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John Snow defeats king cholera 1410


Great scientists

Warming up 1. Archimedes 2. Charles Darwin 3.Thomas Newcomen 4.Gregor Mendel 6.Thomas Edison

7. Leonardo da vinci
8.Sir Humphry Davy 9.Zhang Heng<

br />
5.Marie Curie

10.Stephen Hawking

Life is colorful, but sometimes it’s______.

Sars broke out in 2003.

The outbreak of bird flu still influences us. Ebola becomes this year?s big killer.

deadly infectious
frightening

Cholera broke out in Haiti . In the past, once affected/infected, you would be dying soon. infection 1.Cholera is caused by bacterial(细菌的)________. 2.More than_______people have ________ 4,000 confirmed cases of the disease and_______ nearly 300 others have died 3.The workers teach people about proper __________ water and __________. waste treatment

A hero turned up.

John Snow Defeats “King Cholera”
He was the personal physician of Queen Victoria.

His main job was to attend Queen Victoria.

Skimming(略读)
Q1: What is the passage mainly about ?

The passage is mainly about how John Snow found the cause of cholera in a scientific way.
Q2: What?s the style of this passage?

A.A narration vivid descriptions of a person/thing B.An argumentation persuasive/convincing C.An exposition informative An experimental report
focusing on the facts/ not having vivid description This text is organized in the order of _______ stages in an experiment.

Stages of proving a new idea in a scientific research

find a problem make a question

draw a conclusion
think of a method

think of a method
collect results analyse the results

collect results
make a question(形成研 究主题)

find a problem
analyse the results

find supporting evidence draw a conclusion

find supporting evidence

Stages

Paragraph

What/how
What causes cholera? Is the second theory right?

1.Find a problem

Para1
Para2

2.Make a question

Para3 collected data on where people 3.Think of a method Para4 died or there were no deaths
4.Collect results

Para4

Marked the deaths

Para4 5.Analyse results Para5
6.Find supporting evidence 7.Draw a conclusion

Reason for death or no death Looked into the source of the wate

Para6

Two other deaths.

Para6 Para7 The water carried the virus.

Para1 …This was the deadly disease of its day. Neither Neither its its cause causenor norits itscure curewas wasfound found. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found.

Para2
He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. The first how cholera killed people suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died. Which theory did John believe? What did John snow want to prove? Is the second theory correct ?

Para 3
John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854,he was ready to begin his enquiry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was determined to find out why. What kind of information did he collect?

Para4 First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street(especially numbers 16,37,38and40).He also noticed that some houses(such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8and 9 Cambridge Street)had had no deaths. He had not foreseen this,so he made further investigations. He discovered that these people Collect data on the paces worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street.They had where the dead people lived or there were no deaths been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump.It seemed that the water was to blame.

Para4 First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Reasons Street(especially numbers 16,37,38and40).He for Collect results or also noticed that some houses(such as 20the and 21 Broad death analyze results Street and 8andor 9 Cambridge Street)had had no deaths.He had not no foreseen this,so he made further investigations. He discovered that these people death worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street.They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump.It seemed that the water was to blame.

no

Broad street

pump
Many deaths Pub beer

Cambridge Street

The water was to blame.

Para5 Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets.He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump so that it could not be used.Soon afterwards the disease slowed down.He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas. What did he do to further analyze the results?
What?s the real cause of the outbreak?

By what was the disease spread ?

Para 6
In another part of London,he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drinking the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus. Why did the woman have the water delivered? Air and water pollution were heavily polluted .

Para7
To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. Finally "King Cholera“ was defeated. He put forward suggestions to prevent cholera

Further understanding
Why was the disease called “King Cholera”?

This was the deadly disease of its day. No other disease could do this.
Did John Snow really defeat King Cholera ?

Not really, he couldn?t kill the germs.
Why does the title say “John Snow defeats ?King Cholera? ? ” He found the cause and stopped the spread. If people didn?t drink the polluted water, they would not get infected.

Reading Aloud and Thinking
What qualities can we learn from John Snow ?

“But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary ordinary people people exposed to cholera.” helping

A great

1.He cared more about ordinary people.
He did some enquiry, gathered information, analyzed the results and looked into the source.
2. He was strict or rigorous(严谨的). As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information.

scientist

3. He was brave.
4. careful/devoted/intelligent…

Homework:
1. Be familiar with the passage and review the useful words and expressions. 2.黄本

Find the main idea of each paragraph
Skills you can use: Find the topic sentence Find the key words Generalize(概括)similar information

Introduction of John Snow causes cholera? Para1 What and Cholera Two theories Para 2 Which theory is correct?

Find a problem Make a question Think A scientific of a method way

Test the theory by enquiry Enquiry, gathering and gathering information. Para4 Marking Markingthe the deaths deaths and analysing the reasons Analysing the reasons

Para 3

Collect results
Analyse results Find supporting evidence

Para5 Looking into the the source Looking into source
Two other deaths supporting evidence Para6 Finding to prove the conclusion Polluted water carried the disease

Para7 Prevention of Cholera

Draw a conclusion

Suppose you were John Snow. Try to introduce yourself. You can begin with “I am John Snow…”
1.a doctor, personal physician, ordinary people , challenge 2. suspect, the second theory , evidence, enquiry, gather two particular streets, severe, 500, determined. 3.marked, the water pump, also noticed, no deaths, further investigation, pub, free beer, was to blame. 4. Look into, the river, told, remove, slow down 5. Supporting evidence, two other deaths, delivered

How John Snow prove his idea in a scientific way ? Find a problem What causes cholera?

Make a question
Think of a method Collect results

Which theory is correct?
Test two theories Mark the deaths.

Analyse results

Reasons for deaths / source
Two other deaths. The water carried the virus.

Find supporting evidence Draw a conclusion

Listen and find out
1. What was John Snow?s occupation/job?

He was a famous doctor—so expert that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. 2. How did John Snow find the cause of cholera?
He found many of the deaths were near the water pump. Some houses had no deaths because they drank free beer.

Read aloud
Ask or answer competition

Group1

Group 2


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