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名词性从句公开课


定语从句的作用 起定语作用,用来修饰名词或代词的从句

名词性从句的作用? 起名词性作用的从句,叫名词性从句。 换言之,在英语的句子结构中,本来该由名 词充当的主语、宾语、表语和同位语部分, 换由一个句子来充当,这样的句子就是名词 性从句。

名词性从句 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句

主语从句在句中做--

---- 主语 宾语从句在句中做------ 宾语 表语从句在句中做------ 表语 同位语从句在句中------- 同位语 1.That he will come is certain. 主语从句 宾语从句 2.I know that he will come. 3.The truth is that I have been there. 表语从句 4.The fact that she was late surprised us. 同位语从句

从属连词(3个):that、if、 whether

引导词

连接代词(9个):who、whom、 what、which、whose、whoever、 whomever、whatever、 whichever 连接副词(4个):when、 why、where、how

“that”--- 无词义、不做成分、 起连接作用 从属连词

“if”--- “是否”、不做成分、 起连接作用
“whether”--- “是否”、不做成 分、起连接作用

“that”--- 无词义、不做成分、起连接作用 1.That we will realize our dreams in the future is certain. 主语从句 2.The fact is that Beijing has held the 29th Olympic Games. 表语从句 3.I know that well begun is half done. 宾语从句 4.He heard the news that Liuxiang set a new record. 同位语从句

Practice: Translation
1. 我的想法是我们马上做这件事。 My idea is that we should do it right now. 2. 她没办法相信他成了一个小偷。 She can’t believe (that) he has become a thief. 3. 总所周知,他是一个著名歌手。 It is known to all that he is a famous singer. 4. 我知道我们队赢了比赛这个消息。 I knew the news that our team won the game. 5. 他的建议是我们要先完成作业。 His suggestion is that we should finish the homwork first.

宾语从句中的that在以下情况下不能省略: 1. 当动词后面接两个并列的宾语从句时,第二个 that不能省略; Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. 2. 当that作介词宾语时,that不可省掉; The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. 3. 用it作形式宾语的宾语从句; We took it for granted that they would accept the proposal. 4.that引导的宾语从句与主语之间有插入语时。 I think, first of all, that we must believe in ourselves.

下面哪些that可以省略?
We have made it clear that we will deal with the problem later. His mother said that he was not careful enough. I think that it will clear up this afternoon and that they will come to say good-bye to us. He said, in his opinion, that Lei Feng was a good example of serving the people heart and soul.

“whether”--- “是否”、不做成分、起连接作用 1.Whether she will come back on time depends on weather. 主语从句 2.The problem is whether you could gives us some valuable advice. 表语从句 3.I asked him whether he could do me a favor. 宾语从句 4.Could you tell me the question whether English is useful for us now. 同位语从句

Practice: Translation 1.他问我是否可以和他一起去。 He asked me whether I would go with him (or not). 2. 我们是不是要开会还没决定。 Whether we will have a meeting has not been decided yet. 3. 问题是他是否会出席会议。 The question is whether he will attend the meeting.

在下列情况下,whether 不能被 if 所取代: 1. 主语从句放句首 Whether he will come is unknown. 2. 表语从句,如: The question is whether you should accept it. 3. 同位语从句,如: The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided. 4. 从句作介词的宾语,如: It depends on whether we have got enough money. 5. 直接跟不定式连用,如: She hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 6. 与or not连用,如: He asked me whether I could go with him or not.

请用if/whether填空: 1.I asked her ___________ if/ whether she had a bike. 2.____________ we will hold a party in the Whether open air tomorrow depends on the weather. whether 3. We’re worried about ___________ he is safe. whether 4. I don’t know ___________ he is well or not. whether 5.The question is ___________ he should do it. 6.The doctor can hardly answer the question ___________ whether the old man will recover soon.

“who”--- “谁”、作主宾
“whom”--- “谁”、作宾语 连接代词1

“what”--- “事情”、作主表宾
“which”--- “哪… ”、作定语

“whose”--- “谁的”、作定语

“who”--- “谁”、作主语 1.Who will go to the college is still uncertain. 主语从句 2.The trouble is who could lend me some money. 表语从句 3.He want to know who picked up his mobile phone. 宾语从句

“whom”--- “谁”、作宾语 1. Whom you will learn from is worth thinking over. 主语从句 2. The thing I am anxious about is whom he will turn to for help. 表语从句 3. His mother asked him whom he could believe in. 宾语从句

“what”--- “事情/东西”、作主表宾 主语从句 1.What I desire to get is a good reputation. 2.What he will tell me is what I have been expecting to know. 表语从句 3.They agree with what I said just now. 宾语从句

用恰当的连词填空:

1.________ What he wants is a book. 2.________ he wants to go there is obvious. That 3.The result is ________ we won the game. that 4.This is _________ we want to know. what 5.Is _________ he told us true? what what 6.We should pay attention to _________ the teacher is saying. 7.I have no doubt _________ he will come. that 8.I have no idea _________ he did that what afternoon. 9.I will visit the company which/that ___________ produces iPhones.

归纳 that 只起连接作用,在从句中不充当任何 _______ 成分,没有词义 _______ what 起连接作用,且在从句中充当主语, 宾语或表语, 表示“……的事情/东西”。

“which”--- “哪一个… ”、作定语

1. Which class is suitable for us isn’t most important. 主语从句 2.What he wants to ask you now is which team won the game. 表语从句 3.Could you tell me which one is right. 宾语从句

“whose”--- “谁的”、作定语 1.Whose bag was the most beautiful is still unknown now. 主语从句 2.The question is whose friends could lend me a hand. 表语从句 3.I want to know whose suggestion is more practical. 宾语从句

Practice: Translation
谁会赢得比赛还不得而知。 Who will win the game is still unkonwn. 请告诉我你想要什么。 Please tell me what you want. 最让我惊讶的是他的态度突然变了。 What surprised me most was that his attitude suddenly changed. 我无法确定那本书比较好。 I can’t decide which book is better. 我不知道这是谁的书。 I don’t know whose book it is.

“whoever”--- “…的任何人”、 作主语 “whomever”--- “…的任何 人”、作宾语

连接代词2

“whatever”--- “…的任何东 西”、作主表宾
“whichever”--- “无论哪个或 哪些… ”、作定语

1.Whoever could solve the problem will be rewarded. 主语从句 2.What we should do is whatever is 表语从句 worth doing. 3.You should learn from whomever I praised yesterday. 宾语从句 4.The fact is whichever teacher could help you learn English well. 表语从句

用恰当的关系词填空
Who The spoken English competition is coming. ________ will attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet. whoever takes part in the competition I believe _________ will try his best. what Can you tell me _________ you would like to order? Whatever happens, don’t be surprised. _________ whatever All the food here is delicious. Just order _________ you like.

“when”--- “什么时候”、作状语 “where”--- “什么地方”、作状语 连接副词 “why”--- “为什么”、作状语

“how”--- “如何”、作状语

1.The trouble is when he could recover from the disease. 表语从句 宾语从句 2.I just want to ask you why I was fired. 3.Where I could buy the book is 主语从句 uncertain now. 4. I will go to ask my teacher how I could work out the problem. 宾语从句

他是怎么成为一名作家的我们都知道。 It is known to us how he became a writer. 这就是我这么努力学习的原因。 This is why I study so hard. 他要去哪里是未知的。 Where he is going is unknown. 我已经告诉他什么时候开会了。 I have told him when we are going to have the meeting. I have told him when to have the meeting.

Several Points to Notice

主语从句和宾语从句在适当的情况下 可以借助 “it” 而后置。

问题:想想看是什 么“适当的情况”?

适当的情况:

一.it用作形式主语常用句型有:
1.It be +名词(词组) +that主语从句

2. It be +形容词+that主语从句
3. It be +过去分词+that主语从句

4.It seems/happens等不及物动词及短语
+that 主语从句 5.It doesn’t matter/makes no difference (没有影响/ 毫无区别)etc.+连接代词(副词)引导的主语从句

适当的情况

二:it 用作形式宾语.
若有补语,宾语从句要放到补语之后,在宾 补前用形 式宾语it.

1. I think it very important that we focus on reading when we are learning English. 2.Don’t take it for granted that we could do well in the exam if we don’t work hard. 3.The old made it a rule that he cast his net three times a day.

找出下列句子中的错误: 1. I think that worthwhile that we spent so much it money on these books. 2. That is hard to decide when and where we will It held our sports meeting. 3. Everybody considers it impossible which he that wants to finish the job in such a short time. 4. It doesn’t matter that you will come or not. whether

注意虚拟语气的使用!

问题:此类虚拟语 气有哪些关键词?

指点迷津:
1.表示建议、请求、命令、要求、坚持 等 及物动词后面的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,这类动 词有:suggest, propose, insist, desire, demand, request, order, 等 2.主语是suggestion, proposal, request等表示“建 议、请求、命令、要求、决定”等意义的词时, 表语/同位从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气

虚拟语气结构为:“(should) + 动词原形”

还有,在句型 1. It is a pity / shame / no wonder, etc. that .. 2. It is suggested / requested / proposed / desired, etc. that 中,that从句中谓语 动词也常用虚拟语气“(should) + 动词原形”。

指点迷津:常用句型

It is necessary It’s important, It’s natural /strange, etc.) that … 主语
该主语从句表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理 应如此等语气
eg. It is strange that he (should) have acted toward his parents like that.

从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气 “(should) +do”

练一练.True/False Her suggestion is that we will do it by turns. Her suggestion is that we do it by turns. It’s high/about time that I leave. It’s high/about time that I left.

It is demanded that he (should) leave at once.
It is demanded that he left at once.

同位语从句和定语从句的区别: I had no idea that you were here. (that引导同位语从句,不能省略) ? Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you ?
?

(that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略)

that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充 当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没 有实际意义,不充当句子成分,不能省略。

请找出下列句子的错误:
1.Doris’ success lies in the fact what she is that co-operative and eager to learn from others. 2. I really like the present that he gave it

to me yesterday.

主语从句中的“主谓一致”: 1.主语从句通常被看作一个整体,主句的谓语动词 用单数形式. is That they will come _______certain. 2. What 引导主语从句时,主句谓语动词的单 复数由表语的单复数决定. are What he wants ______these books. is What he wants ______some water.


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