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名词性从句知识结构图解


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名词性从句讲解学案 制作人:赵慧玲 杨秀荣 审核:李秀丽 使用日期:3 月 5 日
定义:在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses). 名词性从句包括主语,宾语,表语,同位语从句. ★ 名词性从句中使用陈述句语序。 ① 从属连词 that; whether; if (只起引导从句的作用,在从句中不做句子成分

) ② 连接代词 what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which,等.在从句 1.分类 中做主语,宾语,表语,定语等句子成分。 ③ 连接副词 when, where, how, why, whenever, however, wherever 等在从句中做状语成分。 引导名词性 从句的连接词 2. 名词性从句的连接词选用原则: “缺什么就补什么” I know what he is talking about. (从句中缺宾语,指物) Do you know who he is? (从句中缺表语,指人) Where he will go is unknown. (从句中缺地点状语) I’m sure that they will come tomorrow. (从句中什么都不缺) I don’t know which book I should choose. (从句中缺定语) 定义:充当主语功能的句子叫主语从句 That she was chosen made a great stir (轰动) in her school. 注意: ①it 作形式主语的 that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系: It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary / important that…. …是有必要 / 重要的…. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is universally acknowledged that../ It is known that…众所周知… It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge/ a fact that… ……是常识/事实 It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It happens that…碰巧.. / It occurs to sb.that… 突然想起…… ②It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 强调句: It is in the morning that the murder took place. (去掉该结构后,句子成分完整) 主语从句:It was a pity that you shouldn’t go to see the film. (在句子中作主语成分) ③whatever /whichever/ whoever 引导主语从句的区别 Ⅰ Whatever 是 what 的强调形式表示“无论什么”相当于 anything that… Whatever / Anything that she does is wrong. Ⅱ whoever 是 who 的强调形式,表示?无论谁? 相当于 anyone who…. ~ever Whoever / Anyone who walks around in such a heavy rain will catch a cold. Ⅲ whichever ?无论哪个;无论哪些?,既指人,又指物. 可修饰名词与 of 连用 Whichever book you borrow doesn’t matter to us. Whichever of us fulfills his task will lend a hand to others. 定义:在复合句中充当宾语功能的句子叫宾语从句 We can learn what we didn’t know. We find it necessary that we (should) practice English every day. ★某些作表语的形容词,如 sure, happy, glad, certain 等之后可带宾语从句 I am glad that you can come and help me. 注意:① wish/would rather 后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气。 I wish I had finished my homework yesterday. I’d rather you had been there yesterday
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名 词

主语从句

从 句

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宾语从句

表语从句

② 在表示建议,命令, 请求的词后面的宾语从句当中用 should + V, should 可以省略 His pale face suggested that he was ill so I suggested that he should go to see the doctor. He insisted that he was innocent and insisted that he should be set free. ③ 注意 it 作形式宾语的结构 We all thought it a pity that we had missed the lesson. I took it for granted that they were not coming. ④ that 一般不接介词宾语,偶尔可作 except, in 的宾语;其它介词后面需用 it 作形式宾语 He differs from his roommates in that he devoted his spare time to reading. He knows nothing about Jim except that he is from London. You can depend on it that he will help you in time of emergency. ⑤表示好恶的动词如 like; hate; love;enjoy; dislike; appreciate 等后面不能直接跟宾语; I like it when the weather is sunny. I hate it when someone is later for my class. 定义:充当表语功能的句子被叫做表语从句。 ★复习系动词的概念和类别! The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 注意:reason 后面的表语从句只能用 that,不能用 why 引导. ★The reason is that(because ×)… The reason why we didn’t trust him is that he has often lied. (该句型中 why 引导一个定语从句)

定义: 同位语从句跟在名词后面, 进一步说明该名词的具体内容. 这些名词主要是表示抽象概念的词如 fact, news, promise, idea, truth; possibility; statement; warning; advice 等 ★同位语的引导词有 that; whether; why; who; where; how 等;其中 that 和 whether 只起引导作用 其他连词具有实际意思,同时在同位语中作句子成分。 The news that China broken the world record in the Olympic Games has cheered all of us. The question why so many people would choose to live in the countryside but to work in the city is still 同位语从句 under discussion. ( why 引导同位语从句解释说明中心语 question 的内容;且 why 在从句中作状语) 注意:① 只起引导作用时,连接词用 that 而不用 which Where did you get the idea that she could not come. ② 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: 就看 that 在作引导的从句中是否做句子成分 The suggestion that he raised at the meeting is very important. (that 引导定语) The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very good. (that 引导同位语从句) 在名词性从句当中只能用 wh~, 在引导让步状语从句两者可以互换. ⒈ No matter+wh~ He will believe whatever others say. (划线部分部分为名词性从句,不能互换) 名 wh~+ever 区别 Whatever others say, he will believe it. (划线部分为状语从句,可以互换) Whoever walks around in such a heavy rain will catch a cold. (不可互换) 词 ★ 原则:能用 if 的情况,都能用 whether 表“是否… ” 性 ① 在表语, 同位语,主语(置于句首时)从句时只用 whether 表“是否” The question is whether the film is worth seeing. (表语从句) 从 I have no idea whether we should go to the party. (同位语从句) Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet. (主语从句 句首) 句 ▲ It hasn’t been decided yet if we shall attend the meeting. ⒉ Whether / if 区别 It is doubtful whether / if he will come here. (主语从句,句末时可互换) ② 形容词;介词;discuss 后的宾语从句中只用 whether 表“是否” It depends on whether you can do the work well. (介词宾语) 几个难点 The students are discussing whether they will go out for a picnic this Sunday. I am not sure whether he will come here or not. (形容词的宾语) ③ whether 与 to do; whether 与 or 或 or not 的搭配 The question is whether to stay or leave. Do you mind whether a man or woman does the job.
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⒊关于 that 的省略

Ⅰ:主语,表语,同位语从句中 that 不能省略 That they are good at English is known to all. (主语从句) The problem is that we don’t have enough money. (表语从句) The fact that there are still many people suffering from poverty is really a great problem to the Chinese government. (同位语从句) Ⅱ:在宾语从句中 that 在以下几种情况中不能省略 ①做介词宾语时 that 不能省略 I know nothing about my neighbor except that he used to work abroad. ② 由 it 作形式宾语时,that 引导的宾语从句中,that 不可省略 We all consider it important that every student (should) be treated properly. ③ 句子含多个并列句时,引导第二和以后几个从句的 that 不可省略 Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. ④ 宾语从句被隔开时,that 不能省略 I never doubt, under any circumstance, that he will study hard. ⑤ 如果名词性从句中又含有从句,此时 that 不能省略 Keep in mind that if you want others to respect you, you must respect others first. (that 不能省略,后面的宾语从句中含有一个条件状语从句)

1.用适当的词填空 ①______________the college will take in more new students this year is true. 今年这所大学将招收更多新生是真的。 ②_______________ he can finish his task on time is of great importance. 他是否能按时完成任务非常重要。 It is quite ___________ that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。 It is our _________ that the two sides will work towards peace. 我们的希望是双方能朝着和平的方向发展。 _________ is announced that the plan has been successfully carried out. 据宣布计划已经顺利实施。 ①______________ we can’t get seems better than what we already have. 我们得不到的东西似乎比我们拥有的东西好。 ②____________ the letter was from is still unknown. 这封信是谁寄出的还不清楚。 ③_____________ of you gets here first will get the prize. 你们当中第一个到达这里的人将获得奖项。 ②_____________dinosaurs suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery. 恐龙为什么突然消失了还是个谜。 Let me know ___________ or not you can come. 请让我知道你是否能来。 We are interested in _____________ you will attend the meeting. 我们对你是否参加会议感兴趣。 ①She asked me _________________ handwriting was the best in the class. 她问我班上谁的书法最好。 ②I’ll just say _______________comes into my mind. 我想到什么就说什么。 ①Do you know ___________ the ancient Olympic Games began? 你知道古代的奥运会是什么时间开始的吗? ②Did you find out____________she lost her car? 你查出她在哪里丢的车了吗?
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②He said that light ____________much faster than sound.(travel) 他说光比声音传播得快。 ①I hate _________when they talk with their mouth full of food. 我讨厌他们满嘴食物说话。 ①The reason for his absence is________he hasn‘t been informed. 他缺席的原因就是他没接到通知。 ②The question remains __________ they will be able to help us. 问题还是他们能否帮我们。 ①The problem is ____________ will take charge of this shop. 问题是谁将接管这家店铺。 The reason why he came late was ________he got up late.他来得晚是因为起床晚了。 ③Give me your promise ___________ you will come to our party this evening. 答应我,你今天晚上会来参加我们的聚会。 ①The student asked me the question__________the book was worth reading. 学生问了我这个问题:这本书是否值得一读。 ②I have no idea __________he was excited at that time.我不知道当时他激动的原因。



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