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高考必备 介词用法口诀大全
早、午、晚要用 in,at 黎明、午夜、点与分。 年、月、年月、季节、周,阳光、灯、影、衣、帽 in。 将来时态 in ... 以后,小处 at 大处 in。 有形 with 无形 by,语言、单位、材料 in。 特征、方面与方式,心情成语惯用 in。 介词 at 和 to 表方向,攻击、位置、恶、善分。 日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早、午、

晚, 收音、农场、值日 on,关于、基础、靠、著论。 着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付、相反,准。 特定时日和“一??就”,on 后常接动名词。 年、月、日加早、午、晚,of 之前 on 代 in。 步行、驴、马、玩笑 on,cab,carriage 则用 in。 at 山脚、门口、在当前,速、温、日落、价、核心。 工具、和、同随 with,具有、独立、就、原因。 就??来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分。 海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数、人类 know to man。 this、that、tomorrow,yesterday,next、last、one。

接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯。 over、under 正上下,above、below 则不然, 若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关。 beyond 超出、无、不能,against 靠着,对与反。 besides,except 分内外,among 之内 along 沿。 同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心间。 原状 because of, owing to,due to 表语形容词。 Under 后接修、建中,of,from 物、化分。 Before,after 表一点, ago,later 表一段。 before 能接完成时,ago 过去极有限。 since 以来 during 间,since 时态多变换。 与之相比 beside,除了 last but one。 复不定 for、找、价、原,对、给、段、去、为、作、赞。 快到、对、向 towards,工、学、军、城、北、上、南。 but for 否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言。 ing 型由于鉴,除了除外与包合。 之后、关于、在??方面,有关介词须记全。 in 内 to 外表位置,山、水、国界 to 在前。 如大体掌握如上介词用法口诀,就不易出错。当然,至于介词的详尽用法,同形词 又是连词及副词等内容此章不讲。下面对该口诀分别举例帮助你理解消化。 早、午、晚要用 in 例:in the morning 在早上

in the afternoon 在下午 in the evening 在晚上 in the day 在白天 at 黎明、午、夜、点与分 例: at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明时候 at noon 在中午 at night 在夜间 at midnight 在午夜 以上短语都不用冠词 at six o'clock 在 6 点钟 at 7:30 (seven thirty) 在 7 点半 at half past eleven 在 11 点半 at nine fifteen 在 9 点 15 分 at ten thirty a.m. 在上午 10 点 30 分也可以写成 seven to five 5 点差 7 分(半 小时以上) five minutes after two 2 点过 5 分 at a quarter to two 1 点 45 分 at the weekend 在周末 年、月、年月、季节、周 即在“某年”,在“某月”,在“某年某月” (但在某年某月某日则用 on),在四 季,在第几周等都要用 in。 例;in 1986 在 1986 年

in 1927 在 1927 年 in April 在四月 in March 在三月 in December, 1986 in July, l983 in spring 在春季 in autumn 在秋季 1986 年 12 月

1983 年 7 月 in summer 在夏季 in winter 在冬季

in the fist week of this semester 这学期的第一周 in the third week 在第三周 阳光、灯、影、衣、冒 in, 即在阳光下,在灯下,在树阴下,穿衣、着装、冒雨等都要用 in。 例:Don't read in dim light. 切勿在暗淡的灯光下看书。 They are reviewing their lessons in the bright light. 他们在明亮的灯光下 复习功课。 They are sitting in the shade of a tree. 他们坐在树阴下乘凉。 a prisoner in irons 带着镣铐的囚犯 He went in the rain to meet me at the station. 他冒雨到车站去接我。 The poor dressed (clothed) in rags in old society. 旧社会穷人们衣衫褴褛. 以及:in the bright sunlight 在明亮的阳光下 a merchant in disguise 乔装的商人 the woman in white (black, red, yellow) 穿着白(黑、红、黄)色衣服的妇女 in uniform 穿着制服

in mourning 穿着丧服 in brown shoes 穿着棕色鞋 in his shirt sleeves 穿着衬衫 将来时态 in ? 以后 例: They will come back in 10 days. 他们将 10 天以后回来。 I'll come round in a day or two. 我一两天就回来。 We'll be back in no time. 我们一会儿就回来。 Come and see me in two days' time. 两天后来看我。(从现在开始) After ? (从过去开始) 小处 at 大处 in 例:Li and I arrived at Heishan county safe and sound, all is well. Don't worry. 李和我平安地到达黑山县,一切很好,勿念。 I live in a great city (big city), my sister lives at a small town while my parents live at a village. 我住在大城市,我姐姐住在一个小城镇,而我的父母则 住在农村。 I'm in Liaoning, at Anshan. 我住在辽宁省鞍山市. 有形 with 无形 by,语言、单位、材料 in 例:The workers are paving a road with stone. 工人们正用石子铺路。(有形) The teacher is correcting the paper with a new pen. 这位教师正用一支新笔 批改论文。(有形) “Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy”is a good opera. <<智取威虎山>>是— 出好戏。(无形)

The product is separated by distillation into gasoline and gas oil. 这种 产品是用蒸馏分离出汽油和粗柴油。(表示方式、手段、方法——无形) I really can't express my idea in English freely in-deed. 我确实不能用英语流利地表达我的思想。(表示某种语言用 in) I wrote a novel in Russian. 我用俄语写了一本小说。(同上) The kilometer is the biggest unit of length in the metric system. 公里是米制中最长的长度单位。(表示度、量、衡单位的用 in ) The length is measured in meter, kilometre, and centimetre. 长度是以米、公里、厘米为单位来计算的。(同上) This board was cast in bronze not in gold. 这个牌匾是铜铸的,不是金铸的。 特征、方面与方式、心情、成语惯用 in 特征或状态: 例: The Democratic Party was then in power. 那时民主党执政。 They found the patient in a coma. 他们发现病人处于昏迷状态。 He has not been in good health for some years. 他几年来身体一直不好。 Many who came in despair went away in hope. 许多人带着绝望情绪而来,却满 怀希望而去。 The house was in ruins. 这房屋成了废墟。 The poor girl was in tears. 这个贫苦女孩泪流满面。 Her clothes were in rags. 她的衣服穿破了。 His shoes were in holes. 他的鞋穿出窟窿了。 I only said it in fun. 我说这话只是开玩笑的。

She spoke in grief rather than in anger. 与其说她讲得很气愤,不如说她讲 得很伤心。 还有一些短语也用 in,如: in jest 诙谐地,in joke 开玩笑地,in spite 恶意地, in fairness 公正地, in revenge 报复, in mercy 宽大,in sorrow 伤心地等。 His mind was in great confusion. 他脑子里很乱。 Today everybody is in high spirits and no one is in low ebb. 今天大家都兴高采烈,没有一个情绪低落的。 She and her classmates are in flower ages. 她和她的同学都正值妙龄。 The campaign was in full swing. 运动正值高潮中。 方面: 例:We accepted the item in principle. 我们在原则上接受了这个条款。 They are never backward in giving their views. 他们从来不怕发表自己的意 见。 The backward area has achieved self-sufficient in grain. 这个落后的地区在粮食方面已能自给。 A good teacher must be an example in study. 一个好的教师必须是学习的模范。 方式: 例:All the speeches were taken down in shorthand. 所有报告都用速记记录下来了。 The Party has always educated us in the spirit of patriotism and internationalism. 党一贯以爱国主义和国际主义精神教育我们。

如下成语惯用 in 例:in all 总计 in advance 事前 in the meantime 与此同时 in place 适当地 in hopes of(或 in the hope of) 怀着??希望 in connection with 和??有关 in contact with 和??联系 in addition to 除??以外 in case of 倘若,万一 in conflict with 和??冲突 in force 有效的,大批 in depth 彻底地 in regard to 关于 in the neighborhood of 大约、邻近 in retrospect 回顾,一想起 in behalf of 代表??利益 in the least 一点,丝毫 in alarm 惊慌、担心 in the opinion of 据??见解 in the long run 从长远说来 in one's opinion 在??看来

in word 口头上 in a word 总之 in vain 无益地, 白白地 in case 如果,万一,以防 in detail 详细地 in haste 急急忙忙地 in conclusion 总之 in spite of 尽管 in other words ? 换句话说 in return 作为回报 in the name of 以??名义 be confident in 对??有信心 be interested in 对??感兴趣 in doubt 怀疑 in love 恋爱中 in debt 负债 in fun (jest、joke) 玩笑地 in hesitation 犹豫不决 in wonder 在惊奇中 in public (secret) 公开他(秘密地) in a good humour 心情(情绪)好 “介词 at、to 表方向,攻击、位置、善、恶、分”。

介词 at 和 to 都可以表示方向; 用 at 表示方向时,侧重于攻击的目标,往往表 示恶意;用 to 表示方向时,突出运动的位置或动作的对象,侧重表示善意。试比较下列各 句: 1. A.She came at me. 她向我扑过来。 B.She came to me. 她向我走过来。 2.A.Jake ran at John. 杰克向约翰扑过去。 B.Jake ran to John. 杰克朝约翰跑去。 3.A. He rushed at the woman with a sword. 他拿着剑向那妇女扑过去。 B. He rushed to the woman with a sword. 他带着剑向那妇女跑过去。 4.A.He shouted at the old man. 他大声喝斥那老人。 B. He shouted to the old man. 他大声向那老人说。 5.A.I heard her muttering at Xiao Li. 我听见她在抱怨小李。 B.I heard her muttering to Xiao Li. 我听见她在同小李低声说话。 6.A. She talked at you just now. 她刚才还说你坏话呢。 B.She talked to you just now. 她刚才还同你谈话呢. 7.A.She threw a bone at the dog. 她用一块骨头砸狗。 B.She threw a bone to the dog. 她把一块骨头扔给狗吃。 8.A.He presented a pistol at me. 他用手枪对着我。 B.He presented a pistol to me. 他赠送我一支手枪。 日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早午晚; 以下皆用 on。 例: on October the first 1949 1949 年 10 月 1 日 on February the thirteenth l893 1893 年 2 月 13 日

on May the first 5 月 1 日 on the first 1 号 on the sixteenth 16 号 on the second of January 或 on January the second 1 月 2 日 on a summer evening 在夏天的一个夜晚 on Boxing Day 在节礼日(圣诞节次日) on New Year's Day 在元旦 on my birthday 在我的生日 但 in the Christmas holidays 在圣诞节假期; in the eighteenth century 在 十八世纪; in ancient times 在古代; in earlier times 在早期; in modern times 在 现代,则用 in,at the present time 现在,at the present day 当今 则用 at。 on May Day 在“五·一”节 on winter day 在冬天 on December 12th 1950 on Sunday 在星期天 on Monday 在星期一 on Tuesday morning 星期二早晨 on Saturday afternoon 星期六下午 on Friday evening 星期五晚上 但 last night 昨夜;in the evening 在晚上; on time 准时,in time 及时, 等则不同。 年月日,加早午晚,of 之前 on 代 in l950 年 12 月 12 日

例:on the morning of 18th 18 日早晨 on the evening of 4th 4 日晚上

On the eve of their departure they gave a farewell banquet and their head gave a farewell speech. 他们在临行前夕举行了一次告别宴会,他们的团长发表了告别 讲话。 收音、农场,值日 on 例:Did your supervisor like the story over (or on) the radio last night? 您的导师喜欢昨天从收音机里听到的故事吗? I heard the news over (or on) the radio. 我从收音机里听到了这一条消息。 talk over the radio 由无线电播音 on TV 从电视里?? hear something on the wireless 在无线电里听到 My brother works on an Army reclamation farm. 我哥哥在一个军垦农场工作。 The students are working on a school farm. 学生们正在校办农场劳动。 This is a farmer's house on a farm. 这是农场的农舍。 Who is on duty, today? 今天谁值日? We go on duty at 8 a.m. 我们上午 8 点钟上班。 关于、基础、靠、著论 例: This afternoon we are going to listen to a report on the international situation. 今天下午我们要听关于国际形势的报告。 Professor Shen will give us a talk on traveling in America. 申教授将给我们做关于美国之行的报告。

You are wrong on all these issues. 在这些问题上你的看法都错了。 The belief is based on practical experience. 这种信念是以实际经验为基础 的。 Theory must be based on practice. 理论必须以实践为基础。 The people in the south live on rice. 南方人主食大米。(靠) The citizens live on their salaries. 城市人靠薪金生活。 You can't afford luxuries, on an income of 100 yuan a month. 靠月薪 100 元的收入,你是买不起奢侈品的。 Her pet dogs were fed on the choicest food. 她用精饲料喂养她心爱的狗。 He is just a scrounger, who lives on other people. 他正是一个小偷,专靠 损害别人过日子。 Keep the kettle on the boil (=boiling). 让水壶的水一直开着。 The enemy are on the run (=running). 敌人在逃跑。 On 后接 the 加上一个作名词的动词.其意义与现在分词所表达的相近。类似例子 很多如: on the march 在行军中,on the mend 在好转中,on the prowl 徘徊,on the move 活动中,on the scrounge 巧取豪夺(俚语),on the go 活跃,忙碌,on the lookout 注 意, 警戒,on the watch 监视着。on the hop 趁不备抓住某人等等。 on the People's Democratic Dictatorship <<实践论>>和<<矛盾论>> on the People's Democratic Dictatorship <<论人民民主专政>> “on Coalition Government”<<论联合政府>> 着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付,相反、准

注:口诀中的“着”是指着火,“罢”指罢工,“偷”指偷偷地,“公”指出差、 办公事;“假”指休假,“准”指准时。 例:The house next to mine was on fire. 我邻居的房子着火了。 The workers of the railway station were on strike. 铁路工人罢工了。 Grapes and big water melons from Sinkiang are on sale on a large sale. 新疆葡萄和西瓜大量上市了。 Do something on the sly (quiet). 秘密地(暗地里,偷偷地)做某事。 I've come here on business. 我是有公事来的。 They went to Bern on a mission. 他们到伯尔尼去执行一项使命。 They have been away on a long trip. 他们出去做一次长途旅行。 I'll go home on leave next month. 下月我将休假回家。 I went on business to Shanghai. I did not take leave. 我是公出去上海的, 不是不告而别。 She came to see you on purpose. 她是专程来看你的。 He came here on purpose to discuss it with you. 他到这来是要与你讨论这件 事的。 “This lunch is on me.”“这顿午饭我付钱。” “No. let's go Dutch.”“不,还是各付各的。” On the contrary, it was very easy to understand. 相反,这事儿很容易 理解。 P1ease come on time. (on schedule). 请准时来。 注:in time 是“及时”的意思。

The train arrived on schedule. 火车准时到达。 特定时间和“一??就”,左右 on 后动名词 例:Gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. 气体加热时膨胀,冷却时收缩。 (特定时间) On entering the room, he found his friends dancing in high spirits. 一进屋,他就发现他的朋友们在愉快地跳舞。 On reaching the city he called up Lao Yang. 一到城里他就给老杨打了一个电 话。 I'll write to him on hearing from you. 我接到你的来信就给他写信。(一?? 就) 以及 on the left, right 向左向右,on the stair 在台阶上等。 步行、驴、马、玩笑 on,cab,carriage 用 in 例:On foot 步行; on horse 骑马; on donkey 骑驴。 He rode on, blood flowing from his side. 他骑着马,鲜血从腰部流下来。 The soldier of the Eighth Route Army rode 100 li on a horse a day in order to catch up with his unit. 为赶上部队,那位八路军战士骑马日行百里。 Go on horse back! 骑马去! You are having me on! 你和我开玩笑呢! in cab 和 in carriage 不能用 on 或 by cab 或 carriage。 at 山脚、门口在当前,速、温、日落价核心 即在山脚下、在门口、在目前,速度、以??速率、温度、在日落时、在??核心 要用 at。

例:At the foot of the mountain, there are thirty of our comrades. 在山脚下,有我们 30 个同志。 There is a beautiful lake at the foot of the hill. 山脚下有一个美丽的湖。 At the gate of the house there are many children playing glass ball. 门口有一大群孩子在玩玻璃球。 Who's standing there at the door? 谁站在门口? I don't need the dictionary at present. 我现在还不需要这本词典。 He is at present in Washington. 他目前正在华盛顿。 The train runs at fifty kilometres an hour. 火车每小时行驶 50 公里。 We built the plant at top speed and minimum cost. 我们以最低的投资,最高的速度修建了该工厂。 at home 在国内,在家里 at ten degrees centigrade 在摄氏 10 度 at minus ten degrees centigrade 摄氏零下 10 度 Water freezes at 0°centigrade. 水在摄氏零度结冰。 Water usually boils at 100°. 水通常在摄氏 100 度沸腾。 at zero 在零度 at the rate of 45 miles an hour at full speed 全速 at a good price 高价 at a low cost 低成本 at a great cost 花了很大代价

at that time 在当时 Evaporation takes place at all temperatures. 蒸发在任何温度下都能发生。 at 1000 RPM (revolution per minute) 每分钟 1000 转 at a high speed 高速 The soldiers launched an attack upon the enemy at sunset. 战士们在日落时对敌人发起了攻击。 at daybreak 日出时 The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party. 领导我们事业的核心力量是中国共产党。 The atom has a nucleus at its core. 在原子的中心有一个原子核。 At the beginning of this term the teacher in charge of our class was very strict with us. 这学期开始,我们的班主任老师对我们要求非常严格。 以及 At the first session of the First National People's congress of the People's Republic of China. 在中华人民共和国第一次全国人民代表大会第一次会议上. 常用的 at 短语有: at first 首先,开始时 at least 至少 at all events 无论如何 at home 在家,无拘束 at one stroke 一下子 at a loss 不知怎办

at any rate 不管怎样 at length 详细地 be at high tide 处于高潮期 at our invitation 应我们的邀请 at our request 应我们的请求 at the news 听到这消息 at the risk of 冒??危险 at a great expense 以巨大费用 at a stroke 一举 at intervals of 每隔 at liberty 有权,随意 at the sight of 一见到 at the point of 接近,靠近 at the thought of 一想到 at the speed of 以??速度 at the cost (price) of 以??为代价 at leisure 闲着、失业 at the disposal of 任凭??使用 at stake 在危险中、在成败关头 at bottom 实际上、本质上 at short notice 一得到通知 at seeing us 看到我们

at the happy tidings 听到喜讯 at sixteen 在 16 岁时 at the present stage 在现阶段 at the weekend 周末 at all times 永远 at 405 Victory Road 在胜利路 405 号 工具、同、和、随 with,具有,独立、就、原因 例:We write with ball pens. 我们用油笔写字。(工具) 但 He write in blue ink. 他用蓝水笔写字(墨水用 in 不用 with) Theory must go hand in hand with practice. 理论必须同实践相结合。(同) He is talking with friends. 他正同朋友们谈话。(同) I'd like to have a dinner with a friend. 我喜欢同朋友共同进餐。 We must co-operate closely with them. 我们必须同他们紧密合作。(同) We, as human beings are going to leave, but friendship has taken roots among us and our hearts are linked with yours. 我们虽然就要走了,但是友谊却在我们之间 扎了根,我们的心和你们的心是紧紧相连的。(和或同〕 A cadre must become one with the masses.干部必须和群众打成一片。 I'm with you. 我同意你。 An atom is so small that we can't see it with a microscope. 原子太小,即使用显微镜也看不见它。(工具) In the past I had to part with my wife. 旧社会我不得不和妻子离别。(和) The socialist revolution is deepening with each passing day.

社会主义革命日益深入。(随着) They sail with the wind. 他们顺风航行。(随着) With the change of the economic foundation, the superstructure has to be transformed too. 随着经济基础的改变,上层建筑也必须改变。(随着) With the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon's rule in Europe was ended. 滑铁卢一战,拿破仑对欧洲的统治就完蛋了。 The modern electron tube. 随着电子管的发明而诞生了现代电子工业. She is with child. = She is in a very interesting condition. = in a family way, = She is pregnant (in pregnancy). 她怀孕了。(有) 但 She is with a child.意为:“她领着一个孩子。” China is a very large country with a long history. 中国是一个历史悠 久的大国。(具有) China is a country with a population of ten billion people. 中国是一个有 10 亿人口的国家。(具有) What is the matter with you? 怎么回事?(就,关于) How is it with you? 你怎么啦?(就,关于) Everything was going well with them. 他们一切都进行得很顺利。(就??) It is a very intense flash with a lot of power packed into it. 由于聚集了大量的能,所以闪光非常强烈。(独立结构) 注;即分词独立主格结构用 with。

With a new welding technique introduced, the use of stainless steel was no longer limited to making small things only. 由于新的焊接技术的引进,不锈钢的使 用就不仅仅局限在微小的物件上了。(独立结构) With all its beams advancing in step with each other the laser possessed very particular properties which no ordinary light ever has. 由于激光的光束同步, 所以它具有普通光所没有的特殊性质。(独立结构) Without the temperature or pressure changed matter can never change from one state into another. 没有温度或压力的变化,物质永远不能以一种状态变到另一种 状态。(独立结构) The evil landlord was trembling with fear. 那个万恶的地主吓得浑身发抖。(原 因) My wife's hands were rough with work. 我爱人因为老干活,手很租糙。(原因). With the help of my classmate's tape recorder I listen to the Voice of America and B.B.C every day. 借助于我同学的录音机,我每天收听美国之音和 B.B.C。(原因) With television, we can see all kinds of programmes on the screen sitting at home without going to the movies and theatres. 因为有了电视,我们坐在家里就 能看到各种节目, 而不必去影院、戏院了。(原因) 就??来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分 这里的 with 后边的宾语常译成主语。 例:How are the things with you? 你情况怎样? What's wrong with your eyes? 你的眼睛怎么啦? Something is wrong with my hands. 我手出点毛病。 Everything was going well with them. 他们一切都进行得很顺利。

Parents must be strict with their children. 父母对子女要严格。(对) The doctor was very patient with his patients. 那位医生对患者非常耐心。(对) I'm quite satisfied with your answer. 我对你的回答很满意。(对) Many intellectuals with revolutionary tendencies went to the liberated areas. 许多带有革命倾向的知识分子都投奔解放区了。(有) These apartment houses are for workers with families. 这些住宅楼是给有家 属的工人盖的。 He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded. 他两手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(状语)独立结构 They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work. 它们是高度机械化的农场,所有工作都由机器进行。(状语)独立结构 上两句是 with 引出的复合结构。 I will be with you again in half an hour. 过半个钟头我还会跟你们在一起的。 (with 的介词短语作表语。另注意 in 将来时态 in 以后) Our sympathies were with the students persecuted by the gang of four during the cultural revolution. 我们是非常同情“文革”中被“四人帮”迫害的青年学生的。 (with 的介词短语作表语)。 海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数人类 known to man 例: by land (air, sea, water, bus) 陆路(航空,水陆,水路,乘公共汽车) by micro bus 坐小面包车(微型汽车) by mini bus 坐小面包车

by train 坐火车 by trolley bus 坐无轨电车 by tram 坐有轨电车 by bike 骑自行车 by motor car 骑摩托车 by tube 坐地铁 by airbus 坐大型客机(空中汽车〕 by jeep 坐吉普车 by chance 偶然 by accident 偶然,无意中 以及 by virtue of 靠、由于 by leaps and bounds 大幅度地 by way of 经由 by the book 按常规 The list of discoveries by“accident”could fill a long book. 偶然的发现可以写一本很厚的书。(偶然) The law of relativity was formulated by Einstein. 相对论是爱因斯坦创立的。 (被动) The book was written by Mr. Zhang. 这本书是张先生写的。(被动) That in 1969 the first artificial satellite was launched to the space is known to man. 1969 年第一颗人造卫星上了天是众所周知的。 这里用 to man 而不用 by。 即当单数又无冠词的 man 和 known 搭配时, 表示人类不用 by。

this,that,tomorrow,yesterday,next, last, one 接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯 例:一天 one day (不说 on one day) one summer 在一个夏天 one year 一年 last night 昨天夜里 last Friday 上个星期五 last month 上月 last year 去年 yesterday afternoon 昨天下午 tomorrow afternoon 明天下午 tomorrow evening 明天晚上 next month 下个月 next week 下周 next year 明年 next Saturday 下星期六 this morning 今天早晨 this year 今年 this Tuesday 本星期二 this Autumn 今年秋天 that morning 那天早上 that evening 那天晚上

无论前面介词 in、 on 还是 at, 通通可省略, 不能说 at last night, on last Friday, in last month, in this year 这些都是不对的,须去掉介词。 over, under 正上下,above, below 则不然 若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关 例:There is a picture over the window. 窗户上面有一幅画。(正上方) The plane flew above the city. 飞机飞过城市上空。(高于城市并非正上方) A lamp was hanging over the table. 一盏灯是在方桌上方。(正上方) The moon was now above the trees in the east. 这时月亮已经在东边树林的上 方。(非正上方) Don't stand above the masses. 勿高踞于群众之上。(比喻一一非正上方) The mountain is 700 feet above sea level. 这座山海拔 700 米。(非正上方) There is a small building below the hill. 山下有座小楼房。(非正下方) There is a submarine under the water. 水下有艘潜水艇。(正下方) Water was found ten feet below the surface. 在地面下 10 英尺处找到了水。(非 正下方) The peasants are cooling themselves under the trees. 农民们正在树下乘凉。 (正下方) over under 正上下,低高 below 与 above The temperature in the room is below (or under) 30℃. 室温是摄氏 30 度以下。(数量词两者皆可) Do you have anything in the way of computers below (under) $10000? 你们有哪些价格低于 10000 美元的计算机?

(数量词两者皆可〕 beyond 超出、无、不能 例:It's quite beyond me (It is more than I can understand). 这我完全不懂。 Don't stay out beyond 10 o'clock. 不要在外呆到 10 点以后还不回家。 But the gratitude from the bottom of my heart to the students and my old colleagues, has gone beyond my control. 发自肺腑的对学生们和我的老同事们的感激 之心使我毫不紧张,毫不拘束; Your work is beyond all praise, so good that it can't be praised enough. 你的成绩是赞扬不尽的。 That is going beyond a joke, passes the limits of what is reasonable as a joke. 那样开玩笑太过火了。 They were touched beyond words. 他们被感动得无法形容。(无) To do this was quite beyond all doubts. 办这事我无能为力。(超出) This is inevitable and beyond all doubts. 这是必然的,毫无疑义的。(无) 另外, Beyond two cottages stood his house. 句子中的 beyond 是“那边”的意思。 against 靠着,对与反 例: In front of the wardrobe there are two upholstered armchairs arranged against the south wall near the door. 立柜前面是两把沙发椅,靠着南城门附近。(靠着) She leaned wearily against the railings. 她疲惫地靠着栏杆站着。(靠着) A new president was elected by a majority of 274 votes against 110.

新总统以 274 票对 110 票的多数当选。 (对??) besides, except 分内外,among 之内 along 沿 例:The design has many other advantages besides lower cost. 除费用低外,该设计还有许多其他优点。(优点包括在内) He had no time to prepare his lecture, besides which he was unwell. 他没有时间准备讲稿,而且他的身体也不大舒适。 Every one of us, except her, went to see the exhibition. 除她外,我们都 去参观了展览会。 He gets up early every day except Sunday. 除星期日外他每天早起。 Nobody was late except me. 除我以外,没人迟到。 同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心间。 He's composition is good, except for some spelling mistakes. 他的这篇作文写得很好,只是有几处拼写错误。(非同类比较用 except for) She was all alone in the world except for an old aunt. 除了有一个老姑妈, 她别无亲人。 Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without = except) 当安娜发现除她外,他们都去游泳了,她感到很失望。 Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples. 除了那些古寺以外,狮头山没什么可看的。 Among other things, we are interested in drawing. 我们对图画和别的一些东西很感兴趣。(among 之内即包括在内) 原状 because of, owing to, due to 表语形容词

例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule. 由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。 注:Owing to 和 because of 都做原因状语,而 due to 只能做表语形容词。所以此句。 owing to 的介词短语做原因状语。 AII our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party. 我们的一切成绩都归功于党。(due to 做表语形容词) Under 后接修、建中,of,from 物化分 例:The road is under repair now. 这条路正在修建中。 The now railway is still under construction. 新铁路尚在修筑中。(不能用 in) under discussion 在讨论中(不能用 in) under considerate 在考虑中(不能用 in) The desk is made of wood. 桌子是木头做的。(物理变化用 of) The wine is made from grape. 这种酒是用葡萄酿造的。(化学变化用 from) The bridge is made of steel. 这座桥是钢制的。(物理变化) Steel is made from iron. 钢是由铁炼成的。(化学变化) before, after 表一点,ago, later 表示一段 即 before, after 常表示一个点的时间状语,而 ago,later 常表示一段的时间状语。

例如:前天 the day before yesterday; 前年 the year before last; 大上星期 the week before last 等等都表示点状语的。 要想准确无误地使用好 before 和 ago, after 和 later 比较困难,但要是以 “点”和“段”来区别就容易得多。 例:晚饭前 before supper

解放前 before liberation 1970 年前 before 1970 文革前 before cultural revolution 国庆前 before National Day 入大学前 before coming to college 这些都是“点”状语,因为 1970 年前即 1970 年 1 月 1 日前。国庆节即 10 月 1 日前。 ago 表示一段时间。 例:一分钟前 a minute ago 半小时前 half an hour ago 两天前 two days ago 一星期前 a week ago 五年前 five years ago 因为 a minute, half an hour, two days, a week, five years 等都表示一段时 间,所以用 ago。以及 ten days later 等皆如此。 before 可接完成时,ago 过去级有限 这时的 before 是连词(也可做介词) 例:We had scarcely left our school before it began to rain. 我们刚离开学校,天就下雨了。(完成时) I had studied French for four months before I came here. 我来这儿以前就已学了四个月法语了。(before 接完成时) He fell ill three days ago. 他病了三天了。(ago 则只能接动词过去式,同时注意瞬间动词的问题。)

He left two months ago. 两个月前他离开了。(同上) I met her a few minutes ago. 我在几分钟前碰到他了。(同上) Since 以来 during 间,since 时态多变换 与之相比 beside, 除了 last but one。 即 beside 的一般用法是“在??旁边”, 但还有“和??相比”等特殊用法。 例:I felt so weak in spoken English beside them. 和他们相比,我感到我的口语太 差。 Beside work and study, all else was trivial. 同工作和学习比起来,其他一 切都是小事。 除了 last but one, 即 but 多指“除了”的意思, 也有“倒数第几”的意思。 last but one 即不是最后一个。 例:I haven't told anybody but one. 除了我爱人,我谁也没告诉。(除了) Who but a fool would study foreign language well if he is a hard working one. 如果他勤奋好学的话,除了傻瓜谁都能学好外语。(除了) Look at the last page but one. 请看倒数第 2 页。 He was the last but three in maths examination this time. 他这次数学考试 成绩倒数第四。 They live in the next house but one. 他们住在隔壁过去一家。 复不定 for、找,价,原,对,给,段,去,为,作,赞 复不定 for,即用 for 引出的不定式复合结构,也就是 for 加名(代)加不定式; 找,意为找到,提供; 价,意为价格、工资;原,意为原因;段,意为时间或距离; 去, 意为去某地或开往某地;作,意为作为; 赞,意为赞成(用于系表结构。)

例:It is high time for us to start. 我们不该再迟延了。 The most urgent thing is for us to get the preparation done. 最重要的事情是我们要把准备工作做好。 I don't think it advisable for him to study medicine. 我想她学医不适合。 Your parents and relatives are anxious for you to go to college. 你的父母和亲戚渴望你上大学。 My home town has changed too much for me to recognize. 我的家乡变化太大,简直认不出来了。 以上例句都是 for 在不定式复合结构中的用法。 Someone is asking for you on the telephone. 有人找你接电话。(找) You'd better write to me for more information about it. 如需更多这方面的资科和信息,你最好给我写信。(提问,索要) They worked in the company for 200 yuan a month. 他们在这个公司干活,每 月嫌 200 元。(价格) How much did you pay for the second-hand colour TV? 这台用过的彩电你花了 多少钱?(价格) Thank you very much for your coming. 谢谢您的光临。(原因) Thank you for your warm hospitality. 谢谢您的热情款待。(原因) Forgive me for being tardy. 请原谅我迟到了。(原因) I'm much obliged to you for telling me. 非常感谢你给我谈了这个情况。(原 因)

We have boundless admiration for your struggle. 对你们的斗争我们无限钦佩。 (对) Listening comprehension materials are good for training our minds. 听力材料对训练我们的脑子根有好处。(对) Take the bitter medicine. It's good for you. 吃下这药吧,对你有好处。(对) There is a telegram for Mr. Wang. 这有一份王先生的电报。(给) May I use it for a minute? 我用一会儿好吗?(一段时间) I followed the stealer for some distance. 我跟踪那个小偷一段路。(一段距 离) The ship was for Dalian. 这破船开往大连。(去某地) We are off for Shanghai tomorrow. 明天我们去上海。(去某地) The medicine is for reducing your temperature. 这药是退烧的。(为??目的) After breakfast, I'll go for a stroll round the town. 吃完饭我要在城里到处走走。(为??目的) I'll keep the lighter given by a foreign friend for a souvenir. 我要把外宾送给我的打火机作为纪念。(作为) It is only meant for a joke. 这只是当笑话说说罢了。(作为) We are all for cutting down the cost of production. 我们都赞成降低生产成 本。(赞成) 快到、对、向 towards,工、学、军、城、上、北、南 例:It's getting on towards the end of term now. 现在已快到学期未了。(快到) Towards midnight my husband came back. 快到半夜了我的丈夫才回来。(快到)

Our teacher was very lenient towards us. 我们的老师对我们很松。(对) What you have invented is really a big contribution towards our company. 你所发明的对我们公司确实是一大贡献。(对) The boy came running towards his mother. 那个男孩向他母亲跑去。(向着) 所谓工、学、军、城、上、北、南,是说 up 和 down 的用法。这也是汉英翻译时 要注意的。例如:招工,上大学,参军,进城, 上山,向北方等都属于 up。而相反的下乡,向南,落榜等都属于 down。“大军南 下,北上抗日”大概由此而来。 but for 否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言。 but for 是“若不是”的意思。 例:But for our great Communist Party, we could never have today's happiness. 若没有伟大的共产党,我们决不会有今天的幸福生活。 But for this chemical the vapour inside the system would not have been absorbed so completely. 若没有这个化学剂的作用,系统内的蒸汽不可能被吸收得这么 彻底。 but for 将在虚拟语气中详讲。 以上讲到了某些常用介词 in 用法,但远远不够,就拿做插入语的介词短语来说就 数不胜数。以下固定搭配不可随意改动: 例:in general 一般说来 in short 简言之 in other words 换言之 in my opinion 依我看

in simple words 简言之 on the whole 基本上 for instance 例如 for short 简称 after all 毕竟 above all 首先 此外考试中常出现的成语前置词也须牢记其用法。 by appearance 从外表 by the aid of 借??的帮助 by far ??得多 by course of ??照??常例 by reason of 由于 by request 应邀 by right of 由于凭借 out of date 过时 out of harmony with 与??不一致 out of harmony with 摆脱困境 out of bounds 超出权限 out of proportion to 与??不相称 out of reach 力量不及 out of one's wits 不知所措 out of question 没问题

out of the question 不可能的 to a great extent 很大程度上 to one's taste 合??胃口 to one's thinking 据??看来 to one's heart's content 尽情地 to the utmost 尽力 behind schedule 不准时 behind the times 过时的 behind the curtain 在幕后 within reach 能力所及 within a hair's breadth 差—点 within a stone's throw of 在附近 beyond descrīption 无法形容 beyond reason 毫无道理 beyond reproach 无可指责 beyond one's expectation 超出??范围 beyond expression 无法表达 ing 型由于、鉴,除了,除外与包含。 之后,关于,在??方面,有关介词须记全。 最后,英语中 v.-ing 分词转化而成的特殊介词,更须注意,根据其语法功能,把 它们同现在分词,动名词和连同区分开来。即:

respecting 由于, 鉴于; considering 由于, 鉴于; excepting 除了; concerning 关于; excepting for 除外; excluding 除外; without excepting sb. 包含; including 包括,包含; following 在??之后; regarding 关于; respecting 在??方面; concerning 有关; 例:considering 由于; Considering that table salt is the commonest source of sodium in food, the diet usually calls for eating salt-free foods. 由于食盐是钠在食物中普遍的来源, 医生给病人规定的,饮食通常要求吃无盐食品。 respecting 鉴于: Respecting the heavy rain, we had to put off the match. 鉴于下大雨,我们不得不推迟了这场比赛。 excepting 除了: excepting 可单独使用,可以与 always 或否定词 not 连用,也可以与 for, without 之类介词连用。 Excepting one of his close friends, they were present at the party. 除了他的一个挚友外,他们都来赴宴了。 He is an honest man, excepting for his quick temper. 他是个老实人,只是(“除了” 脾气暴躁。(同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心 间)。 Everybody is in high spirits, always excepting him. 大家都情绪高昂,唯他 “除外”(例外)。 Only a few survivors without excepting him were living in the settlement. 包括他在内,只有几个幸存者住在新拓居地。

including 包含: The new apartment consists of three rooms including the kitchen. 这套公寓有三间,包括厨房。 following 在??之后: 相当于 after The week following his first visit to the newsroom he was appointed editor of the important column. 在拜访该报社编辑部的“第二个”星期,他放任命为该报重要 专栏的主笔。 regarding 关于:相当于 about Regarding research investment and number of researchers engaged in this field of research, the U.S.A. commands an overwhelming position followed by Japan. “关于”投入该领域研究的投资额和研究人员的数量,美国占压倒优势,其次是日本。 respecting 在??方面: Respecting education, health, medical care as well as production and labor technological development will have to be evaluated with due thought given to social systems and humanism. “在”教育、卫生、生产劳动“方面”, 评价技术的发展需根据 社会制度和人道主义。 concerning 有关: The following are some of the arguments both pros and cons concerning computers, thinking, and artificial intelligence. 下面是“有关”计算机、思维和人工智能方面持赞成和反对态度的 一些论据。 当然,这些 ing 型的介词,在句子中也有分词、动名词和连词的语法功能。 excluding 和 including,表示排除与包含。

Last year British sales to the region were more than $8 billion, while French exports, excluding arms brought in around $3 billion. 去年,英国对这个地区的销 售额达 80 多亿美元,而法国的出口额(武器除外)约为 30 亿美元。 Stress may deplete vitamin C in your body, as can smoking, drinking and a variety of drugs, not excepting aspirin. 生活紧张会耗尽你体内的维生素 C,正如吸 烟、饮酒、服用某些药物(包括阿斯匹林)一样。 至于介词与形容词、动词、名词的搭配以及复合介词(又称复杂介词)、介词词组与 从句的变换则涉及更多的语法内容。



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