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2011年高考英语二轮语法复习课件-非谓语动词


专题七

非谓语动词

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一、非谓语动词的形式和作用

1.非谓语动词的形式
主动
一般式 不定式 现在分词或 动名词 过去分词 to do doing 进行式 to be doing 完成式 to have done having don

e done 一般式 to be done being done

被动
完成式 to have been done having been done

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一般来说,非谓语动词所表示的动作或状态发生在谓语 动词所表示的动作或状态之前时,多用完成式;同时发生 时用一般式或进行式;之后发生时则用一般式。例如: Charles Babbage is generally considered to have

invented the first computer.
(2)非谓语动词的否定式为在非谓语动词前加 not。例如: not to have, not being done, not having been done, his not having succeeded 等。

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2.非谓语动词的逻辑主语 (1)不定式的逻辑主语为 for sb. 或 of sb. 当逻辑主语前的形 容词是表示人的品质、性格特征和心理变化的词时用 of sb. 而当形容词是表示事物的特点、特征时用 for sb.,这

时的句子不可改写成以人做主语。例如:
It is necessary for you to help him. It is kind of you to help him.(=You are kind to help

him.)
逻辑主语前没有形容词时用 for sb.。例如: Here is the book for you to read.
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(2)动名词的逻辑主语一般用名词普通格或所有格,代词宾 格或所有格,但在句首时只能用所有格。例如: Do you mind me (my) smoking here?

My coming late may interrupt you.
(3)分词的逻辑主语一般用名词的普通格或代词的主格(主要 出现在独立主格结构中)。例如: The students having finished the exercises, the teacher brought the class to an end.

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3.非谓语动词的句法作用
主 语 不定 式 动名 词 现在 分词 过去 分词 √ √ 宾 语 √ √ 表 语 √ √ √ √ 定 语 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 状语 时 间 原 因 √ 条 件 伴 随 目 的 √ 结 果 √ 宾 主 补 补 √ √

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(1)现在分词的完成式在句中只能作状语,表示时间或原因。 (2)现在分词间或也可作结果状语(表示一种自然而然的结果)。 例如:

It passes right through their bodies, only getting a little
thicker and sweeter.

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二、非谓语动词的用法和辨别

1.不定式与动名词做主语、表语、宾语时的用法和区别
(1)不定式、动名词做主语、表语、宾语时的一般区别
动词特征 不定式 动名词 时间概念

具体的、一次性的、特定的行为,强 多表将来或已完 调动作 成 抽象的、一般性的行为,强调事情本 多无时间性 身

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例如: I like swimming, but I don't like to swim with you now. (2)不定式、动名词作主语、表语、宾语时的一些特殊用法 ①有时动名词和不定式做主语、表语、宾语时的差别不大。 ②对称原则,即主语用什么,表语也用什么。例如: To see is to believe.

Seeing is believing.

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③在以下结构中多用动名词: It's no use talking a lot without doing anything. It's no good staying here. It's very dangerous. 该句型涉及的形容词和名词词组常见的有:no use, any use, some use, no good, any good, some good, a waste of time, fun, worthwhile 等。

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特别提醒:还有一些形容词和名词词组既可以和动名词搭配,也可以和 不定式短语搭配。不定式表示具体的动作,动名词表示抽象的行为。

例如:
It is useless to talk with such a man as him. It is useless talking with such a man as him.

④在以下结构中多用不定式:
It's kind of you to say so. It will be a mistake for us not to help him. It took us ten minutes to help him out of the well. It cost him all his life to write the book.

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⑤下列动词和动词词组可接不定式做宾语(不可接动名词): wish, want (想、要),hope, expect, desire, long, intend, demand, plan, beg, ask, decide, determine, promise, agree, refuse, offer, pretend, prepare, manage, fail,

learn, dare, help, afford, choose, set out (着手), aim,
apply, arrange, claim, swear, threaten 等。

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⑥下列动词和动词词组可接动名词做宾语(不可接不定式): suggest, mind, enjoy, miss, resist, practise, escape, delay, excuse, advise, finish, prevent, imagine, admit, appreciate, understand, fancy, bear, stand (忍受),

consider (考虑), keep (on), object to, stick to, look
forward to, get used to, get down to, prefer...to, devote...to, put off, give up, feel like, can't help, can't stand 等。

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特别提醒:advise, allow, forbid, permit 等动词可以后接动名词做宾语, 也可带不定式做宾语补足语。

⑦下列动词既可接不定式,也可接名词做宾语,且无多大区别:
continue, prefer, love, hate 等。 ⑧begin, start 后既可接不定式也可接名词做宾语,一般无多大区别,

但当主语是无生命的事物时/非谓语动词是表示人的心理状态的动词
时 begin, start 本身用了进行式时,其后就只能用不定式。例如: Soon it began to rain. (主语是无生命的事物)

At last Mr White began to understand his mistakes.(不定式表示的是
人的心理状态) They are beginning to learn English. (begin 本身用了进行式)

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⑨下列动词和动词词组后接不定式或动名词时,意义上有明 显区别: remember/forget/regret to do记住/忘记/遗憾去做 remember/forget/regret doing 记得/忘记/后悔做了 mean to do 意欲做,打算做 mean doing 意味着,着眼于,需要

try to do 设法去做(不一定成功),try doing 试着去做

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stop to do 停下来去做另一件事 stop doing 停止做某事 go on to do 做完一件事后接着做另外一件事

go on doing 继续做本来的事情
can't help doing 情不自禁干某事

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例如: I remembered being paid, but forgot to get the money on the counter because of my carelessness. I hadn't meant to hurt you; instead, what I said really meant advising you to be good. B10need, require, want (需要)等词后既可接不定式亦可接

动名词作宾语。接不定式时用被动形式表示被动含义,接
动名词时用主动形式表示被动含义。例如: Who needed to be taken care of? Who needed taking care of?
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?be afraid to do 表示“不敢做某事”(多表示有意识的行 为),be afraid of doing 表示“害怕做某事”(多表示无 意识的行为)。例如: I'm afraid to cross the bridge, because I'm afraid of falling into the river.

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2.不定式、动名词与分词做定语时的用法和区别

(1)非谓语动词做定语时的区别
与中心词的位置关 与中心词的逻辑关 系 系
不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 总是位于其后 多位于其前 或前或后 或前或后 多有动宾关系 表示其用途 多有主谓关系 时间概念 多表将来(将发 生)

无时间性(常发 生)
表示进行(在发 生)

及物动词有动宾关 系

多表完成(已发 生)

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(2)不定式、动名词、分词做定语时的一些特殊用法 ①不定式做定语通常表示一个未发生的动作或已完成的动作, 也可表示情态意味。例如: The meeting to be held is of great importance.(未发生) Madame Curie was the first person to discover the element radium.(已完成)

He isn't the proper person to do the work.(有情态意味)

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②不定式所修饰的名词可能是逻辑主语,也可能是其逻辑宾 语,还可能是时间、地点、方式和同位关系。例如: He is the proper person to work at the

wallnewspaper.(逻辑主语)
She didn't know which topic to write about.(逻辑宾语) We are looking forward to a fine day to go for an outing.(时间关系) Tom kept his promise to tell the children a story after

class.(同位关系)

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特别提醒:不定式做定语时如果与被修饰的词有逻辑上的动宾关 系,动词须是及物的,不及物的要加介词。例如: He has no room to live in at the moment. 但不定式所修饰的名词如果是 time,place,way 这几个直接表 示时间、地点、方式的词时,不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去。 例如: We had no money and no place to live those days. ③现在分词做定语通常表示动作的正在进行或与谓语动词同时发 生,过去分词则表示动作已完成或先于谓语动词发生。例如: The bridge to be built next year is just between the one built last year and the one being built now.
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特别提醒:现在分词做定语通常表示动作的正在进行或与谓 语动词同时发生,如果两个动作有前有后,除了视情况改 为过去分词外,更多的是将其改为定语从句。例如: The policeman praised the man who had found the wallet and given it in to the police. ④现在分词做定语除了表示一个正在进行的动作外,还可表 示特征性的行为。例如: A basketball player is a person playing basketball.

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⑤动名词做定语一般表示用途,而现在分词做定语则一般表 示性质、特征。试比较: working clothes(工作服)→clothes for working

working people(劳动者)→people who work
名词和形容词做定语时的区别有时也具有类似的特点,如 a chemistry lab,a chemical change。

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3.不定式与分词做补足语时的用法和区别

(1)不定式、分词做补足语时的区别
与被补述词的逻辑 关系
不定式 有主谓关系 有主谓关系 及物动词有动宾关 系 时间概念 表示完成或将来,强调动作将发生或 已经完成 表示进行,强调动作正在进行 表示完成,多强调状态

现在分 词
过去分 词

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(2)不定式、分词做补足语时的一些特殊用法 ①不定式在“知觉”动词后做宾补时,通常强调动作的全过 程,而现在分词则强调短暂情形。例如:

I saw her pass by me just now.
We heard someone knocking at the door. We heard someone knock at the door four times.

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②have...do 表示“让……做某事”,have...doing 表示 “让……一直做某事”,have...done表示“请别人做某 事”或“招致某事(物)被……(表示一种经历)”。 例如: You'd better have a student clean the window. The boss had the workers working all day long.

I had my watch stolen yesterday.

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4.不定式与分词做状语时的用法和区别 (1)不定式一般充当目的状语和结果状语。

不定式做目的状语时的主要形式有:to do,so as to do,in order to
do;做结果状语时的主要形式有:to do,enough to do,too...to do,so...as to do,such...as to do,only to do(表示出人意料的结

果)。
不定式也可用在做表语用的形容词后做状语,说明产生这种情绪的原因。 常见的形容词有:glad,pleased,surprised,disappointed,

anxious 等。
分词一般充当时间、原因、条件、方式(伴随)状语,现在分词有时还可 充当结果状语。

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特别提醒:①不定式做结果状语时一般表示出乎意料的结果, 而分词多表示自然而然的结果。例如: I woke up only to find everyone gone.

He dropped the glass by mistake,making it broken.
②在 only (all,but,not,never)too+adj.+to do sth.结 构里,不定式没有否定意义。例如: I'm only too glad to stay at home. It's never too late to learn.

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③当 too 与 anxious,eager,easy,glad,willing, ready 等连用时,后面的不定式没有否定意义。例如: He was too anxious to know the result of the exam.

④用现在分词做结果状语时,前面常有 thus 等副词。例如:
Their car was caught in a traffic jam (堵塞),thus causing the delay.

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(2)分词可以做时间状语、伴随状语,而不定式不可以。做 时间状语时通常前置,做伴随状语时通常后置。 (3)分词和不定式都可以做原因状语,但其搭配形式不同。用

现在分词短语表示原因的动词多为 be 动词、认知和心理
活动方面的动词,而且多前置。例如: Not knowing the exact address of the office.I had to ask a policeman. 不定式作原因状语一般用在“连系动词+adj.+to do”的结

构中,且形容词多为表示人的情感方面的词。例如:
He seemed surprised to see us.
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(4)分词做状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语必须一致。例: Seen from the hill,the village seems quite small. Seeing from the hill,you can find the village quite small.

如果其逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,就需要在分词前加上
自己的逻辑主语,使其变成一个独立主格结构。例如: The boy having finished his exercises,the teacher let him away. The exercises done,the students went home.

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(5)分词的逻辑主语如果与句子的主语一致,分词前的主谓结构可以省 略。例如:

Be careful if(you are)crossing this street.
When(it is)heated,water changes into steam. Though(they were)surrounded,they were not discouraged. (6)在“too+happy,glad,pleased,delighted,ready,satisfied, willing,eager,easy,thankful等表示情感的词+to do”的结构中, to do 并不表示否定。例如: He is too eager to see you.他渴望见到你。 (7)有些结构看上去是状语,实际上是独立结构。例如: To tell you the truth.I don't know him at all. Judging by his clothes,he is a common man.
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特别提醒:judging 和 including 常被视做分词介词,故不 需要考虑主动与被动形式。例如: Judging from your accent,you are from Suzhou. None of us knew about it,including the teacher.

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5.现在分词被动语态与过去分词的区别 (1)当分词所表示的动作正在进行或与谓语动词同时发生时: ①若做定语、宾语补足语多用现在分词的被动语态。例如: He asked who was the man being operated on. Passing by our town,you can see many buildings being built.

②用做时间、原因状语时,多用现在分词的被动语态。例如:
Having been shown around the labs,we were taken to see the library. Being protected by a thick wall,they felt safe enough.
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③用做表示伴随情况或行为方式的状语时,多用过去分词。 例如: The teacher went out,followed by some students. Seen from the hill,the town looks very beautiful. ④作表语时多用过去分词。例如: The glass is broken.

She looked deeply worried.
⑤在“have/get+复合宾语”的结构中,表示“让别人做 某事”时,宾语补足语多用过去分词。例如: I'm going to have my hair cut. You'd better get it repaired.
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(2)当分词表示的动作先于谓语动词所表示的动作时:

①一般用过去分词。例如:
Hit by a bullet,the boy fell from the tree. The book written by him is widely read.

②如果要特别强调分词所表示的动作先于谓语动词所表示的动作时,则
用现在分词的被动完成式来表示。例如: Not having been invited,she had to stay at home.

The exercise having been done,the schoolboys went home.
③如果分词所表示的动作时间性不强或不强调时间性,一般用过去分词。 例如:

Once begun,the fight had to go on.
The continent connected with Asia at the Suez Canal is Africa.
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[名校模拟演练]

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1.(2010· 长春调研)The firm was successfully run and ______, he owed his success to the support of his friends. A.looking back B.looked back

C.to look back

D.when looked back

解析:考查非谓语动词。“当回顾过去时”在句中作时间状 语,因为look back与主语he之间为主谓关系而不是动宾 关系,因此不能使用过去分词形式,而应用现在分词形式。 答案:A

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2.(2010· 安徽皖南八校二联)Something as simple as ______ vegetables in childhood may help to protect you against serious illness in later life. A.to eat B.eating

C.to be eating

D.eaten

解析:考查非谓语动词。空格前的as为介词,其后的动词应 用其动名词形式。语境:童年时像吃蔬菜这样简单的事也 许后来会帮助你预防严重的疾病。 答案:B

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3.(2010· 山东潍坊质量监测)With trees and grass ______ 39.6% of the urban area, the city of Weifang has taken on a new look. A.covered B.covering

C.to be covered

D.being covered

解析:考查非谓语动词。语意为:随着城市绿化覆盖率达到 39.6%,潍坊呈现出了新面貌。trees and grass和cover 之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,故选B项。 答案:B

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4.(2010· 福建六校三联)______ by the beauty of its buildings on their previous visit, they decided to visit the small old town again. A.Struck B.To be struck

C.Having struck

D.Being struck

解析:strike与其逻辑主语they之间为动宾关系,故应用动 词的过去分词形式作状语。 答案:A

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5.(2010· 北京东城期末)Subway Line 4, ______ into use in September 2009, has made traveling in Beijing easier. A.having been put B.putting

C.being put
答案:D

D.Put

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解析:考查非谓语动词。非谓语动词题目的解题核心在于 找出非谓语动词的逻辑主语,然后判断该逻辑主语与此非 谓语动词之间的关系。同时要记住以下要点:不定式表示 将来的动作;动名词相当于名词;现在分词表示主动或者

正在进行的动作;过去分词表示被动或者已经完成的动作。
此处逻辑主语是Subway Line 4,与put之间构成动宾关 系,现在分词的完成式不作定语,排除A、B项表主动关

系;C项表示“正在被投入使用”,据此选D项。

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6.(2010· 北京海淀期末)The silence of the library is sometimes broken by a sudden cough or the sound of pages ______. A.turning B.turned

C.being turned

D.having turned

解析:考查非谓语动词。该非谓语动词的逻辑主语是pages, 与turn之间构成动宾关系,同时,表示“书页正在被翻” 用being turned,A和D都是“主动结构”,不符合语法, 据此这里选C项。

答案:C
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7.(2010· 陕西西安质检)The girl glanced over her shoulder and found herself ______ by a young man in black. A.was followed B.followed

C.following

D.had been followed

解析:考查非谓语动词。根据语意可知,follow和herself之 间是动宾关系,因此用动词的过去分词形式作宾语补足语。 注意:found后不是句子,A、D两项可直接排除。 答案:B

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8.(2010· 上海春招)______ well in an interview will be an important part of getting a place at university. A.Do C.Done B.Doing D.Being done

解析:考查非谓语动词。句子缺少主语,所以此处用动名词
作主语,即Doing well in an interview是句子的主语,其 他选项都不能充当主语,所以这里选B项。 答案:B

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9.(2010· 河南省实验中学)______ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many unique plants and animals. A.To separate B.Separating

C.Being separated

D.Having been separated

解析:考查非谓语动词。根据前半句中的时间状语for millions of years可知这里用分词的完成时,分词的完成

时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前。Australia与
separate之间又是动宾关系,所以用分词完成时的被动形 式。 答案:D
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10.(2010· 成都联考)-Why do you look sad? -There are so many problems ______. A.remaining to settle B.remained settling C.remainning to be settled D.remained to be settled

答案:C

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解析:考查现在分词及不定式的用法。由语意可知, settle在句中表示将要发生的动作,它的逻辑主语是动作 的承受者,用不定式的被动语态作动词remain的宾语; remaining to be settled为分词短语作定语修饰名词 problems,它与所修饰的名词之间为主动关系。

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