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模块八第一单元导学案


M8U1 The written word
Part 1 (Welcome+Reading+Word Power)
一、词形转换
1. novel (n.)-------_____________(小说家) 3. use (v.)----------_____________( 滥用) 5. civil (adj)--------__________

___(n.) 7. violent (adj)-----_____________(n.) 9. fortune (n.)------____________ (adj..) 11.desperate (adj.)-_____________(n.) 13. generous (adj.)-__________ (n.) 2. crime (n.)-------- ____________(adj) 4. tense (adj)--------____________(n.) 6. bent (adj)----------____________(v.) 8. adapt (v)----------_____________(n.) 10. wealth(n.)-----_____________(adj) 12.recommend (v.)----__________ (n.) 14. violent (adj.)---____________ ((n.)

二、短语翻译
1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 be bent on(doing) something live up to your great expectations in vain be left to gather dust on shelves have nothing to do with contemporary life bother to do sth be adapted from a symbol of danger a desperate criminal be set in treat him in a generous manner on the run be too eager to do sth one chapter at a time convince the reader to adopt a certain point of view be lost to have a place in be well received break his heart have a better understanding of be performed on stage base sth on sth

三、句型填空
1. They are novels,plays and poems that were written a long time ago and were so well written and well _________that people still read them today. (P2 L2) 2. This makes them difficult for some people to read,and often,so they are often__________ to ________ _________on shelves. (P2L8) 3. They have not disappeared and still_____ a _________ ________the world today .(P2L12) 4. Nobody would ______to make these ________novels into films if they had _______to ______ _________life today. (P2L16)
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5. Pip's sister often _______him, but Joe is a kind and simple man, who ________ ________ die _________see any harm come to Pip. (P3L28) 6. Money and education, however, change him,and before long he becomes ________and ___________ of his background.(P3L38) 7. Pip _________ ___________ when Joe comes to visit him in London. (P3 L38) 8. Pip is _______on becoming a gentleman and winning Estella's love. (P3L41)

Part 2(Grammar+Project)
一、词形转换
1. threat n.) -------____________(v.) 3. intend (v.)--------____________(n.) 5. pressure (n.)-----_____________(v.) 7. possession (n.)---____________(v.) 9. romance (n.)---- ____________(adj..) 2. resist (v.) ------____________(adj.) 4. survive (v.)-----____________(n.) 6. talent (n.) ------____________(adj.) 8. add (v.) ---------____________(n.) 10. donate (v.) ---____________(v.)

二、短语翻译
1. a servant to a cruel master 2. fall under the control of sb 3. get arrested and is taken to court 4. flee the circumstance 5. pressure him with the threat of violence if he resist 6. head for 7. have little talent for soccer 8. let out a sad sigh 9. get possession of her fortune 10. come to her rescue 11. add some comedy to this otherwise dark tale 12. have a reputation for being funny 13. in honor of 14. tend to touch on strong feelings 15. focus on concepts like freedom and beauty

三、句型填空
1. He _______Oliver,takes him home and tries to_______ him.(P9) 2. They drag him back into a life of _______, ________him with the _______of ________if he resists.(P9) 3. The poetry of this period tends to use imagination and ________ _________strong feelings.(P14L20) 4. He is thrown out of the workhouse and become a _________ to a ________ _________ who abuses him.(P9) 5. To _________ the _________, Oliver runs away to Londer, where he falls _______ the ________ of a man called Fagin.(P9) 6. In order to survive, Oliver is _______ to become a _________(P9) 7. The sun was ________ as Kevin _______ _______ the old bench (P11) 8. Mike’s _________ was old and ________, and he has _______ ________ for soccer(P11)
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9. Her stepsisters have come to get ________of her fortune (P12) 10. Burns had a ________ for being funny and pleasant to be around(P14 L2) 11. The poetry of this period often focuses on ______ like _______ and beauty, and ________ to use _______ and touch on strong feelings.(P14 L19)

Part 3

Negative words and statements

英语否定概念的表达形式大致可以分为两大类——显形否定和隐形否定。前者一般借 助否定词或含否定意义的句型表达,其否定含义较为直观;后者无明显否定词,其否定含 义往往靠上下文或语境来推断,较难把握。 一、显形否定 种 类 例 句

常用 no 和 not 否定词表示否定。not 修饰副词或整个句子,no 修饰名词或 代词; no = not a/not any

He is not a statesman. 他不是政治家。 He is no statesman. 他绝非政治家。(言下之意,他 不懂政治。)

Nobody can come in without permission. 用不定代词 none, nobody, nothing, neither, little, few, no one 表示否定。 未经允许,任何人不得入内。 Neither of the two books is published in England. 这两本书都不是英国出版的。 The new rules are working and few books are stolen. 新规定很管用,几乎没有书被偷走。 用 hardly, scarcely, barely, rarely, seldom, never, nowhere, not … at all, no longer, not any more 等否定副词。 We have never seen each other before. 我们以前从未见过面。 This lathe can not be used any longer, and that one can’t either. 这台车床不能再用了,那台也一样。 He was at a loss what to do next. 他不知道下一步该做什么。 I sleep with the window open unless it is really cold. 天气若不冷,我总是开窗睡觉。

用 nor, neither … nor, but, without, unless, but for, but that, in the absence of, regardless of, instead of, short of, rather than, anything but, any more than, out of the question, would rather…than, in no case, under no circumstance, by no means, in no way, on no condition, beyond, at a loss, above, behind, against, beneath, out of, past 等介词或连词表 示否定。 由 dis-, il-, im-, un-, non-, anti-, under-, in-, ab-, mis-, 及 –less, -free, -proof 等 词缀构成的否定词来表示。 用 avoid, ban, cancel, deny, exclude,

Some people think it is impolite to ask someone’s age. 有些人认为询问别人的年龄是不礼貌的。 She mistrusts anyone in a position of authority. 她对任何有权有势的人都不信任。 The headmaster was absent from the meeting.
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escape, forbid, free … from, free from/of, fail, hat, ignore, lack, lose, miss, neglect, prohibit, quit, refuse, rid, stop 以及 far from, off, absent, bad, bare, empty 等可用于表达否定概念的 词。

校长没有来参加会议。 It is far from clear what he intends to do. 他打算做什么一点都不清楚。 Most of the students failed to go to college in his time. 他那个时代大多数学生都没有上大学。 He is too young to go to school. 他还不够上学的年龄。 That’s too much for me. 这我可受不了啦。 You should (ought to) have done it better. 你本应做得更好。 (还不够好) I could have come earlier. 我本来能早点来的。 (我没早来)

常用否定句型:too … to …, too … for …

虚拟语气表否定

双 重 否 定 的 表 达

由 not 加上含有否定意思的词或 句子构成。 否定词加上 without 短语。 否定词后跟关系词引导的含否定 意义的从句。

We were not unprepared for the disappointment. 我们对失望也不是没有思想准备。 He wouldn’t attend the lecture without being invited. 要是不邀请他的话,他是不会参加这个讲座的。 There is nobody who takes no care of football matches in this city. 在这座城市,人人都关心足球比赛。

否定词 no, not, never, seldom 等 后面跟 until/till 或 unless 引导的 状语。 no/not/nobody … but … 表示“没 有??不适,只有??才” 。

She didn’t arrive until 6 o’clock. 她六点才到。 There is no question but he will succeed. 他会成功,这是没有问题的。 I cannot help but admit the truth of your remarks, although they go against my interests. 虽然你的言论违反我的利益, 但我不得不承认你说 的对。 You cannot be too careful with your work. 工作越仔细越好。 Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop. 我们刚开始就被叫停。 No sooner had we sat down than we found it was time to go. 我们刚刚坐下就发现该走了。

含有肯定意义的某些否定句型:cannot help/choose but … (必须,不得不, 只能) ,cannot help doing sth.(忍不住 做某事)cannot ... too ...(再??也不 为过,越??越好) ,hardly/scarcely ... when ...(刚??就??) ,no sooner ... than ...(刚??就??)等。

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部分否定:英语中吧表示整体概念的 不定代词 all, both, every, 与 every 构成 的不定代词,副词 always 与否定副词 not 搭配时,表示的是部分否定。而用 no, neither, none, 与 no 构成的不定代 词表示全部否定。

Not all the students handed in their papers. = All the students didn’t hand in their papers. 不是所有学生都交卷了。

二、隐形否定 此类否定既无特定句型,又无否定词,其否定含义多为习惯用语或引申义,颇为费解, 也最易出错,切不可望文“生译” 。 Catch me making the same error again. 我绝不再犯同样的错误了。 I dare him to jump. 我量他也不敢跳。 Keep it dark!这事不可泄露出去。 For all I care! 这事我才不管呢! It’s anyone’s guess. 这事谁也说不清。 She bares her age well. 她一点也不显老。 三、否定表达要注意的问题 1. 要注意否定程度的强弱和说话者的态度。 He is not richer than I. 他不比我富。 He is no richer than I. 他和我一样,也不富。 2. 否定前移。 在 think, suppose, imagine, believe, expect, guess 等动词所接的宾语从句中,谓语动词的 否定应前移到这些动词前。 I don’t think you are right. 我认为你错了。 hope 不属于该用法之列, not 常放在上述动词及 be afraid 之后代替一个有否定含义的从句。例如: 问:Is it going to rain? 肯定回答:I suppose so. 否定回答:I suppose not. 或 I don’t suppose so. 对于 hope 和 be afraid,否定回答只能说 I hope not. 和 I’m afraid not. 3. ―there be no doing‖表示“不可能” , “无法” 。 There is no knowing what may happen. 我们不知道会发生什么。 There is no denying the facts. 不可否认这些事实。

Exercises:
一、把下列句子改为否定句。 1. They’re listening to pop music now. 2. Many people can speak English nowadays. 3. You must make your bed after you get up every day. 4. His mother has a beautiful car. 5. We need a pen and piece of paper. 6. I need to wear a warm coat.
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7. The old man always goes for a walk in the park after supper. 8. The doctors volunteer in the countryside every year. 9. Mike does sports in the afternoon. 10. You’d better talk with your parents right now. 二、单项选择。 1. I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means _____ with my progress. A. the teacher is not satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied 2. Nuclear science should be developed to benefit the people _______ harm them. A. more than B. other than C. rather than D. better than 3. His failure in the experiment suggested that he ______ his teacher’s proper instructions. A. shouldn’t have followed B. shouldn’t follow C. mustn’t have followed D. hadn’t followed 4. The great changes _____ have taken place _____ carrying out the economic reform in our country. A. may not; unless B. never; but for C could not; without D. would, bedsides 5. I didn’t expect you can finish the work in three days, ___________? A. don’t I B. do I C. can you D. can’t you 6. House prices have increased greatly and they are ______ the reach of those with average incomes. A. over B. within C. beyond D. below 7. I must be getting fat— I can ______ do my trousers up. A. fairly B. hardly C. nearly D. seldom 8. It is ______ any wonder that his friend doesn’t like watching television much. A. no B. such C. nearly D. hardly 9. Fred is second to none in maths in our class, but believe it or not, he ______passed the last exam. A. easily B. hardly C. actually D. successfully 10. No sooner ______ the railway station than the train had started. A. did I reach B. had I reached C. I reached D. I had reached 11. The great changes ____ have taken place ____ carrying out the economic reform in our country. A. may not; unless B. never; but for C. could not; without D. would; besides 12. Jill couldn’t ______ jokes about his baldness. A. help to make B. resist making C. resist to make D. help make 13. I could not ______ turn to police. A. resist B. but C. except D. besides 14. It was owing to luck ______ judgment ______ the driver succeeded in avoiding an accident. A. better than; when B. rather than; that C. other than; When D. more than; which 15. I ______ the truth of your remarks, although they go against my interests.
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A. cannot but admit B. cannot but admitting C. cannot but to admit D. cannot help but admitting 16. The students are ___ with these two famous scientists in the lab. A. too pleased to work B. too pleased that they cannot work C. only too pleased to work D. so pleased that they cannot work 17. I don't believe it. I think he is ______ such a thing. A. the only person to do B. the first person to do C. the last person to do D. the very person to do 18. The experiment is ______; it was a great success. A. far from being a failure B. far away from a failure C. more than a failure D. nothing but a failure 19. —Do you think our pitchers played very well yesterday? — . A. They were not nervous at all B. They were still young C. They played naturally D. They couldn't have done better 20. —Which of these two electronic dictionaries do you like better? — . A. All B. That C. None D. Neither

Part 4 单元巩固练习
一、重点单词及短语 1. 虐待 ,滥用 3. 紧张气氛,烦躁,矛盾,对立 5. 改过自新,改革 7. 反抗抵制 9. 名誉 11. 决心做某事 13. 躲避,忙碌 15. 救援某人 17. 和当代生活没什么联系 19. 相当受欢迎 二、根据单词的首字母或汉语意思填空 1. Many people were g_______ enough to donate enough money to the people in the disaster regions. 2. The play is an a_________ of a short novel. 3. Mother Teresa, who won the Nobel Prize, has earned her r__________ for kind help to the poor people in India 4. The crew of the tanker were r______ just minutes before it sank in heavy seas. 5. Prisoners reported being regularly a______ by their guards. 6. Better be envied than p______ (怜悯). 7. The t_____ in the plot is always the attraction to literature lovers. 8. Parts of this school are in d__________ need of repair. 9. John is b_______ on getting the first place in the following race. 10. The posts are i_________ for students who have recently completed a first degree in biology.
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2. 铤而走险的,拼命的,绝望的 4. 慷慨大方的,宽厚的 6. 暴力的 8. 威胁,恐吓 10. 债务 12. 废旧 ,筋疲力尽的 14. 不辜负你的期望 16. 目的是做某事 18. 对…有更好的理解 20. 徒劳的,虚荣的

三、句型转换 1. This makes them difficult for some people to read,and often,so they are often left to gather dust on shelves. →This makes them difficult for some people to read,and often,they are left_________ __________ often dust on shelves. 2. Nobody would bother to make these classic novels into films if they had nothing to do with life today. →Nobody would bother to make these classic novels into films if they were ________ ________ ________life today. 3. He first pullished many novels one chapter at a time in the newspaper, and some were later performed on stage. →He first published many novels one chapter at a time in the newspaper,some ________ ________ were later performed on stage. 4. People say that Burn's first love encourged him to write poetry. →People say that________ was Burn's first love_________ encouraged him to write poetry. 5. The poem was published in 1794 and,like many of Burns's poems,it was intended to be a song. →The poem, ________ at being a song like many of Burns's poems,was published in 1794. 四、完成句子 1. ____________________________(人们普遍认为)that citizens should be encouraged to turn to public transportation like buses. 2. ____________________________(绝不)can we ignore the value of knowledge. 3. Some parents insist that _____________________________________________________ ________________________________(对小孩要求严格并对他们施加压力很必要) 4.__________________( 该 是 …… 的 时 候 了 )the authorities concerned _______________(采取适当的措施)to solve the traffic problems. 5. ________(就是…才重要呢)what achievements we achieve ___________ ( 而不是) what brand we are wearing _________________ 五、动词填空 1. It is recommended that the medicine _____(take) twice a day. 2. We need to examine all the costs _____(involve) in the project first. 3. They arrived on Monday evening and we got there the _____(follow) day. 4. No one can prevent this plan from _____(carry) out. 5. _____(fly) back to China, all the staff who had worked in Libya strongly felt that our country is powerful. 6. Though many measures have been taken to stop pollution, a lot still remains _______ (do). 7. That crazy man considered it possible _____(set) back the clock of history. 8. The moon _____(rise), we returned home. 9. ―Do you have anything _____(type)?‖ the secretary asked the boss. 10. The little boy is so fond of ice cream that without it he _____(refuse) to eat his meal. 六、单项选择 1. Play, often seen as ________ activity for kids, is still important in ________ development of teenagers. A. the; the B. an; the C. an; / D. the; /
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2. —We thought he would have won the game. —What a pity! He ________ too nervous when playing. A. had been B. has been C. was D. would have been 3. Since my daughter doesn’t like many vegetables, can she eat fruit every day instead ________ the nutritions good for her physical growth? A. of getting B. of to get C. to get D. of get 4. —Mum, where is my backpack? —Just ________ it was yesterday. A. what B. how C. as D. where 5. In January in 2013, some Academics and analysts ________ further reforms to a system that distributes funds for scientific research projects at universities. A. called in B. called for C. called off D. called at 6. — Amazing! You ______ come to the party in such a fancy dress(化装舞会所穿的服装). — Don’t you know it’s a fashion? You’re out. A. should B. will C. can D. must 7. China is reported ________ 20 spacecraft in 2013, including the country’s third lunar probe(月球探测器) Chang’e-3 and manned spacecraft Shenzhou-X. A. to launch B. to be launching C. to have lauched D. launching 8. China’s first high-resolution, stereo mapping satellite Ziyuan III ________ international standards, ridding our country of its reliance on imports of satellite images. A. sets B. makes C. develops D. meets 9. ________ well prepared a gymnast is, he/she still needs a lot of luck in performing. A. Whatever B. Although C. No matter D. However 10. Professor Smith will come here to deliver a speech. All the preparations must be ________ before 5 o’clock. A. in advance B. in sight C. in place D. in touch 11. Pop star Lady Gaga purchased 55 items belonging to late singer Michael Jackson in a weekend auction(拍卖) that raised more than $5 million, ________ will be donated to charity. A. part of which B. part of them C. part of it D. which part 12. I would appreciate ________, frankly speaking, if the goods could be delivered as soon as possible. A. that B. this C. it D. one 13. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked around as if ____ whether he was going in the right direction. A. seeing B. having seen C. to see D. to have seen 14. Do come here on Monday, ________ we, as planned, will participate in the gathering of Aids prevention volunteers. A. therefore B. then C. otherwise D. or 15. —I think Harry Potter 7 is absolutely the best in the whole series. —__________. I have seen it twice but I want to see it once again. A. You can say it again B. I should think not C. By no means D. Out of the question 16. If you don’t mind my saying so, I think you_______ that better. A. might handle B. could have handled C. may have handled D. should handle 17. It brought child poverty to the______of the public, and for this reason alone it is a very
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important novel. A. attention B. acquisition C. administration D. association 18. We believe the time and hard work_______ in completing such an important project are worthwhile. A. involved B. involving C. to involve D. to be involved 19. — It's so cold! Why are your windows still open? — Oh, they__________ . A. aren't closing B. won't close C. won't be closed D. aren't closed 20. — If our team gets the first place, we will get a bonus. With that bonus, I will go for a trip with my girl friend — _______. A. Great minds think alike B. Never judge a book by its cover C. An old dog cannot learn new skills D. Don’t count your chickens until they are hatched

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