary confinement is a grave human rights abuse for guilty and innocent alike. ④No human being should face the prospect of years, or decades, in a cage without meaningful human contact, battling the very real prospect of being overtaken by insanity. Ⅴ①Numbers alone make the human cost of solitary confinement devastatingly clear. ②Half of all successful suicides in US prisons occur in solitary cells. ③With an estimated 2.4m people behind bars in the United States, isolated prisoners make up only about 3% of the entire prison population. ④And if that human price isn’t compelling enough, the financial arguments may be: the independent advocacy project Solitary Watch has documented available figures from key states and the federal system, painting a picture of an extravagantly expensive practice that only increases recidivism and fails to reduce violence. ⑤Although there are few available numbers, one study estimated that the annual per-cell cost of a Supermax prison is about $75,000, compared to $25,000 for each cell in a prison not designed specifically for solitary confinement. ⑥They are also estimated to be about two to three times more costly to build. Ⅵ①It is time to develop national guidelines to limit the use of solitary or isolated confinement so that we can ensure that it is imposed only as a last resort —— and never indefinitely. ②The dehumanisation, degradation and deprivation typified by the prolonged isolation of prisoners in the US prison system is akin to sentencing a prisoner to stand on the knife’s edge of insanity and waiting to see if they stumble. ③It cannot, and must not, be the status quo. (Solitary confinement isn't punishment. It's torture. By Jasmine Heiss,July 3, 2015. The Guardian)

词汇短语 1.cell [sel] n.细胞;小房间;蜂房;电池 2.save [sev] prep. 除...之外 3.solitary confinement 单独拘禁 4.nothingness ['n?θ??n?s] n. 虚无,不存在;空白;不存在的状态 5.emptiness ['?mpt?n?s] n. 空虚;无知 6.UN Special Rapporteur onTorture 联合国人权会酷刑问题特别报告员 7.prolonged [pro'l??d] adj. 延长的;拖延的;持续很久的 8.*spotlight['spɑtla?t] n. 聚光灯;反光灯;公众注意的中心 vt. 聚光照明;使公众 注意 9.*convicted [k?n'v?kt?d] vt. 证明…有罪;宣告…有罪;n. 罪犯 10.overturn [,ov?'t?nd] adj. 倾覆的,倒转的;v. 颠覆 11.ruling ['rul??] adj. 统治的;主要的;支配的;普遍的;n. 统治;裁定 12.dismissed [dis'mist] v. 开除,解散;摒弃;adj. 解雇的;解散的,被排除的 13.*inmate['?nme?t] n. (尤指)同院病人;同狱犯人;同被(收容所)收容者 14.overdue [??v?'dju?] adj. 过期的;迟到的;未兑的 15.*ordeal [??'di??l] n. 折磨;严酷的考验;痛苦的经验 16.*insanity[?n's?n?ti] n. 疯狂;精神错乱;精神病;愚顽 17.compelling [k?m'p?l??] adj. 引人注目的;强制的;激发兴趣的 18.behind bars 在监狱服刑 19.*extravagant [?k'str?v?g?nt]adj. 奢侈的;浪费的;过度的;放纵的 20.*recidivism [r?'s?d?,v?z?m] n. 再犯,累犯 21.as a last resort 万不得已(作为最后的手段) 22.*dehumanisation [di:,hju:-m?nai'zei??n] n. 非人化;灭绝人性;人性丧失 23.*degradation [,d?ɡr?'de??n] n. 退化;降格,降级;堕落 24.deprivation [,d?pr?'ve??n] n. 剥夺;损失;免职;匮乏;贫困 注:标*为超纲词。 翻译点评 Ⅰ①Albert Woodfox sits alone in a cell smaller than the average parking space.② Unless it is one of the three days that he gets to stretch his legs in the prison yard, the 68-year-old will likely remain caged in these conditions for 24 hours today. ③The four walls are solid——save a single small window that looks onto the parking lot— —as is the metal door in front of him. ④His isolation is complete, even from others prisoners in nearby cells. ⑤He has spent more than half of his life in this nightmare. 翻译:阿尔伯特?伍德福克斯孤独地盘坐在一间小牢房里,牢房面积比一般停车 位还小。 这个 68 岁的老人今天很可能要在这样封闭的牢笼环境中再忍受 24 小时, 除非今天是三天一次的?活动日? ,能让他们在牢房院子里活动腿脚。四面的墙 牢不可破, 除了透过一小扇窗户可以看到对面的停车位,剩下的就是眼前冷冰冰 的铁门。老人被完全孤立起来,甚至都看不到临近牢房的狱友。他已经在这样的 噩梦中度过半辈子了。 点评: 选文第一段开头通过情景再现的方式展现了单独监禁对老犯人的折磨,利 用读者的同理心, 将读者带入难以自抑的唏嘘氛围中。整段描述由整体过渡到局 部,由环境引向心理。①②③是对环境氛围的描述,④⑤句过渡到心理活动。①

句用对比的方式将牢房面积与停车位面积相比, ?smaller than?强调牢房面积之 小。 ②句说明老人如困兽般被压, 生活暗无天日, 出去透气的时间极为有限。 ?one of the three days?点明频率之低, ?68-year-old?用高龄来凸显单独拘禁的惨绝人 寰, ?24 hours?则凸显被押时间之久,令人咋舌。 ?caged?一词与?prison?呼 应,意为?关在笼子里的? ,把犯人与困兽作类比,感情色彩浓烈。③句着眼点 由整体过渡到了局部,侧重于对内部环境的描写。"four walls are solid"突出幽闭 的环境。 ?save? 一词为熟词僻意, 词性为介词, 意为 ?除了? 。 ?single? , ? small? 两词的连用是对破折号之前 ?solid wall? 的进一步延展, ?window? 比喻为 ?hope? , 用窗户之小来隐射希望的渺小。 ?parking lot (停车场) ? 回应首句 ?parking space? 。 ?Metal door?用冷冰冰的铁门来隐射单独监禁制度的无情。④句由环境的幽闭 过渡到心理的幽闭——完全的与世隔绝,甚至见不到隔壁狱友。⑤句?half of his life?与?nightmare?连用,突出监禁的暗无天日,极度难熬。 Ⅱ①Woodfox —— who has the dubious honor of being the United States’ longest serving prisoner in solitary confinement —— is just one of an estimated 80,000 people held in solitary confinement on any given day in the United States. ②He has described the physical and mental anguish of solitary as “standing at the edge of nothingness, looking at emptiness.” 翻译:伍德福克斯被冠以美国单独拘禁服刑时长最久的尴尬?美誉? 。在美国, 每天像他这样忍受单独监禁刑罚的犯人估计有 8 万人。他把这种身心俱疲,备受 煎熬的生活称之为:站在虚无缥缈的边缘,走向无尽空虚。 点评:选文第二段交待老人入狱的缘由背景。①句 dubious honor 正话反说,褒 义贬用,把监狱服刑期最长描述成一种?荣誉? ,侧面道出老人半辈子监禁的苦 闷。 ?one of … 80,000 people?用数字由个人引申到了整个社会,说明忍受此种 煎熬的远远不止艾伯特一个人。"just","one of","any given"三个词共同表现了 单独监禁范围之广,残害程度之深。②句援引老人自己的真实心理描述,直击单 独拘禁的痛苦。 ?physical and mental anguish?说明犯人身心俱疲,残忍程度可想 而知。"nothingness"与"emptiness"用两个句意相近的词,加强语气,强调人生无 望,为下一段自杀案例埋下伏笔。 Ⅲ①The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture has specifically condemned Woodfox’s treatment as torture and called on the United States to eliminate the use of prolonged isolation. ②Albert’ s case has returned to the spotlight in thepast month because he is no longer a convicted man —— a federal judge ordered his unconditional release in early June, two years after his conviction had been overturned for a third time. ③The ruling on Albert’s behalf came only two days after the devastating news that 22-year-old Kalief Browder killed himself. ④Browder wasn’t guilty of a crime — — in fact, he was never even convicted. ⑤A judge eventually dismissed his case, but only after he had spent two years in solitary confinement for fighting with other inmates inside the notoriously brutal prison. 翻译: 联合国人权会酷刑问题特别报告员强烈谴责了对伍德福克斯的刑罚,称之 为名副其实的折磨, 希望美方能谨慎使用暗无天日的单独拘禁刑罚。自从艾伯特 上个月被宣布无罪后,这起案件重新引发人们的关注。6 月初,美国联邦法官宣 布其无条件无罪释放,但至此,据其第三次翻案已经过去两年了。就在艾伯特裁

决下发的前两天, 惨痛的悲剧刚过去:一名 22 岁的年轻人卡利福?布劳德选择了 自杀。布劳德并没有罪,实际上,他也从未犯过罪。一名法官最后撤消了这起案 件,但至此,布劳德已经忍受了两年单独拘禁的折磨,在这个恶名昭著的野蛮监 狱里,与其他狱友一起斗争着。 点评: 选文第三段摆出官方态度,并援引更多的例子指出单独监禁对犯人身心残 害造成的直接影响。 ①句用联合国人权会酷刑问题特别研究员的态度证实单独拘 禁刑法的不合理性。 ?specifically condemned?说明联合国对此事的重视程度和强 硬态度,呼吁美方谨慎使用此种刑罚, ?prolonged?指出单独监禁的暗无天日。 ②句承上启下,交待艾伯特关押之时竟还未定罪,最后无罪释放虽令人欣慰,可 是谁又为他半辈子的无端监禁买单??returned to the spotlight?说明艾伯特案子 因悬而未决搁浅太久而被人淡忘,用公众的淡忘与艾伯特忍受的煎熬对比,更让 人痛心不已。破折号解释艾伯特无罪释放的背景缘由, ?two years…a third time? 点明艾伯特案件漫长而棘手的审判过程。③句又是承上启下的作用,引出一个更 悲剧的案件——一位 22 岁年轻人因不堪重负选择自杀。 "only two days"用事件之 短隐含接二连三类似事件发生,说明单独监禁造成严重伤害的现象非常普遍。 "22-year-old"与开头"68-year-old"遥相呼应, 一老一少说明单独监禁制度残害人群 之广。"devastating"一词暗含作者的强烈谴责。④⑤句交待布劳德入狱背景—— 未定罪,甚至根本没有犯过罪,而法官竟然在两年之后才宣判撤销案件,谁又为 布劳德所受的罪买单?用无辜的人、草率的判决与残酷的刑法对比,将对单独监 禁的痛恨之心推至高潮。 Ⅳ①Their stories further illuminate the need for urgent and long-overdue reform of the United States’ use of prolonged solitary confinement. ②Albert and Kalief’ s ordeals are particularly devastating because of their strong arguments of innocence and the glaring flaws their cases expose in the criminal justice system. ③But solitary confinement is a grave human rights abuse for guilty and innocent alike. ④No human being should face the prospect of years, or decades, in a cage without meaningful human contact, battling the very real prospect of being overtaken by insanity. 翻译: 他们的经历进一步表明一拖再拖的漫长单独拘禁刑罚改革迫在眉睫。艾伯 特和卡利福所忍受的折磨显得尤为严酷, 因为他们曾一度极力证明自己是无辜的, 而整起案件在刑事审判中也疑点重重。无论对有罪的人还是无辜的人来说,单独 拘禁都是对人权的严重侵犯。 没有人可以忍受年复一年,甚至数十年暗无天日的 监禁生活, 与世隔绝不能与外界有任何交流, 与随时可能发生的精神错乱斗争着。 点评: 选文第四段亮出作者观点, 呼吁行之有效的改革措施。 ①句为段落主旨句, ?their stories?承上段艾伯特与布劳德的惨痛经历, ?further?引出下文。 ?urgent and long-overdue?指出改革一拖再拖,到了形势极度严峻的时刻,暗指美国立法 系统的低效。②重回案子本身,用典型代表的无辜却无端受刑,疑点重重却草率 判案来突出国家立法系统对单独监禁制度改革的迫切必要性。"ordeals"回应上段 的"anguish", ?折磨、 痛苦? 同义替换。 用"strong arguments" (极力申诉) 与 ?glaring flaws? (疑点重重)两方面来凸显此案判决的荒谬。③句将单独监禁上升到了侵 犯人权,践踏尊严的高度, ?guilty and innocent?说明无论对有罪的还是无辜的 人来说,都是。④句?no…without…?用双重否定加强语气,用反面强调没有人 可以忍受得了漫长的单独关押生活, 如困兽般与随时可能发生的精神错乱作斗争。

"prospect"为熟词僻意,本以为"promising future",在这里反指遥遥无期的未知痛 苦,"years, or decades"突出时间之久,"without meaningful human contact"与 "overtaken by insanity"点明恶劣的环境对精神上造成的摧残。 Ⅴ①Numbers alone make the human cost of solitary confinement devastatingly clear. ②Half of all successful suicides in US prisons occur in solitary cells. ③With an estimated 2.4m people behind bars in the United States, isolated prisoners make up only about 3% of the entire prison population. ④And if that human price isn’t compelling enough, the financial arguments may be: the independent advocacy project Solitary Watch has documented available figures from key states and the federal system, painting a picture of an extravagantly expensive practice that only increases recidivism and fails to reduce violence. ⑤Although there are few available numbers, one study estimated that the annual per-cell cost of a Supermax prison is about $75,000, compared to $25,000 for each cell in a prison not designed specifically for solitary confinement. ⑥They are also estimated to be about two to three times more costly to build. 翻译:光数字就能把单独拘禁的灾难性后果表露无疑。在美国,近一半的自杀事 件发生在单独拘禁的牢房里。 而全美国大概有 240 万在押犯人,其中单独监禁犯 人只占总数目的 3%。假使人生命的代价还不足以说明问题的话,不妨看看花销 上面的数据: 狱警单独看管部门从一些重点州和联邦系统上收集的一组数据表明, (在牢房)花高价画的图并不会减少暴力,反而只会增加再犯的机会。虽然相关 研究并不多见,至少有一项调查表明,每年,超高度戒备监狱里每间牢房的花销 在 7.5 万美元左右,而那些不配备单独拘禁牢房的监狱只需 2.5 万美元。另外, 超高度戒备监狱的造价也是普通监狱的 2 到 3 倍。 点评: 选文第五段用数字说话, 从生命的代价与高昂的花销两方面论证单独监禁 的不合理性。①句为段落主旨句,②③句用高自杀率来论证,④⑤⑥句从高昂的 花销方面论证。 ①句总起全段, 点明下文用数字来论证单独监禁刑法的毁灭性后 果。②句指出单独监禁里发生的自杀率之高多达半数。③句引用数字,增强说服 力,"with an estimated"说明为保守估计,2.4m(在押犯人)人数之多与 3%(单 独监禁犯人)占比之小,再呼应上句自杀人数占?半数?之多,用鲜明的对比突 出单独监禁把人逼到自杀的边缘。④句过渡到花销方面,进一步证明单独监禁的 不合理性。 "compelling"一词暗指生命的代价居然还不足以论证, 实属荒谬至极。 If…用让步的方式引出下文,如果生命的代价还不够的话,那再看高昂开销。援 引看管部门广泛搜集的证据, 证明在单独监禁牢房花高价来劝犯人改过自新的措 施,到头来只会增加再犯几率,得不偿失,"only…fail to…"指出花高价却收效甚 微,甚至起反作用。"extravagantly ( in a rich and lavish manner expensive)"证明 花销之高, 此为第一方面; ⑤句用配备有单独监禁牢房的监狱与普通监狱日常开 销做对比,$75,000 vs.$25,000 三倍的花销形成鲜明对比,此为第二方面;⑥句 从两到三倍的造价方面论证单独拘禁牢房的不合理性,此为第三方面。 Ⅵ①It is time to develop national guidelines to limit the use of solitary or isolated confinement so that we can ensure that it is imposed only as a last resort —— and never indefinitely. ②The dehumanisation, degradation and deprivation typified by the prolonged isolation of prisoners in the US prison system is akin to sentencing a

prisoner to stand on the knife’s edge of insanity and waiting to see if they stumble. ③It cannot, and must not, be the status quo. 翻译:是时候制定国家方针政策,减少单独监禁的使用了,我们要确保只在万不 得已的情况下才判处此种刑罚——但永远不要无限期使用。 在美国的监狱制度中, 将犯人处以惨绝人寰、践踏尊严、剥夺人权、暗无天日的监禁,就好比将犯人臵 于精神错乱的利刃上,然后在一旁看他们重重摔倒在地。这不应该,也绝不能成 为现实。 点评:承接上段的必要性,选文最后一段呼吁改革的紧迫性,强烈谴责单独监禁 惨绝人寰的一面。①句直接呼吁从?national guidelines?的角度,在立法上保证 谨慎使用单独监禁刑法。 ?only as a last resort?指出不到万不得已不要使用此种 刑法,破折号之后的?never indefinitely?点明即便使用,也绝不能无限期,对应 的是其本来暗无天日的执行期。 由此可瞥见作者对单独监禁制度痛恨至极。②句 ?dehumanisation, degradation and deprivation? ,首字母相同的三词的连用,铿锵 有力, 掷地有声, 强烈指责单独监禁制度的三个恶劣影响: 惨绝人寰、 践踏尊严、 剥夺人权,并用类比的方式?akin to sentencing a prisoner to stand on the knife’s edge ofinsanity and waiting to see if they stumble (好比将犯人臵于精神错乱的利刃 上,然后在一旁看他们重重摔倒在地) ?将监督拘禁制度的残暴一面展露无遗。 ③句?cannot?与?must not?逐步加强的语气体现了作者迫切希望改革单独监 禁制度现状(status quo)的决心。你以为现在还在看点评其实已经是广告了呵呵 呵不要 naive, 想看比外刊赏读更详尽贴心的真题同源外刊逐句精析, 请点击 ?阅 读原文?或文末链接买正版《张剑阅读理解 150 篇》 ,每篇文章都有原文朗读, 都按照真题命题风格设臵了题目和解答,32 篇泛读提高看文速度,68 篇精读提 升答题准确度,一个完整的阅读能力提升系统,帮助你拿下考研英语半壁江山。

48.外刊赏读| How to Teach Your kids to Stand Up for What They Believe In
本文出自《时代周刊》2 月 17 日一篇名为 How to Teach Your kids to Stand Up for What They Believe In 的文章,主要内容为父母应该怎样教育孩子。文章脉络清 晰, 分别从小学, 初中, 高中三个阶段进行介绍如何根据孩子们的特点教育他们。 文章在用词、长难句、逻辑等方面都不难,建议同学们先完整看完文章之后在对 照翻译点评回顾检验。 原文 I①Even in elementary school, says Patrisse Marie CullorsBrignac, cofounder of black lives matter, kids understand social ills. ②In fact, she believes, ?as children we see them the most.?③And for many kids, it’s personal: CullorsBrignac recalls being called a racial slur when she was only eight. ④?I remember how devastated I felt,? she says ?I couldn’ t understand why it hurt so badly.? ⑤And since kids don’ t always understand what they’re feeling, she says, ?it’s important they get the opportunity to explore these issues with a parent or guardian.” II①No child is too young to see injustice, or suffer from it. ②But even young

children can do something about it, says CullorsBrignac. ③?We have so many children who are actively engaged, not just going with parents, but speaking out in their classrooms, calling out inequalities where they see it, creating little after school clubs where they talk about what they see.?④Parents can encourage their kids to speak up for what they believe, CullorsBrignac says, by asking them ?what they feel most concerned about” —— and then providing them with resources and connections to get involved. III①As kids get into middle school, they may not be as willing to talk about themselves. ②So Kenneth Braswell, Executive Director of Fathers Incorporated and author of Daddy, There’s a Noise Outside, a book he wrote in response to his young son’ s questions about recent protests, says that it’ s a good time to ask kids about their thoughts on current events that bring up questions of justice. ③And, Braswell says, to ask them what their friends think—and their opinion of that. ④?We think our kids are not having these conversations,” he says. “They are having them, but they’re having them in their own context.” IV①By high school, Braswell says, kids are old enough to consider a broader definition of protest. ②?Marching in the street, blocking the highway, that’s one form,?Braswell says. ③But there’ s also?signing a petition, writing a letter, writing an editorial, volunteering in your community, helping an organization that you feel strongly about with respect to issues.?④Parents can help kids get engaged, says Braswell, by encouraging them to ask themselves, ?What can I do?? ⑤ ?The best way to protest something I don’t like,” Braswell says, “is to do something about it.” (“How to Teach Your kids to Stand Up for What They Believe In” by Carey Wallace Feb. 17, 2016 The Time) 词汇短语 1.cofounder [k?u'faund?] n.奠基者, 创始人之一 2.racial ['re??l] adj.人种的, 种族的; 种族之间的 3. *slur [sl??] n.连音符, 耻辱, 诽谤;v.忽视, 忽略; 弄脏, 玷污 4.*devastated['dev?ste?t] v.毁坏 5. engaged [en'geid?d] adj.忙碌的, 使用中的 6.encourage [?n'k?r?d?] v.鼓励, 激励, 支持 7.involved [?n'vɑlvd] adj.复杂的; 混乱的; 纠缠的 8.response [r?'sp?ns] n.反应, 响应, 回答 9.current ['k?r?nt] n.流动, 气流, 水流; 趋势;adj. 现行的, 当前的; 流行的 10.definition [?def?'n??n] n.定义, 清晰度, 精确度 11.petition [p?'t??n] n.请愿, 陈情书, 诉状;v.向...请愿; 祈求; 请求; 请愿; 请求 12.editorial [?ed?'t??r??l] n.社论, 评论;adj. 编辑的, 社论的, 主笔的 注:标*的为超纲词 翻译点评

I①Even in elementary school, says Patrisse Marie CullorsBrignac, cofounder of black lives matter, kids understand social ills. ②In fact, she believes, ?as children we see them the most.?③And for many kids, it’s personal: CullorsBrignac recalls being called a racial slur when she was only eight. ④?I remember how devastated I felt, ? she says ?I couldn’ t understand why it hurt so badly.? ⑤And since kids don’ t always understand what they’re feeling, she says, ?it’s important they get the opportunity to explore these issues with a parent or guardian.” 翻译:黑人人权活动创始人玛丽说,从上小学的时候开始,孩子们就能理解社会 弊病。事实上,他相信至少大部分孩子是这样的。对于许多孩子来说,这是自己 的私事。 回忆起当她只有 8 岁, 就遭到种族歧视时: ?我记得我当时感到很绝望? , 她说, ?我不能理解那种感觉为何如此痛。 ?因为孩子们有时候并不能理解自己的 感觉,她说: ?给他们一个机会,跟一个家长或监护人共同面对解决这些问题是 很重要的。 ? 点评:段Ⅰ主要讲小学阶段孩子们就会意识到社会弊病的存在。①段落主旨句, 指出此段中心大意。 ?even?加强了语气。句②紧接上一句,说明也许不是所有 的孩子都有这种意识, 但是大部分孩子有了。句③④布里格纳用自己的亲身经历 证明前两句,同时也引出最后一句。说明,小学的时候孩子们会有感受,但是可 能不能独立面对,需要家长或监护人的帮助,最后一句用了 it is +adj 的句法结 构。 II①No child is too young to see injustice, or suffer from it. ②But even young children can do something about it, says CullorsBrignac. ③?We have so many children who are actively engaged, not just going with parents, but speaking out in their classrooms, calling out inequalities where they see it, creating little after school clubs where they talk about what they see.?④Parents can encourage their kids to speak up for what they believe, Cullors Brignac says, by asking them ?what they feel most concerned about” —— and then providing them with resources and connections to get involved. 翻译:孩子不会因为他年纪小,就不懂不公正,不受委屈。但即使是小孩也能做 一些事, 布里格纳说。 ?有很多孩子积极参与其中, 不仅仅是跟他们的家长一起, 而是在班级发出自己的声音,在看到不平等时发出呐喊,创建课外俱乐部,在那 里他们畅所欲言。 ?父母应该鼓励孩子大声说出自己所相信的,可以通过问他们 ?他们最关心的是什么?——并为他们提供资源和关系,让他们融入其中。 点评: 段Ⅱ是对上一段的补充说明, 指出孩子们不可能因为年纪小, 就不懂公正, 不受委屈。 句①为段落主旨句。 ?too...to..." 相当于"so...that: ..:太...以至于"。 "suffer from: ...遭受...之苦"。句②承上启下,孩子们会意识到不公正,并会积极参与维 护公正。 句③用布里格纳的一句话表明孩子们不仅仅是在父母的带领下参与维护 平等,没有父母的场合也会积极参与。"engage"相当于"take part in", "speaking..., calling..., creating..."为并列结构。 句④指出父母可以鼓励孩子说出自己所相信的, 并帮助他们参与其中。encourage sb to do sth: 鼓励某人做某事。concerned about: 关心...,provide sb with sth: 为某人提供某物。 III①As kids get into middle school, they may not be as willing to talk about themselves. ②So Kenneth Braswell, Executive Director of Fathers Incorporated and

author of Daddy, There’s a Noise Outside, a book he wrote in response to his young son’ s questions about recent protests, says that it’ s a good time to ask kids about their thoughts on current events that bring up questions of justice. ③And, Braswell says, to ask them what their friends think —— and their opinion of that. ④ ?We think our kids are not having these conversations,” he says. “They are having them, but they’re having them in their own context.” 翻译:随着孩子们进入初中,他们开始不愿意谈论自己。所以父亲组织执行董事 肯尼斯〃布拉斯维尔写了一本书,名为《爸爸,外面有噪音》 ,来回应他的儿子 对于近期抗议时间的问题。 他说,是时候该问问孩子们对于近期发生的引起公正 问题的事件的看法了。并且还要问问他们的伙伴的想法,并让他们给出评价。他 说: ?我们以为孩子们不会谈论这样的话题,然而实际上他们是会的,只是在他 们的圈子里谈论。 ? 点评:段Ⅲ指出孩子们到初中阶段开始不爱表达自己。句①为段落主旨句。be willing to..., 愿意做...。句②承上启下引出另外一个人物,布拉斯维尔,借他的 一本书说明现阶段已经是时候让孩子们谈谈自己对于平等问题抗议时间的想法。 in response to..., 回应...。 it’ s a good time to do, 是时候该做...。 bring up, 引起...。 句③说明通过孩子们对小伙伴的思想的评价来让孩子表达自己。句末的 that 指 what their friends think。句④指出,孩子们不是不谈论这类话题,而是在他们自 己的圈子里谈论。conversations 指与平等有关的话题. they 指代孩子们,them 指 代 conversations。 IV①By high school, Braswell says, kids are old enough to consider a broader definition of protest. ②?Marching in the street, blocking the highway, that’s one form,?Braswell says. ③But there’ s also?signing a petition, writing a letter, writing an editorial, volunteering in your community, helping an organization that you feel strongly about with respect to issues.?④Parents can help kids get engaged, says Braswell, by encouraging them to ask themselves, ?What can I do?? ⑤ ?The best way to protest something I don’t like,” Braswell says, “is to do something about it.” 翻译:到高中阶段,布拉斯维尔说,孩子们足够大了,能够给孩子们下个更广泛 的定义。布拉斯维尔继续说: ?在街上游行,封锁高速公路,这是一种形式, ?但 是也有: ?签署一份请愿书,写一封信,写一篇社论,在你的社区做义工,帮助 一个让你感到强烈总重的组织。 ?父母也可以帮助孩子们参与,通过鼓励他们问 自己?我能做什么??布拉斯维尔说: ?抗议我不喜欢的事情的最好方式就是做 点什么。 ? 点评:段Ⅳ说明孩子到高中阶段,足够大了,可以去了解这些抗议活动了。句① 为段落主旨句。a definition of...,...的涵义。句②③分别说明参与维护平等活动 的方式。 句④指出父母可以怎样帮助孩子参与这些活动。句⑤为布拉斯维尔从自 己的角度出发,谈怎样对不喜欢的事提出抗议。

49.外刊赏读| 《华盛顿邮报》 Tiny house, big benefits

选段出自《华盛顿邮报》中 Tiny house, big benefits:?Freedom from amortgage and worries — and stuff 一文。文章分为两部分,一部分全景式介绍袖珍房在美国的 流行以及原因、面临的法律问题,另一部分特写三组人的袖珍房体验,由宏观到 微观、普遍到个体、抽象到具体,不仅全面而且细致。文章的结构完整,脉络清 晰,语言生动,值得读者欣赏学习。 原文 Ⅰ①America is having a big love affair with tiny houses. ②There are television shows: ?Tiny House Nation? and ?Tiny House Hunters.?③There are movies: ?Tiny: A Story About Living Small? and ?Small Is Beautiful: A Tiny House Documentary.?④Pinterest has more than 900 boards devoted to tiny houses, and design Web site Houzz showcases thousands of tiny- house photos. ⑤?Many Houzz readers have been fascinated by the idea of a portable home they can pay off quickly and personalize down to the smallest detail,? says editor Sheila Schmitz. ⑥And you know a concept has arrived when ?Portlandia? skewers it: Check out the ?Microhouse? episode. Ⅱ①Why are Americans, whose homes average about 2,200 square feet, so obsessed with tiny homes? ②Perhaps they are responding to the benefits tiny-house owners cite: financial and emotional freedom, a greener lifestyle, the satisfaction of building one’s own refuge. Ⅲ①The phrase ? ‘tiny house’ put a name to the movement that was already there,? says Thom Stanton, a tiny-home builder in West Virginia. Ⅳ①Stanton says two groups are fueling the movement: millennials, because their college loans have put traditional houses out of reach, and retiring baby boomers looking for affordable homes with minimal maintenance.②Meanwhile,traditional homeowners are contributing to the trend by building tiny houses on their properties to shelter guests, family members or caregivers, or putting them on vacation land. Ⅴ①But there’ s one big drawback: Many municipalities haven’ t made room literally or legislatively for tiny residences. ②It’s a challenge to find a place to park a tiny house if you don’t own land. ③And they often fall into a legal limbo. ④?Tiny houses exist in sort of a legal gray area, neither explicitly allowed nor expressly forbidden,? says tiny-home owner Jay Austin of Northeast Washington. ⑤Though the District recently banned ?camping? in tiny-house-like structures, Austin says he has been told the provision is unenforceable. Ⅵ①In Maryland, tiny-house legality will likely be handled at the local level as a zoning or building code issue, according to Wiley Hall, acting communications director for the state’s Department of Housing and Community Development. ② InVirginia, a home built on a foundation has to meet the Virginia Residential Code. ③But most tiny houses are built on wheeled platforms,and there are no code

standards that govern recreational vehicles, says Amanda Pearson, public relations director for the Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development. ④To further complicate matters, placement on a property is determined by local zoning and land use regulations. Ⅶ①Sorting out these issues will be a crucial test for tiny-house dwellers, who recently formed the American Tiny House Association. ②But the owners of the three homes that follow have already found big benefits. (Tiny house, big benefirs: Freedom from a mortgage and worries — and stuff. by Nina Patel. June.28.2015. Washington Post) 词汇短语 1*.showcase ['?okes] n. 陈列橱,显示优点的东西;vt.使展现;在玻璃橱窗陈列 2*.skewer ['skj??] n. 烤肉叉子;vt.刺穿;串住;讽刺 3.put a name to 辨识,叫得出名字 4*.millennial [m?'l?n??l] adj. 一千年的;千禧年的 5.maintenance ['ment?n?ns] n. 维护,维修;保持;生活费用 6.property ['prɑp?ti] n. 性质,性能;财产,房地产;所有权 7.municipality [mj?'n?s?'p?l?ti] n. 市民;市政当局;自治市或区 8.literally ['l?t?r?li] adv. 照字面地;逐字地;不夸张地;正确地;简直 9.legislatively ['l?d??s,let?vli] adv. 立法地 10*.limbo ['l?mbo] n. 监狱;地狱的边境;处于中间的或不定的状态 11.gray area 灰色地带 12.provision [pr?'v??n] n. 规定;条款;准备;vt. 供给…食物及必需品 13.recreational vehicle 野营旅游车;休闲车 注:标*为超纲词 翻译点评 Ⅰ①America is having a big love affair with tiny houses. ②There are television shows: ?Tiny House Nation? and ?Tiny House Hunters.?③There are movies: ?Tiny: A Story About Living Small? and ?Small Is Beautiful: A Tiny House Documentary.?④Pinterest has more than 900 boards devoted to tiny houses, and design Web site Houzz showcases thousands of tiny-house photos. ⑤?Many Houzz readers have been fascinated by the idea of a portable home they can pay off quickly and personalize down to the smallest detail,? says editor Sheila Schmitz. ⑥And you know a concept has arrived when ?Portlandia? skewers it: Check out the ?Microhouse? episode. 翻译:美国正沉浸在与袖珍房的?热恋?中。不仅有电视节目《袖珍房国家》 、 《寻找袖珍房》 , 还有电影 《生活在袖珍房的故事》 、 《以小为美: 袖珍房纪录片》 。 不仅拼趣网(图片社交网站)有 900 多个专注于袖珍房的板块,家居设计网站 Houzz 也展现了数以千计的袖珍房照片。编辑希拉?施密茨评论道: ?许多 Houzz 的浏览者都对轻便袖珍房的想法心驰神往,因为袖珍房不仅能迅速付清房款,还 可以将房子每一个微小的地方进行个性化设计。 ? 《波特兰迪亚》 (美剧)更是大

加调侃,让你明白袖珍房概念已然兴起(见?微型房?一集) 。 点评: 第一段讲袖珍房在美国大受欢迎。 第一句总领全段, havea big love affair 原 意为婚外恋, 在这里用拟人化的修辞手法,诙谐形象地表达袖珍房在美国大受欢 迎的现象,同时暗含不正当,不受法律保护的意思,为下文袖珍房的法律问题埋 下伏笔。第二句到第六句从电视、电影、社交平台、网络各方面例证袖珍房的流 行。 Ⅱ①Why are Americans, whose homes average about 2,200 square feet, so obsessed with tiny homes? ②Perhaps they are responding to the benefits tiny-house owners cite: financial and emotional freedom, a greener lifestyle, the satisfaction of building one’s own refuge. 翻译:为何平均房屋占有率 2200 平方英尺的美国人如此厚爱袖珍房?也许这是 响应了袖珍房房主总结的优点——经济与身心自由、环保的生活方式、构筑个人 避难所的满足。 点评:第二、三、四段采用自问自答的方式,解释美国人厚爱袖珍房的原因。第 二段第一句采用对比突出的方式提出问题,whose 引导的定语从句用数字说明美 国人的人均住房面积高,但是却 obsessed with tiny homes(痴迷于袖珍房),这不 仅照应了上段 have a big love affair with tiny houses,更加激发读者追问原因的阅 读兴趣。第二句借用袖珍房房主总结的优点回答了部分原因。 Ⅲ①The phrase ? ‘tiny house’ put a name to the movement that was already there,? says Thom Stanton, a tiny-home builder in West Virginia. 翻译:西佛吉尼亚州的袖珍房建造者汤姆〃斯坦顿指出, ‘袖珍房’一词为?一 场已然存在的运动正名? 。 点评:第三段为过渡段,点出这是一场早已存在的运动,引出下段分析这场运动 的推动力。 Ⅳ①Stanton says two groups are fueling the movement: millennials, because their college loans have put traditional houses out of reach, and retiring baby boomers looking for affordable homes with minimal maintenance.②Meanwhile,traditional homeowners are contributing to the trend by building tiny houses on their properties to shelter guests, family members or caregivers, or putting them on vacation land. 翻译:斯坦顿说有两组人推动着这场运动。一组是千禧一代,他们的大学贷款令 他们无力承担传统意义上的房子;另一组是即将退休的婴儿潮一代,他们寻找负 担得起的需要最小维修的房子。此外,传统房屋拥有者也在推动这一运动,他们 在自己的土地上或是度假胜地建造袖珍房为客人、家人、看护人提供住所。 点评: 第四段从三个群体分析袖珍房运动的推动力。第一句分析千禧一代和婴儿 潮一代由于经济原因选择袖珍房。 第二句补充说明传统的房屋拥有者也对袖珍房 运动有所贡献。前两者 fueling the movement 与后者 contributing to the trend 互相 照应,并形成对比,强调袖珍房运动的主要推动力在于前两者。 Ⅴ①But there’ s one big drawback: Many municipalities haven’ t made room literally or legislatively for tiny residences. ②It’s a challenge to find a place to park a tiny house if you don’t own land. ③And they often fall into a legal limbo. ④?Tiny

houses exist in sort of a legal gray area, neither explicitly allowed nor expressly forbidden,? says tiny-home owner Jay Austin of Northeast Washington. ⑤Though the District recently banned ?camping? in tiny-house-like structures, Austin says he has been told the provision is unenforceable. 翻译: 但是袖珍房面临着一个大问题——许多市政当局对袖珍房既未实际上留出 土地,也未在法律上明确规定。如果不拥有土地,要找到安臵袖珍房的地方实属 难事。 法律上的模棱两可也让袖珍房房主时常为难。华盛顿东北部的袖珍房房主 杰奥斯丁指出: ?袖珍房处于法律灰色地带,既未明确许可,也未曾明令禁止。 ? 虽然华盛顿特区最近禁止袖珍房一类的?露营? ,但奥斯丁也被告知该规定不是 强制执行的。 点评:第五、六段提出袖珍房面临的法律问题,并举例证明。第五段第一句总领 这两段, (but)转而讨论袖珍房面临的问题。其中 haven’t made room literally or legislatively for tiny residences,一方面说市政未替袖珍房腾出地方,这里说的是 make room for 的字面意思(literally) ;另一方面说市政未在立法上给予袖珍房一 席之地, 即 make room legislatively for。 第二句解释 literally, 说明袖珍房找地难。 第三、四、五句进一步解释 legislatively,第四句解释第三句,第五局例证,其 中 legal limbo 对应 legal gray area,neither…nor…,banned,unenforceable 两组互 相矛盾的词语体现了市政在袖珍房法律问题上的管理缺失和混乱。 Ⅵ①In Maryland, tiny-house legality will likely be handled at the local level as a zoning or building code issue, according to Wiley Hall, acting communications director for the state’s Department of Housing and Community Development. ② InVirginia, a home built on a foundation has to meet the Virginia Residential Code. ③But most tiny houses are built on wheeled platforms,and there are no code standards that govern recreational vehicles, says Amanda Pearson, public relations director for the Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development. ④To further complicate matters, placement on a property is determined by local zoning and land use regulations. 翻译: 据马里兰州房屋与社区发展部门的通讯主管威利豪所说,该州的袖珍房法 律问题将在当地以区域划分和建筑规范问题对待。在弗吉尼亚州,有地基的房子 必须符合弗吉尼亚住房规范。 但是大多数袖珍房建在有轮子的平台上,而且管理 野营车的规范也未出台, 弗吉尼亚州房屋与社区发展部门公关主任阿曼达〃皮尔 森如是说。 令问题更为复杂的是,不动产上的建筑是由当地的区域划分和土地使 用规定所决定的。 点评: 第六段顺承第五段最后一句华盛顿特区的袖珍房法律问题,进一步列举马 里兰州、弗吉尼亚州,说明袖珍房的法律问题相当棘手。 Ⅶ①Sorting out these issues will be a crucial test for tiny-house dwellers, who recently formed the American Tiny House Association. ②But the owners of the three homes that follow have already found big benefits. 翻译: 解决这些问题将会是袖珍房居住者的重要考验,他们最近成立了美国袖珍 房协会。但是下面要说的三种袖珍房房主已经体验着极大的好处。 点评:第七段承上启下,由袖珍房的法律问题再回到袖珍房的优点,引导下文, 使得全文脉络清晰,结构清楚。

50.外刊赏读| 《自然》 Extreme climate change slowed dinosaurs' rise
选段出自《自然》中 Extreme climate change slowed dinosaurs' rise( 《极端气候变 化减缓了恐龙的崛起》 )一文前半部分。曾经统治地球而后突然灭绝的恐龙在人 类眼中总是神秘无比,人们也为此展开了无数研究,本文即是其中一项研究。文 章开篇介绍了恐龙虽曾统治全球,但在最初漫长的 3000 万年中却因受到地理限 制,主要生活于两极地区,引出本文的话题:恐龙为什么主要生活在两极地区? 紧接着下文作出回答, 最新研究表明,原因主要是由于低纬度地区气候干湿极端 不稳定。第三段承接上文,开始详细描述这项最新研究。第三段到选文最后一段 均为该项研究发现的基础和根据。选段为文章的前半部分,旨在帮助读者熟悉话 题。文章为科技文,句型结构难度不大,主要难度在于个别地质学术语。希望读 者通过阅读本文可以对恐龙的生存状况有所了解,并积累相关地质学术语。 原文 I ①Dinosaurs once dominated the world —— but they spend their first 30 million years stranded on its geographic fringes. ②Large dinosaurs flourished near the poles, but only a few small ones, no larger than ostriches, managed to gain a foothold in the hotter low latitudes. II ①The latest research suggests that an unstable climate in these regions kept big dinosaurs at bay for millions of years, as conditions at lower latitudes swung violently between wet and dry periods. III ①The finding is based on a detailed climate history reconstructed from sedimentary rock in New Mexico that dates from about 215–205 million years ago, during the late Triassic period. ②Back then, the area sat just north of the equator, roughly where Costa Rica is today. ③The region was dominated by archaic reptiles (some related to crocodiles), with only a few small dinosaur species present. IV ①Jessica Whiteside, an organic geochemist at the University of Southampton, UK, who led the study, tracked ancient plant growth by analysing carbon isotopes in nodules of petrified soil in the rock layers. ②She found repeated spikes and dips in the amount of ‘heavy’ carbon-13, a sign of major ecological disruption. ③These spikes lined up with sudden changes in fossil pollen trapped in the rocks, indicating periodic shifts between plant species adapted to wet conditions and those that preferred an arid environment. V ①The fascinating part, says Whiteside, is that this see-sawing between wet and dry occurred as atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels soared from around 1,200 parts per million to 2,400 parts per million —— well above the current level of roughly 400 parts per million. ②Current climate models predict that rising atmospheric CO2

levels will intensify the water cycle, she notes, and the new study demonstrates that this has happened in the past. VI ①The rock layers that mark the ancient dry periods also held chunks of fossilized charcoal —remnants of wildfires that swept through ancient conifer woodlands.②Ian Glasspool, an organic petrologist at Colby College in Waterville, Maine, measured the reflectiveness of that charcoal to estimate the temperatures of the wildfires that produced it. ③One fire reached 680°C, warm enough to melt an aluminium can. VII ①?That’s a pretty hot fire,? Glasspool says. ② "There was probably a lot of fuel there.?③A drought that browned large swathes of vegetation could have provided the excess fuel that is necessary to generate that kind of heat, he adds.

Extreme climate change slowed dinosaurs' rise by Douglas Fox 词汇短语 1. dominate ['d?mineit] v.支配,统治,控制;占优势 2*.strand ['str?nd] v. 使滞留,使搁浅;使陷于困境;n. (绳子的)股,绞;海 滨,河岸; (思想等的)一个组成部分 3. fringe ['frind?] n.边缘;(窗帘)缘饰;额前垂发;vt.饰…的边 4. flourish ['fl?ri?] n./v.繁荣,茂盛,兴旺 5. ostrich ['?str?t?] n. 鸵鸟;回避现实的人 6*. foothold ['futh?uld] n.立足处(攀登时脚踩的地方) ; (在事业等方面可以进一 步发展的)稳固地位;据点 7. keep...at bay 不使……接近 8. sedimentary rock [sed?'mentr? r?k] 沉积岩 9*. Triassic [trai'?sik] n.三叠纪的 10. reptile ['repta?l] n. 爬行动物;卑鄙的人 11*. isotope ['ais?t?up] n.同位素 12*.nodule ['n?dju:l] n.(尤指植物上的)节结,小瘤 13*. petrified ['petrifaid] adj.惊呆的;被石化的 14*. spike ['spaik] n.长钉;细高跟; (防滑)鞋钉;尖状物 15. dip ['dip] v./n.浸,蘸; (轻度地或暂时地)减少 16*.pollen ['p?l?n] n. 花粉;[虫]粉面;v. 传授花粉给 17*.arid ['?rid] adj. 干旱的,干燥的;贫瘠的,荒芜的,不毛的 18*. see-sawing ['si:s?i?] n.上下(来回)摇动 19. intensify [in'tensifai] v.(使)增强, (使)加剧;增加 20*.remnant ['remn?nt] n. 剩余部分;残余;幸存者;零料,零头布 adj. 剩余的;残留的 21*. conifer ['k?nif?] n.针叶树;松柏科植物 22*. petrologist [petr?'l?d?ist] n.岩石学家 23*. reflectiveness [ri'flektivn?s] n.反射性,反光性 24*. swath ['sw?θ] n.细长的列;收割的刈痕

25. vegetation [ved?i'tei?n] n.植物,草木 注:标*为超纲词 翻译点评 I ①Dinosaurs once dominated the world —— but they spend their first 30 million years stranded on its geographic fringes. ②Large dinosaurs flourished near the poles, but only a few small ones, no larger than ostriches, managed to gain a foothold in the hotter low latitudes. 翻译:恐龙曾经统治世界,但它们最初 3000 万年却是滞留于其地理边缘。大型 恐龙在两极附近栖息繁衍, 但只有一些鸵鸟大小的小型恐龙成功在温度更高的低 纬度地区立足。 点评:第一段①句引出全文话题:恐龙最初 3000 万年滞留于其地理边缘,引起 读者好奇,在漫长的 3000 万年间,统治过世界的恐龙是因为什么原因而被滞留 于地理边缘?这即是本文要讲述的研究发现。stranded 是 strand 的过去分词,在 这里过去分词表被动,表示?被滞留于? 。②句是对①句的进一步描述,告诉读 者地理边缘指的是什么,即大型恐龙生活于两极附近(near the poles),只有鸵鸟 大小的小型恐龙种类设法成功(manage to do sth)在温度高的低纬度地区存活。 flourish 一词形象地描述出了众多恐龙繁衍生息的场景。 II ①The latest research suggests that an unstable climate in these regions kept big dinosaurs at bay for millions of years, as conditions at lower latitudes swung violently between wet and dry periods. 翻译:最新研究表明,由于低纬度地区的天气状况在干旱期和潮湿期剧烈波动, 不稳定的气候使得大型恐龙几百万年都无法靠近这些地区。 点评:第二段只有一句话,也是本文的主题句。从第一段的话题引出第二段的主 题句,过渡顺畅,衔接自然。本文即主要讲述一项最新研究,研究发现低纬度地 区干湿极端不稳定气候使得恐龙无法靠近,只得生活于两极地区。keep...at bay 意为?使……无法靠近,防御……? ,as 引导原因状语从句,对主句进行解释说 明。swing 是?摇摆?的意思,在这里形容干湿气候变化剧烈无常。 III ①The finding is based on a detailed climate history reconstructed from sedimentary rock in New Mexico that dates from about 215–205 million years ago, during the late Triassic period. ②Back then, the area sat just north of the equator, roughly where Costa Rica is today. ③The region was dominated by archaic reptiles (some related to crocodiles), with only a few small dinosaur species present. 翻译:这一发现基于新墨西哥地区约 2.15 亿至 2.05 亿年前三叠纪晚期形成的沉 积岩再现的详细气候历史。当时,该地区正好位于赤道北部,即大致位于现在的 哥斯达黎加的位臵。 该地区由古代爬行动物统治 (其中一些与鳄鱼有亲缘关系) , 只出现有一些小型恐龙。 点评: 第三段至第七段均为对这项最新研究的详细描述与说明,讲述了得出此研 究结果的基础与根据。 第三段①句简要地指出得出该项研究结果的基础的主要信 息, 为新墨西哥地区三叠纪晚期形成的沉积岩再现的详细气候历史。②句说明了 选取新墨西哥地区的岩石的理由,因为新墨西哥地区在当时位于赤道以北,距离 赤道很近, 为低纬度高温地区。 ③句紧接着提到该地区当时由古代爬行动物统治,

只出现了很少的小型恐龙。 ②③句又与第一段②句相照应。本段有几个地质学术 语需注意积累。 IV ①Jessica Whiteside, an organic geochemist at the University of Southampton, UK, who led the study, tracked ancient plant growth by analysing carbon isotopes in nodules of petrified soil in the rock layers. ②She found repeated spikes and dips in the amount of ‘heavy’ carbon-13, a sign of major ecological disruption. ③These spikes lined up with sudden changes in fossil pollen trapped in the rocks, indicating periodic shifts between plant species adapted to wet conditions and those that preferred an arid environment. 翻译:英国南汉普顿大学的有机地球化学家杰西卡〃怀特赛德带领的这一研究, 通过分析岩层中石化土壤结节中的碳同位素来追踪古代植物的生长。她发现碳 13 的量反复出现峰值和凹陷,这标志着重大生态破坏。这些峰值和储存于岩层 中的花粉化石的突然变化一起表明了适应于潮湿环境和偏爱干燥环境的植物物 种发生了阶段性的改变。 点评: 第四段①句讲述了该项研究的团队及主要研究内容。②③句指出研究发现 的基础及推断。①句句子较长专业术语较多但结构并不复杂,有两个插入语,第 一个插入语作同位语,第二个插入语为定语从句修饰主语。②句表明通过碳 13 的测量值发现该地区存在重大生态破坏。③句是对②句的具体描述,岩层中喜湿 植物与偏干植物周期性轮转,暗示该地区干湿气候呈周期性出现态势。 V ①The fascinating part, says Whiteside, is that this see-sawing between wet and dry occurred as atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels soared from around 1,200 parts per million to 2,400 parts per million —— well above the current level of roughly 400 parts per million. ②Current climate models predict that rising atmospheric CO2 levels will intensify the water cycle, she notes, and the new study demonstrates that this has happened in the past. 翻译:怀特赛德说,吸引人的地方在于干旱期与潮湿期的摇摆不定,大气层中的 二氧化碳含量从约百万分之 1200 猛增到百万分之 2400,远远高于如今的约百万 分之 400。她提到,目前的气候模型可预测,大气中二氧化碳含量上升将加剧水 循环,并且新的研究表明过去发生过这种情况。 点评:第五段引用了该研究领队怀特赛德的话语。①句指出,干湿气候由于空气 中二氧化碳含量巨大不同而出现摇摆不定,是非常令人惊奇的。see-saw:跷跷 板,摇摆不定的。②句是对于①句的例证。②句指出,现有气候模型估计大气中 二氧化碳含量增加能加剧水循环, 而该研究证明过去曾发生过因二氧化碳含量增 加而加剧水循环这样的情况,从而引起气候干湿变化。 VI ①The rock layers that mark the ancient dry periods also held chunks of fossilized charcoal —remnants of wildfires that swept through ancient conifer woodlands.②Ian Glasspool, an organic petrologist at Colby College in Waterville, Maine, measured the reflectiveness of that charcoal to estimate the temperatures of the wildfires that produced it. ③One fire reached 680°C, warm enough to melt an aluminium can. 翻译: 标志着古代干旱期的岩层中也保存着木炭化石块,这是野火蔓延古代针叶 树林之后的残存物。 缅因州沃特维尔寇比学院的有机岩石学家伊恩〃格拉斯普测

量了木炭化石的反光性, 以此判断产生该木炭化石的野火温度。有一场大火的温 度达到了 680°C,足够融化一个铝罐。 点评:第六、七段补充说明岩层中除了碳 13 的含量外的另一项发现,即标志干 旱气候的岩层中的一些木炭化石块。第六段①句指出,木炭化石块是古代野火的 残存物。 ②句指出对木炭化石块可以进行其反光性的测量, 用以估计野火的温度。 ③句承接②句,指出有一场野火温度高达 680°C,暗示存在一些反常现象,由 第七段进行解释。 VII ①?That’s a pretty hot fire,? Glasspool says. ② "There was probably a lot of fuel there.?③A drought that browned large swathes of vegetation could have provided the excess fuel that is necessary to generate that kind of heat, he adds. 翻译:格拉斯普说: ?这场大火温度真高。那里可能有许多燃料。 ?他补充道,一 场使大片植被枯死的旱灾可能为那么高温度的产生提供了额外而必需的燃料。 点评:第七段引用专家的话语,指出那场野火温度如此高可能是由于燃料充足。 而燃料充足则可能是由于旱灾使得植被枯黄, 从而为如此高温的大火提供了充足 而必需的燃料。


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