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人教新课标英语第一轮模块复习-必修一 Unit 5 Nelson Mandela


Unit5 Nelson Mandela — a modern hero

1、active adj. 根据语境猜词义 (1) She may over 80, but she still very active. (2) She has been active in raising money for the new

school b

uilding for Hope Project.
(3) I can't tell whether it is an active volcano.

1、active adj.

根据语义找匹配
A. 积极的 B. 喜欢运动;爱好运动 C. 活跃的 (1) B (2) A (3)C

链接
act n.&v. 行为,举动,行动 action n. 行为,做法 activity n. 活动 actor/ actress n. 男/女演员

activist n. 积极分子;活动家

1、active adj.

短语
be active in在……方面活跃,积极参加
take an active part in积极参加 take action to do sth. 对……采取行动

1、active adj. 用act的适当形式填空

(1)He takes an active part in the fighting against
pollution and take a firm and effective action to

prevent pollution.
(2)We are always active in out- class activities every ofday.

2、reward n.&vt. 根据语境猜词义 (1) It's a reward for virtue. (2) a reward of $900 for catching the criminal

(3) It is unfair that he gets very little in reward for his
hard work. (4) How can I reward your kindness?

2、reward n.&vt. 根据语义找匹配:

A. 酬谢 B. 报酬 C. 酬金 D. 回报
(1) D (2) C (3) B (4) A

2、reward n.&vt.

短语
in reward (for…)= in return (for…) 作为(对……的)

报酬、报答
give/ offer a reward to sb. for sth. 为……给某人报 酬、赏金 reward sb. for (doing) sth. 因……报答/奖赏某人 reward sb. with sth. for sth./doing sth. 用……报答/

奖赏某人

2、reward n.&vt.

辨析
reward/award/prize reward表示“奖赏,酬谢”,动词只能以人或人的 行为作宾语,名词表示某人因做了某事而应得到某 东西。 award 作名词指正式或官方“给予,颁发,授予(奖 章,奖金等)”,往往用来奖励在工作中达到一定成 就的人,重在强调荣誉而不在于奖品的大小或奖金 的多少,也可以指法庭裁决;作动词可以,构成 award sb. sth.句型, 表示“把某物授予/判给某人”。

2、reward n.&vt.

辨析
prize 只能作名词,表示“奖赏,奖金,奖品”,尤 指在比赛中获得的荣誉。 He was awarded the first prize for “Outstanding Industrial Design”. In this month's competition you could win a prize worth $3,000. 巧记:reward与award也可从结构上区分: reward sb. for sth. award sb. sth.

2、reward n.&vt. 单项填空 ( )(1) His movie won several ______ at the film

festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. A. rewards B. awards C. prizes D. gains

B

考查名词语义辨析。根据语境,它注重的

是对工作成就上的奖励,所以答案是B。

2、reward n.&vt. ( )(2) We will offer a(n)______ of ten thousand

dollars for information about the case.
A. award B. prize C. reward D. praise

C

考查名词语义辨析。根据语境,它侧重对做

某事的奖赏,所以答案是C。

2、reward n.&vt. ( ) (3) The girl got nothing in______for her

kindness, which made her very sad. A. prize B. award C. medals D. reward

D

考查名词语义辨析和搭配。按照句意应该是

做好事的报答,in reward for 为……报答。

3、 equal adj. 根据语境猜词义 (1) Are you equal to (doing) the task? (2) Yao Ming is a basketball player without equal in

China.
(3) None of us can equal her in diligence. (4) All people are born equal.

3、 equal adj. 根据语义找匹配 A.比得上 B.同等/相等的人或物 C.胜任 D. 平等的

(1) C

(2) B

(3) A

(4) D

3、 equal adj.

短语
be equal to 与……相等

be equal with 与……平等
be equal to sth./ doing sth. 胜任某事/ 做某事

句型
A equals B. A等于B。 be without equal/have no equal 无与伦比

3、 equal adj. 根据语境用equal的恰当形式填空

Equal pay for equal work. That's our rule. If we can't
treat every client equally, we will break the equality in our company.

3、 equal adj. be fit 与be equal都有“适合于”的意思,它们的区 别是什么? 从下面例子中对比感悟: He is welleducated, so he is fit for the job. He is welleducated, so he is fit to do the job. He is welleducated, so he is equal to the job. He is welleducated, so he is equal to doing the job.

它们句式搭配不一样: be fit for + n. / to do sth. be equal to + n. / doing sth.

4、 escape vi. 根据语境猜词义

(1) They managed to escape from the enemy soldiers
and flee to Switzerland.

(2) The back seat passengers escaped death by inches.
(3) I've met him before, but his name escaped me.

4、 escape vi. 根据语义找匹配:A. 逃脱 B. 避开 (1) A (2) B (3)C C. 记不起来

短语
escape from 从……逃脱;逃避 escape death 死里逃生 escape one?s notice 没注意 narrow escape 九死一生

句型
There is no escaping the fact that…不可否认的是……

4、 escape vi. 单项填空

(

)Mike often attempted to escape______whenever

he breaks traffic regulations. A. having been fined C. to be fined B. to have been fined D. being fined

4、 escape vi.

D

考查非谓语动词。escape后只接动名词。又

由于非谓语动词的动作并不发生在escape之前,所 以答案是D。

5、advise v. (1)I have advised_you_on that subject. 在那个问题上,我给过你建议。 (2)Christie advises_us_to practise oral English as often as possible. Christie建议我们要尽可能多地练口语。 (3)I advise_that you (should) not eat fruit that isn't ripe. 我建议你不要吃那些没有熟的水果。

5、advise v.

链接
adviser n. 顾问;咨询师 advice n. 建议;意见 advisable adj. 可取的;明智的 advisedly adj. 深思熟虑地

短语
a piece of advice 一条建议 go to sb. for advice = ask sb. for advice 向某人寻求建议;征询某人的意见

5、advise v.

短语
give advice to sb. on sth. 就……对某人提供建议 follow sb.'s advice = take sb.'s advice 接受某人的建议 advise sb. on sth. 就……给某人出主意 advise +n. /pron. 建议…… advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人干…… advise (one's) doing sth. 建议(某人)干…… advise + (that) sb. (should) do advise sb. of 把……报告(通知)某人

5、advise v. 单项填空 ( )(1) The teachers often ______ us making full

use of time to study English. A. persuade B. advise C. suggest D. recommend

C 考查动词搭配。由于动词后使用了sb. doing sth.。唯suggest有此句型搭配,所以答案是C。

5、advise v. 根据语境用可与advice搭配的正确的动词填空

(2)We'd better ask the students for some good advice on
teaching. Since they have given so much good advice, we must follow it.

6、lose heart 丧失勇气或信心

(1)He failed many times, but he didn't lose_heart. 他失败了许多次,但他并没有失去信心。 (2)No matter what you do, never lose_heart. 不管你做什么,千万不要失去信心。

6、lose heart 丧失勇气或信心

短语
lose one?s job 失业 lose one's balance 失去平衡
lose one's breath上气不接下气 lose one's heart (to sb./sth.) 爱上 lose one?s life 丧生; 遇害 lose face 丢脸; 受屈辱

6、lose heart 丧失勇气或信心

翻译句子

(1)不要失去信心,一切都会好起来的。
Don't lose heart, and all will turn out well. (2)她喜欢上了一位年轻士兵。 She lost her heart to a young soldier.

7、…we were put into a position in_which we had either to accept we were less important, or fight the government. (P34) 我们被置于这样一种境地,或者是被迫承认我 们低人一等,或者是与政府作斗争。 这是一个主从复合句,in which引导定语从 句 , 修 饰 先 行 词 position 。 类 似 的 名 词 还 有 situation, stage, case等。这一结构是“介词+关 系代词which/whom”, 在定语从句中充当时间、 地点、原因状语,相当于关系副词when, where 和why,如:

He is the boss of the restaurant where (= in which) we often have lunch. Today when (= on which) the product will be put into use will come soon.

The reason why(= for which) he was late for school
was unbelievable.

(1)关系代词前介词的选择 最快捷的方式是把先行词代入到从句中的状语 位置,加什么介词使从句正确,我们就用什么介

词。

单项填空
( )(1) Never shall I forget the day C we worked

together in the country.
( )(2) Never shall I forget the days D we worked

together in the country. A. that B. as C. on which D. in which

C; D

由于the day和the days都无法直接代入到

从句中充当主语或宾语,我们就把它放在状语的位
置,题(1)加介词on构成on the day,所以答案是C。 题(2)加介词in构成in the days,所以答案是D。

(2) 关系词的选择 完全取决于先行词。当先行词是人时,就用 whom; 当先行词是物时,就用which。

单项填空
( )(3) The person with A I talked is our new

teacher.
( )(4) By nine o'clock,all the Olympic torch

bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma,
above D appeared a rare rainbow soon.

A. whom

B. what

C. that

D. which

A;D

考查“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从

句。 题(1),由于先行词是人,所以答案是A;题
(2),由于先行词是the top,指物,所以答案是D。

(3)“不定代词+ of + whom/which”与“不定代词+ of +them”

它们的选择有两种情况:一是看后一部分
是不是句子,不是就用“不定代词+ of +them” 构成独立主格结构。二是后一部分构成句子,这 时我们就要看其前是否有连词,有,就用“不定 代词+ of +them”;没有且是逗号,就用“不定

代词+ of + whom/which ”。

单项填空
( )(5) There stand many towers on the top of the

hill, some of ______ built more than 1,000 years ago.
A. them B. what C. which D. that

A

考查定语从句与独立主格结构的辨析。由于

后一部分不能构成句子,所以使用独立主格结构,
答案是A。

(

)(6) (2010· 江 )The settlement is home to 浙

nearly 1,000 people, many of A left their village homes for a better life in the city. ( )(7) The settlement is home to nearly 1,000

people and many of C left their village homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B. which C. them D. those

A;C

考查定语从句与并列句的辨析。句意为:

这里居住着将近1000人,他们中的许多人都背井离 乡去城市追求更好的生活。题(6)由many之后的逗 号和选项特征可知,此处是主从句关系,排除C、

D项。由于先行词是“1,000 people”,表示人,故
用whom,所以答案是A。题(7)由于两句之间有and

连接,是并列句,所以答案是C。

(4) “the + n. + of which”或“of which +the + n.” 结构 一般说来,whose + n. 都可以转化为“the + n.

+ of which”或“of which +the + n.”结构。

(

)(8)(2008· 陕西)The man pulled out a gold watch, ______ were made of small diamonds. A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of

C. which the hands of

D. the hands of which

D

考查定语从句。watch是物,故定语从句的

引导词不可用whom,可排除A、B两项。由句意可
知,空格处可填入whose hands或the hands of which 或of which the hands表示所属关系。

(

)(9)(2010· 江苏)The newlybuilt café the walls ,

of______ are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, specially after hard work.

A. that

B. it

C. what

D. which

D

考查定语从句。由句意可知它所表示的是

“咖啡屋的墙”,构成whose walls,它可以转化为
the walls of which或of which the walls,所以答案是 D。

8、…only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. (P34) 只是在那时我们才决定以暴制暴。 only 放在句首且后接状语(副词 / 介词短语 / 状语从句)时,要使用部分倒装,即将主句助动 词、情态动词或系动词放在主语前。 Only yesterday did his father tell him the truth, which was a big surprise to him. 昨天他父亲才把 真相告诉他, 这对他真是个令人吃惊的消息。

Only by shouting was he able to make people on the
other side of the river hear him.

他只有靠大声喊才能使河对岸的人们听到他的
声音。

Only when we make more effort, can we catch up
with others.

只有我们加倍的努力,我们才能赶上别人。

单项填空 ( )(1) Only then______how much damage had been caused. A. she realized B. she had realized C. had she realized D. did she realize D “only + 状语”放在句首时,主句部分要 用部分倒装,再根据时间then判断主句应用一般过 去时,所以用did she realize。

(

)(2) ______ by keeping down cost will

PowerData hold its advantage over other companies. A. Only B. Just C. Still D. Yet

A

四个选项中,只用“only + 状语”放在句

首时,主句才用部分倒装。

9、Elias went to see Nelson Mandela when he was_in_trouble. (P35) 当伊莱亚斯遇到困难的时候,他就去找纳尔逊· 曼 德拉。 这里的be in trouble 意为“处于不幸(苦恼,困境)之 中”。 “be +prep.+ n.” 是一个常用句型,名词前不 能用冠词。介词的选择依据: (1) 表语用来说明主语的性质,常用介词of The book you have bought to me is of great use.

(2) 表语用来说明主语的用途,常用介词for The tallest building in our city is for the TV station. (3) 表语与主语形成被动关系,用介词under The expressway to Beijing is under construction. (4)也可用来表示状态或情形,这里的介词可以用 in, at或on等,此时的介词无规律可言,因此需要 强记。常见的搭配有: in in pain 痛苦地 in order整齐地 in anger愤怒地 in poverty在贫困中 in a hurry匆忙地 in work 有工作

at

at peace处于和平状态 at table吃饭 at ease轻松 on
on business出差 on strike罢工

at work上班 at desk办公

on holiday度假 on duty值日

短语
get into trouble 陷入困境 ask for trouble 自寻烦恼 make trouble 惹是生非;捣乱

短语
trouble about 为……费心
trouble sb. with sth. 因……使某人忧虑 have trouble with sth. 在某事上有困难

have trouble (in) doing sth. 在做某事上有困难
take trouble to do sth. 不辞劳苦地做;不厌其烦地做 put sb. to the trouble of(doing) sth. 为(做)某事而使某 人犯难

the trouble with… ? …… 怎 么 了;……有毛病?

句型What's

10、I felt bad the_first_time I talked to a group. (P38)

第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的心情很不好。
句中的the first time是连词引导时间状语从句,表示 “第一次……”

They fell into love the first time they came across each
other. 他们第一次邂逅就相爱了/他们一见钟情。

辨析
the first time/for the first time
the first time 是连接词,引导时间状语从句。 I was deeply touched the first time I read his story. for the first time 是介词短语充当状语。 I met him at the school gate for the first time.

巧记:
后接从句就用the first time; 后没有从句就用 for the

first time。

链接
(1)名词或名词短语作连词,引导时间状语从句的有: the moment; the minute; the instant表示:“一…… 就……”,相当于as soon as。相似用法的还有: every time每次/回……就…… each time每当……时 next time下次……时 any time(在)任何时间 (2)有时副词或副词短语也可充当连词,引导时间状 语从句,它们是:instantly, immediately, directly等, 都相当于as soon as。by the time引导时间状语从句, 表示“到了……时候就……”

单项填空

(

)(1)______ they visited our school, they showed

great interest in everything they saw. A. The first time C. At first B. For the first time D. At the first time

翻译句子 (2) 每次我去找他,他都在专心看书。 Each time I visit him, he is reading the book attentively.

(3) 我一见到她就把这本书给了她。
The moment I saw her, I gave the book to her. (4) 我一接到你的信就来看你了。 The instant I received your letter, I came to see you.

(

)1. (2010· 上海)Wind power is an ancient source of energy ______ we may return in the near future. A. on which C. to which B. by which D. from which

C

考查“介词+关系代词”的用法。原句可还原

为 : Wind power is an ancient source of energy which/that we may return to in the near future.

…we were put into a position in_which we had either to
accept we were less important, or fight the government. (P34)

(

)2. (2008· 江西)It was announced that only when the fire was under control______to return to their homes. A. the residents would be permitted B. had the residents been permitted

C. would the residents be permitted
D. the residents had been permitted

C

句意为:据宣布,只有在火势被控制住的

时候居民们才被允许回到家中。that从句中only引 导的时间状语从句位于句首,主句需用部分倒装结 构。根据语境其动作发生在将来,所以答案是C。

…only_then_did_we decide to answer violence with
violence. (P34)


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