一、【重点词汇】 1 ruin n．毁灭；毁坏；崩溃；(不可数名词)废墟；遗迹(常用复数 vt．&vi．(使)毁坏；毁灭；成为废墟；使破产 ①The castle has fallen into rain．那城堡已破败不堪。 ②An earthquake left the whole tow
n in ruins．那次地震过后，全城到处是残垣断壁。 归纳拓展 fall into ruin 崩塌 come/go to ruin 毁灭，崩溃 lie in ruins 成为废墟 the ruins of Yuanmingyuan 圆明园遗迹 bring sb.to ruin 使某人破产 ruin one’s hopes 使某人希望破灭 ruin oneself 自取灭亡 ruin one’s health/fame 毁坏某人的健康/名誉 2 shock vt．&vi．(使)震动，震惊；(使)受电击 n．打击；震惊；震动[C]令人震惊的人或事 ①1 was shocked to see him alone．我很吃惊地发现他独自一人。 ②I felt the shock as the aircraft hit the ground．飞机着陆时我感觉到震了一下。 归纳拓展 shocked 口办震惊的，震撼的 shocking adj．令人震惊的 with/from shock 由于震惊 a shocking accident 令人吃惊的事故 be shocked at 对??感到吃惊 be shocked to do 深感意外地去做
(1)shocked/surprised/amazed 等的主语多为人，而 shocking/surprising/amazing 等的主语多为物。这两种 形式的形容词辨析常在高考题中出现。如： ①They were shocked by her rudeness．他们对她的无礼感到震惊。 ②What a shocking waste of time!时间的浪费多么惊人呀! (2)当表示具体的令人震惊的人或事的时候， shock 是可数名词， 这一点常和冠词一起考查。 如： The news of his mother’s death was a terrible shock to him．他母亲去世的噩耗使他非常震惊。 3 Trap vt．(trapped，trapped)使陷入困境；设陷阱捕 n．陷阱；困境；捕捉(动物的)夹子 ①The thieves were caught in a police trap．窃贼落人警方设的陷阱而被捕。 ②The lift broke down and we were trapped inside(it)．电梯出了故障，我们被困在里面了。 归纳拓展 (1)fall into a trap/be caught in a trap 掉人陷阱；落人圈套 lay/set a trap(for)安装捕捉机；设陷阱，设圈套 (2)trap sb into doing sth 诱使某人做某事 By clever questioning they trapped him into making a confession．他们用巧妙的提问诱使他招认了。 5 judge n．法官，审判员；鉴赏家 vt．审理；鉴定；判断；认为 vt 判断；评价 常用结构：judge + n. e.g. You can’t judge a book by/from its cover.
你不能凭封面来评价一本书。 judge + sb. to be e.g. I judged him to be about 50. 我判断他大约 50 岁。 judge + sb./sth. + adj./n. e.g. I judged him the oldest. 我判断他年纪最大。 judge + clause
e.g. I can’t judge which answer is better. 我无法判断哪个答案更好些。
judging by/ from ? 从??看,根据??判断 （作状语） E.g Judging by his accent, he must be from the U.S.A.从他口音判断，他一定来自美国。
judging from/by?．置于句首作状语，v-ing 形式不受主语的限制，构成独立成分。类似的用法还有： generally speaking 一般来说 frankly speaking 坦白地说 considering 考虑到?? 归纳拓展 judgement n．审判，判决；判断力；意见，看法，评价 judge sb./sth.from/by...从??来判断 judge between right and wrong 判断是非 as far as I can judge 据我判断，我认为 judging by/from 从??上看；根据??判断 don’t judge a book by its cover 勿以貌取人；勿只凭外表判断 6 congratulationn．祝贺，庆贺；贺词(复数) ①I show the congratulation to Mrs Jones because her son won in the high jump match．我向琼斯夫人表示 祝贺，因为她的儿子在跳高比赛中获胜了。 ②Congratulations on winning the football game．祝贺赢得这场足球赛。 归纳拓展 congratulations(to sb)on/upon(doing)sth 祝贺(某人)在某方面取得成就 offer/send sb’s congratulations to sb 向某人致以祝贺 congratulate yt．恭喜，向??表示祝贺 congratulate sb on(doing)sth 就某事向某人表示祝贺 7 honour vt.尊敬；给以荣誉（鼓励、头衔、称号） （1）honour sb.(with sth.) 给予某人荣誉，使某人感到荣幸 The president honoured us with a visit 总统光临，十分荣幸 （2） be/feel honoured (to do sth.) 对---感到荣幸。 I was honoured to have been mentioned in his speech. 他在讲话中提到了我，真是荣幸。 归纳拓展 honour [U]尊敬，敬意，荣誉；[C]引以为荣的人或事物（与 to 搭配） do sb. an/ the honour(of doing sth.) （通过做某事）使某人增光，给某人带来荣誉 give/ show honour to sb. 尊敬，敬重----have the honour to do sth./ of doing sth .荣幸地做某事 in honour of sb./ sth.= in one’s honour 为了纪念------； 为向----表示敬意；祝贺----； 8 burst vt.& vi.(使)爆裂；(使)裂开；(使)炸开；突然出现；爆发；n.突然破裂；爆发 突然哭起来/笑起来 (1)burst in/into 闯入，突然破门而入 (2)burst with anger/grief/joy 勃然大怒/悲痛欲绝/乐不可支 (3)burst into sth./ burst out doing sth. 突然...起来 e.g. She burst into tears/ laughter.
= She burst out crying/ laughing.
?①He couldn’ t help bursting into tears when he heard the bad news.当他听到这个坏消息时情不自禁泪流 满面。 ?②We all thought his heart would burst with happiness. ?我们都认为他心中的快乐快要爆发出来了。 8 bury vt.埋葬，掩埋；隐藏；使沉浸，使专心；插入，刺入 ?救援部队组成小分队，将受困的人们挖出来，并掩埋死者。
?归纳总结 (1)bury...in...把??埋到??里 be buried alive 被活埋 (2) 埋头于；专心于 (3)bury one’s face in one’s hands 双手掩面 ①Their ambitions were finally dead and buried.他们的雄心壮志最终被埋葬了。 ②Since she left，he’s buried himself in his work.自从她走后，他全心扑在工作上。
n. 井 adv. 好；充分地 e.g. think well 充分思考 Learn it well. 好好地学。 adj. 健康的 You don’t look well. 你看上去气色不太好。 int. 好啦；好吧 vi./vt. 涌出；涌上 Tears welled up in her eyes. 泪水涌上她的双眼。
二、【重点词组】 1 right away 立刻，马上 (= immediately / at once / right now / in no time ) 你必须马上交作业。 You must hand in your homework right away. 2 million n. 百万 具体数字 + million (单) + n. ...百万 (确数) millions of + n. 大量，无数，好几百万 (概数) (用法同 billion, hundred, thousand 等) 3 百万美元 3 million dollars 好几百万美元 millions of dollars 3 as if 仿佛；好像 = as though (引导表语、状语从句) (1) + 陈述语气 (从句可能性大) It looks as if it is going to rain. 看起来好像要下雨了。 (2) + 虚拟语气 (从句内容非真实的) She treats me as if I were her sister. 她待我就像我是她姐妹一样。 He turned around as if he hadn’t seen me. 他转过身，好像没看见我。 4 at an end 结束；终结 (= finished ; over) e.g. The war was at an end. 战争结束了。 相关短语： in the end 终于；最后 at the end of… 在……的尽头
by the end of … 到??底（末）为止
come to an end 结束 （物作主语, 不及物） put an end to sth. 终止… （人作主语, 及物） e.g. The meeting came to an end. 会议结束了。 The chairman put an end to the meeting. 主席结束了会议。 5 in ruins 严重受损；破败不堪；成为废墟；落空 e.g. The earthquake left the city of Tangshan in ruins. 地震使得唐山这座城市成了一片废墟。 His career/plan is in ruins. 他的事业尽毁。/ 他的计划落空。
6 dig out (dig-dug-dug; digging) 找出，挖出，掘出，发现 dig out the truth 找出真相 dig sth./ sb. out (of …) （从…中）掘出；挖出 他不得不从雪里把车挖出来。 He had to dig his car out of the snow. 二、【重点句子】 1 But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual that night. (Reading) think little/poorly/badly/ill of sb./sth. 对某人/物评价不高、不好、不看重 think a lot/ highly/well of sb./sth. 对某人/物评价很高、很好、很看重 e.g. 他不看重钱。 He thinks little of money. 读者们对她的书评价很高。 The readers think highly of her book. 被动：Her book is highly thought of by the readers. 2 Two-thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake.三分之二的人在地震中死去 或受伤。 (Reading) 分数的表达法，分子用基数词(one, two, …), 分母用序数词(first, second, …), 当分子 大于 1 时，分母的序数词要用复数形式，如, 1/5 为 one-fifth, 4/5 为 four-fifths。 “当分数/百分数＋of ＋名词/代词”作主语时，谓语的单复数由 of 后的名词/代词决定。 e.g. About three-fifths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. (be) Ten percent of the students are from China. (be) 3 In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. (Reading) lie (1)说谎 (lied, lied) (2)位于，在于 (3)躺着 (4)处于某种状态 (lay, lain) lie “出于某种状态” + adj. / 介词短语 e.g. 战争过后，这村庄成了一片废墟。 The village lay in ruins after the war. 书打开在桌子上。 The book lay open on the table. Lie lay lain ： 规则的说谎 lie-lied-lied,不规则的躺 lie-lay-lain,躺过就下蛋 lay,下蛋不规则 lay-laid-laid
All hope was not lost.不是所有的希望都破灭了。到处好像很安静。 all, both, each, every 等词与否定词 not 连用，构成部分否定，表示“不都, 不全是”的意思。no, none, never 等词用于全部否定。 e.g. All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的不都是金子。 All the students didn’t pass the exam. =Not all the students passed the exam. 不是所有学生都通过考试。(有的学生通过了考试，有的没有通过。) None of the students passed the exam. 没有一个学生通过考试。 知识练习 1 单词拼写（根据句意及所给首字母或汉语提示写出下列单词） 1. The thief is ____________ (颤抖) with fear when he is being questioned by the policeman. 2. The soldiers are trying to help rescue the ____________ (幸存者) after the earthquake. 3.Two –thirds of the people died or ___________(受伤) in the earthquake. 4. Life would be very difficult without ______________(电) . 5.The whole city lay in ____________ (废墟) after the earthquake. 6. The soldiers built s____________ for those homeless people. 7. Every year natural’s d___________ can cause heavy loss to the world.
8. Most of the buildings were completely d ____________in the earthquake. 9. It’s a great h___________ for the scientist to give a speech to the students. 10. As we all know, Italy is a _____________ (欧洲)country. 2 用所给动词和短语的正确形式填空 wake up put up in ruins honour destroy be proud of rescue give out organize prepare
1. A terrible earthquake hit the city and in a few seconds the whole city lay __ _____. 2. A group of doctors and nurses _____________ to the flooded area to help those in trouble. 3. The newly-built house was completely ___________ by the big fire. 4. The policeman tried his best to ____________the boy who fell into the river. 5. The whole class _____________ the boy student who won the first prize in the English Contest. 6. The children were busy ____________ a tent and it would be completed before dark. 7. So far all the students have been well ______________ for the coming examination. 8. The monument (纪念碑) was set up to ____________ those who died in the terrible disaster. 9. The monitor helped the teacher ____________ the graded test papers. 10. The terrible shaking of the building ____________ all the people who were sleeping. 3 单项填空 从题中所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。 1． (2014?遵化市期中)The 12 million people in Mexico City woke up on September 19th, 1985, to find their city ________after the terrible quake. A．in trouble B．on purpose C．out of work D．in ruins 2．(2014?北京市期末)I know the writer ________ story won a prize for the most imagination. A．that B．which C．whose D．what 3．(2014?北京市期末)—It's good to see you again. —Yes. I keep all the letters ________ you wrote to me over the years. A．who B．that C．when D．where 4 ． (2014 ?龙岩市高一质检 )On December 10,2013 ， many world's top leaders went to Johannesburg ________ Nelson Mandela, who had passed away. A．in honor of B．in favor of C．in search of D．in return of 5．(2014?武威市第六中学模块检测)________ is known to us, the 16th Asian Games will be held in Guangzhou, China in November, 2010. A．As B．It C．Which D．What 6．(2014?广西桂林中学期中)________ the number of cars, only ________small number of people have attended the meeting. A．Judging from; a B．Judged from; a C．Judging from; the D．Judged from; the 7．(2014?贵州省重点中学高一期中)—Smoking is bad for your health. —Yes, I know. But I simply can't ________. A．give it up B．give it in C．give it out D．give it away
8.(2013～2014 海南嘉积中学高一上期中)It seems ________ our team is going to win. A．even though B．when C．if D．as if 9．(2014?三亚市第一中学期末)The number of smokers in China ________increased in recent years, and a number of them ________ the youth. A．has; are B．have; are C．is; is D．are; are 10．(2014?淮安市涟水中学段测)We were about to go out for a walk ________ it began to rain. A．while B．before C．as D．when 11． (2014?南昌市四校联考)One minute she burst into ________， and the next she burst out ________. We just couldn't catch her mood at any moment. A．crying; laughter B．tears; laughing C．tears; laughter D．crying; laughing 12. (2014?天津一中高一期中)________ of the water in this cup ________ splashed onto the floor. A．Three quarters; is B．Three fourth; is C．Three fourths; are D．Three quarters; are 13．(2014?邯郸市高一期末)—Have you ever seen the TV programme Dad, Where Are We Going? —Yes. It's the best programme ________ I have seen in the past few months. A．which B．where C．when D．that 14．(2014?江西赣州市十二县重点中学期中)It was in the garden of the old house ________ he bought last year ________he dug up a pot of gold. A．which; which B．that; which C．what; that D．that; that 15．(2014?广西桂林中学期中)—My wife came first in the Chinese speech contest. —Did she？________！ A．Cheer up B．Good luck C．Best wishes D．Congratulations 16. Though he failed many times in election, he never lost _____ heart and at last he was elected _____ president of the USA. A. the; a B. a; the C. his; the D. /;/ 17. I have done much of the work. Could you please finish ________ in two days? A. the rest B. the other C. another D. the others 18. _______ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger. A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if 19．---What would you do if it_____ tomorrow? ---We have to carry it on, since we’ve got everything ready. A． rain B． rains C． will rain D． is raining 20．All of us insisted _____ out the plan at once. A. to carry B. to carrying C. on carrying D. carrying
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