英语句子的自然语序是主语在前，谓语动词在后。为了强调句中的某一部分把原来的语序重新调整， 通常将助动词、系动词、情态动词等放在主语之前，称为倒装结构。如果全部谓语部分放在主语之前，叫 完全倒装。如果只把句子的谓语动词中的助动词、系动词或情态动词放到句子的主语前面，其它不动，则 称之为部分倒装。 （一） 完全倒装 1、 用于 the
re be 句型 There are many students in the classroom. 2、 某些状语位于句首时 此类状语有：表地点的状语（there, here）,表时间的状语（then, now）.例如： Here comes the bus. Now comes your turn.
注意：①代词作主语时，主谓语序不变。例如： Here she comes. Here it is.
②此结构不用进行时态。常用的谓语动词有：be, come, go, lie, live,lay,seem, remain,stand 等。 3、 方位副词位于句首时 常见的方位副词有：in, out, up, down, away, off, back 等。 Out went the children. Up went the rocket.
注意：①代词作主语时，主谓语序不变。例如： In he comes. 4、 某些表语置于句首时 当表示地点的介词短语放在句首时，注意谓语多为：be, lie, lay, stand, sit, come, walk 等不及物动词。例如： Under the table lies a white cat. At the foot of the mountain is a house. (二)部分倒装 1、用于固定的句型中 （1）用于 Hardly/Barely/Scarcely…when…及 No sooner… than…结构中。 “刚??就??” Hardly/Barely/Scarcely had he arrived at the station when the train began to leave. No sooner had she gone out than the telephone rang. (2) Not only+倒装句式+but (also)+陈述句形式。 Not only did I know her, but I was her best friend. 注意：若仅连接作主语的两个并列词语不可用倒装结构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music.(就近原则) (3) Not until +句子（陈述句式）/或时间状语+倒装句式。例如： Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework..
Up they climbed, almost out of breath..
Not until yesterday did I learn anything about it. 2、Only+状语位于句首时，句子用部分倒装。其结构为：Only+副词/介词短语/状语从句+倒装句式。例如： Only this afternon did I finish the novel. Only in this way can you master English. Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in. 注意：如果 only 后面的词组不是状语，则不用倒装。例如： Only I know the news.
3、So/ Neither/ Nor 放在句首，表示前面所说的情况（否定内容）也适用于另一个人时，用倒装语序，前 句时肯定句用 so,前句是否定句用 neither/ nor. 其结构为：so/ neither/ nor+be (have,助动词，情态动词)+不同的主语。例如： He has been to Beijing, so have I. Mary can’t answer the question, neithe/ nor can I. 4、表示否定意义的副词、介词短语、连词位于句首时，句子用部分倒装。例如： Never, little, hardly, seldom, not, scarcely(仅仅， 几乎不), barely,(仅够， 几乎没有)， rarely(极少， 不常)， no longer, not a bit, in no time(赶快， 马上)， at no time(任何情况下都不)， in no way(决不， 无论如何也不)， in no case(在 任何情况下决不)，by no means(决不，一点也不)，on no account(绝不可以，切莫)等。例如： Never shall I do this again. Little did he know who the woman was. 5、 在 so/such…that（结果状语从句）中，若 so 或 such 引导的部分位于句首时，用部分倒装语序。例如： So frightened was she in the darkness that she didn’t dare to move. Such a fierce dog did he have that we had to wait before we could get in. 注意：so/ such 位于句首修饰主语时，则不用倒装。例如： So few people came to his birthday party that he felt disappointed. 6、 用于省略 if 的虚拟条件状语从句中，其结构为： (1) Were/ Should/ Had+主语+（not）+其他成分=If+主语+were/ should/ had+(not)其他成分。例如： Should it rain tomorrow, I should stay indoors. Had you not told me about the matter, I should never have known the wrong thing. Were he my friend, I would expect his help. (2) Were it not for/ Had it not been for+名词=If it were not for/ hadn’t been for+名词。例如： Were it not for their help, we would be in serious trouble. Had it not been for their support, we couldn’t have won the election. 7、在 as/ though 引导的让步状语从句中，常用倒装语序，通常把表语（无冠词）或状语提到 as 之前，没 有的话就把动词原形提前。例如： Young as he is, he has already known a lot. Child as he was, he had to make a living. Much as I like it , I will not buy it. Try as he would, he might fail again.尽管他还想试试，他很有可能会再次失败。
倒装句练习 1、_________ homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest. A. So much B. Too much C. Too little D. So little
2、At the foot of the mountain _________. A. a village lie B. lies a village C. does a village lie D.lying a village
3、I’ve tried very hard to improve my English.But by no means ________ with my progress. A. the teacher is not satisfied C. the teacher is satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied
4、Of the making of good books there is no end;neither ______any end to their influence on man’s lives. A. there is B. there are C. is there D.are there
5、They have a good knowledge of English but little _______ they know about German. A. have B. did C. had D. do
6、So _______that no one could follow him. A. fast he spoke B. fast spoke he C. fast did he speak D. did he speak fast
7、Not a single song _______ at yesterday’s party. A. she sang B. sang she C. did she sing D.she did sing
8、Only in this way ________the bad habit—smoking. A. can you get rid of C. you’ll get away with B. you can get rid of D. can get rid of
9、_________ listening to light music. But she could even write some. A. Not she only enjoyed C. Not only did she enjoy B. Not only she enjoyed D. Not she did only enjoy
10、No sooner_________ the thief stolen out of the store_______ he was caught by the collar. A. did; when B. had; then C. had; suddenly D.had; than
11、Your brother can swim,and ____________. A. so I can B. so can I C. I can so D. I so can
12、______, I would go and study in the USA at once. A. I were you B. I had been you C. Were I you D. If I am you
13、________, he mansged to send his daughter to school. A. Poor man he was C. A poor man as was he 14、_________from your sister. A. Here is a letter C. Aletter is here B. Here has a letter D. A letter here is B. A poor man as he was D. Poor man as he was
15、They thought that somewhere in the desert______ an ancient city. A. being B. lay C.was there
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