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人教新课标选修七 Unit 4 Sharing语法复习-定语从句[课件]


定语从句

Which one is Harry Porter?

定语从句

The boy who wears glasses is __________________ Harry Porter .

Which one is Harry Porter?

that w

hich the story (that / which) you told just now He once worked as a volunteer. which volunteer, helped him a lot in finding the job. .

定语从句就是限定本身指代不明的名词 或代词且含有引导词的主谓结构。

Harry Porter is a boy who has magic power.

先行词

关系词

定语从句 关系副词

关系代词

which, who, whom where, when, why whose, that; as

限定性定语从句 定 语 从 句
The boy who / that is standing there is my brother.

先行词本身指代不明时,用来限定先行 词以明确其所指的从句,称限定性定语从句。

非限定性定语从句
Beijing, where the 28th Olympics were held, is the capital of China. 先行词本身是专有名词或其它指代已明确 的词语(通常表示独一无二的人/物),从句只 起附加说明的作用,前面加逗号,可省略。

二、用法 限定性定语从句 :
关系代词:

who
whom whose that which

先 行 词 是 人

These are the students who / that won the first place last year.

先行词是非人
These are the trees which / that were planted last year.

关 系which指人的特殊用法 表 解 代 词 用 法 当先行词指一种职业或表示性格、身份、地位、品德素质
或婴儿时或先行词是集合名词且引导词在从句中作主语而从 先行词 主语 宾语 表语 定语 句动词是单数时用which。 (who e. g. He is a writer, which is respectable. who / m/ that whose 人 Her sister has become a lawyer, which she wanted to be.(05 that that) 湖北) Pat is quite different from the man which I thought him to (whic 非人 which be. h/ that whose / that (物、事、时间、地点、原因) He is the man which he was. that) He talked like a scholar which he hardly was. that (that) 人 / pretended to be a professor whichthat whose Mr. Smith物 helped him much. / the same + such as as as whose n. He is a gentleman which his brother isn’t. She is a successful actress which gets her high fame. 先行词被the / this / that these / those same Yesterday her sister had a baby which was a girl. 修饰时若指的就是同一人或物,则用that: I take great pride in the Chinese people which has a long e. g. You’ve made the same mistakes that you made

关 系 副 词 用 法 表 解
where引导的从句的特殊用法 先行词 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语 舞蹈是一种视觉比听觉更重要的活动。 Dancing is is language where each word has a fixed position. when e. g. English anaactivity where sight matters more than hearing. 时 间 at / in / on 今天我们将讨论初学英语的人不能恰当使用英语的情况。 Is this the library where you borrowed the book? which Today, we’ll discuss cases where beginners of English fail where We have reached a point where a change is needed. to use点 language properly. at / in / on 地 the The accident happened at the point where the A15 joins the which 所有邻居都羡慕这家人,这家人家里的小孩和父母建立起了友 why M1. 因 where引导的定语从句除用于表地点的先 好的关系。 原 for which 行词外,还用于其它先行词activity, case, , sit We’re neighbours reach a point where where the children All the just trying toadmire this family, both sides will

注意:where的先行词可以是以物表地点的词语;先行 job, occasion, point, position, stage, state, and parents build up a friendly relationship. down together andsame修饰且在从句中作地点状语时用 词被the talk. situation甚至表示 “物”的先行词,但引导词 这是一种可以很好地使用你的技能的工作。 where。 You’ve put me in a position where I’ll achieve nothing.

e. g.代替先行词在从句中必须作地点状语。 His wallet is on the chair where he sat. That’s We will startovertheskills can be put left off. use. will a job is left your point where we to good Whatever where at may be put into the fridge, where it He went to the very same place where he found the keep for two or three weeks.

1. 指人的引导词的用法
Do you know the family who always quarrel among themselves? I've become good friends with several of the students in my school who I met in the English speech contest last year. (2010湖南)

① who 作定语从句的主语或宾语(非正式)

Who is the person (whom) you admire most. The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of whom left their village homes

for a better life in the city. (2010浙江)
She brought with her three friends, none of

whom I had ever met before. (2009宁夏、海南)

② whom 作定语从句的宾语,指人
whom在从句中可作动词宾语或介词宾语,指人。

The prize will go to the writer whose story shows the most imagination. (2011新课标) The school shop, whose customers are mainly students, is closed for the holidays. (2011四川) Children who are not active or whose diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. (2010北京) That’s the new machine whose parts are too small to be seen. (2010山东) The old temple whose roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. (2010陕西) In China, the number of cities is increasing whose development is recognized across the world. (2010重 庆)

③ whose 作从句定语, 表示物主,用于人或物

The man who / that is speaking at the meeting is a worker.
The woman (whom / that) they wanted to visit is a teacher.
④ that 可作从句的主语和宾语, 指人或物

可省略

2. 指物的引导词的用法
This is a truck which / that is made in China. 作主语 I like the book (which / that) you bought yesterday. 作宾语 We are about to meet the delegation which is to arrive at the air port on time. In our school, ours is a major class which consists of forty-five members. She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students which allows them to communicate freely with each other.(2011福建) Gun control is a subject about which Americans have argued for a long time. (2009陕西) which 同that一样, 作从句的主语或宾语但不用 于人 。 可省略

3. 只能用that的情况
Tom is the cleverest boy that I have ever known. This is the first play that I have seen since I came here.

① 序数词或形容词最高级修饰先行词时

My mother was so proud of all that I had done that she rewarded me with a trip to Beijing. (do) (2010湖 北)

② 先行词被every, some, no, all, any, little, much 等修饰时。

I refuse to accept the blame for something that was someone else’s fault. (2010全国Ⅱ)

③ everything, something, nothing, all, anything, little, much等指事物不定代词作先行词时

This is the very book that belongs to him. ④ 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。

Who is the girl that is standing under the tree? Which is the machine that we used last Sunday. ⑤ 句首已有who或which时

I’ve never heard of the people and things that you talked about just now. The speaker spoke of some writers and some books that were popular then.

⑥ 当先行词同时指人和物时
There are four desks in the middle of the office that are used for the teachers.

⑦ 主句是there be句型时
China isn’t the country that it used to be. He is not the man that he used to be.

⑧ 关系代词在从句中作表语时
This is the dictionary that was bought in the bookstore yesterday.

⑨ 先行词是“be”后的表语时

不用that的情况 ① 引导非限定性定语从句时 ② 紧接在介词后不能用
e. g. We depend on the land from which we get our food. ③ 先行词部分有that或those时

作定语的关系代词的辨析
引导词
在 从 句 中 用 法

which whose

代替指代前面已明确的特定的物 (含时间、 地点等) 对其进行说明, 并表示“这”而非物主。 代替特定的人或物 (指物或抽象概念时可以 同of which互换), 对先行词进行限定或补充说明, 表示物主。

“介词 + 关系代词” 引导的 定 语 从 句

4. “介词 +关系代词” (介词提前) 指人 用whom, “介词 + 关系代词” 中的介词的判定依据2: 指物用which
与从句中的形容词的搭配 “介词 + 关系代词”中的介词的判定依据3: e. g. Is this the car for which you paid a high price? Have you finished the book on which you’ve 与从句限定的先行词的搭配 been working? The two things about which Karl Marx was not “介词 + 关系代词”中的介词的判定依据1: sure were the grammar and some of the idioms. The only subject of which he is fond is maths. 与从句中的谓语动词的搭配 I’ll never forget the day on which I joined the army. I’ll never forget the year in which I went abroad. Where is the boy for whom you bought a camera?

“介词 + 关系代词”限定性定语从句
Wind power is an ancient source of energy to which we may return in the near future. (2010山东) The newly built café the walls of which are , painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, specially after hard work. (2010江苏) Julia was good at German, French and Russian, all of which she spoke fluently. (2011湖南) She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction of which had taken more than three years. (2011江西) “介词 + 关系代词” 能引导限定性和非限定性从句。

先行词表示地点,若引导词代词指地点的某个名 The window from 词 用 法 表 解 引 to bed at 10,prisoners can escape were 导 which before when I was I went 词或名词短语在从句中作状语表示 “从……那里”时, blocked. 指 代 充当的成分 reading for an hour. 引导词用from which;而当引导词代替前面的的表示地 Soon his head appeared since when things have 引导词 That was in 1929,out of one of the second表 定语 人 非人 句子 主语 宾语 nothing but状语 点的介词短语或副词且表示“从那里”时,则用from storey windows from where he could see 语 been better. who where。 当先行词是指时间的介词短语而引导词 trees. 在限定性从句中用于被such, the same whom stood in front of the window, from where she Alice 在从句中作介词宾语时用when代替前面的先 could行词。her classmates playing basketball. watch which 等修饰的先行词后。 Look that over there! Some people are standing under the big tree, from where you can enjoy the whole view.

whose

as
when where why

The days are gone when physical strength was all you needed to make a living. (2011天津) Because of the financial crisis, days are gone when local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. (09江苏) A bank is the place where they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain. Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet where life has developed gradually. (2010福建) The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister where she would stay for an hour. (2010江西) It’s helpful to put children in a situation where they can see themselves differently. (09福建) Life is like a long race where we compete with others to go beyond ourselves. (09重庆) —What do you think of teacher ,Bob? —I find it fun and challenging. It is a job where you are doing something serious but interesting. (09北京)

非限定性定语从句
As a child, Jack studied in a village school, which is named after his grandfather. (2010全国) Whenever I met her, which was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. (2009山东) They’ve won their last three matches, which I find a bit surprising. (09辽宁) My friend showed me round the town, which was very kind of him. (09全国Ⅱ) Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, which, of course, made all the others upset. (2011北京) After graduating from college,I took some time off to go travelling,which turned out to be a wise decision. (2010四川) Her sister has become a lawyer, which she wanted to be.(05湖北) which是引导非限定性从句的一个最常见也最常考的词, 表语 先行词 是关系代词,在从句中作主语、宾语甚至表语,代替先行词、 主句或主句的一部分。 主句 主句的一部分

非限定性定语从句
Do you know Tom, whom we talked about? The old man has a son, who is in the army. Finally we visited to the Giant Yangtze Gorges Dam, which is the greatest key water control project in the world at present. After graduation, I decided to stay in Chongqing, where I spent my childhood and four years of college life. Albert Einstein left Germany for the United States during World War II, when Jews were badly treated in Germany. He didn't win the championship, which I hadn't expected. As we have stressed many times, “serve the people” is our first policy. (stress) (2010湖北) As is reported in the newspaper, some artistic treasures (艺术珍品) will be on show at the exhibition on the weekend.

非限定性定语从句
特 点:

1 引导词不用that和why(用for which代替)
2 引导词不能省略 3 修饰的可以是词语或主句或主句的一部分,对所修 饰的部分进行补充说明 4 先行词是表示独一无二的词(人、物、时间、地点、

组织、机构等等)
5 which引导的非限定性从句不能放在句首

6 代替指人的先行词在从句中作宾语时只能用whom

指人的关系代词引导的非限定性的形容词从句

引导词













who

代替指代已明确的特定的人或对先行词进行补充 说明,作主语、宾语 (不能省略)。

whom

代替指代已明确的特定的人或对先行词进行补充
说明,作 (动词或介词)宾语 (不能省略)。 代替指代已明确的特定的人或物(指物或抽象概念

whose 时可以同of which互换)的先行词对先行词进行补
充说明,作定语表示物主。

指物的关系代词引导的非限定性的形容词从句

引导词













对前面的句子中的部分或整体进行说明, 作主语、 (常考点) 宾语和定语(用来指前面提及的事/物并表示“这” 时在从句中作定语),不能置于句首。
可能位于句首、句中或句末, 一般用逗号与 主句隔开, 代替整个主句或主句的一部分并对其 进行补充说明,主要用作主语或宾语,相当于 and this或and that,有“正如……, 象……” 的意 思。

which

代替指代已明确的特定的物 (特殊情况下可 以指人的职业、性格、身份、地位、品德等) 或

as

关系副词引导的非限定性的形容词从句

引导词 when













代替指代已明确的特定的表时间的先行词或 作状语指时间 ,可换成 对先行词进行补充说明 ,

介词+关系代词。

where
(常考点 )

代替指代已明确的特定的表地点的先行词或 作状语指地点 ,可换成 对先行词进行补充说明, 介词+关系代词。
代替指代已明确的特定的表原因的先行词或 作状语指原因 对先行词进行补充说明 , ,可换成 介词for+关系代词。

why

根据引导词在从句的作用判定引导词
1作啥成分? ________ who / that operated on the baby just now.
(who(m) / that) 作啥成分?

2 __________ you met on your way to the
作啥成分? hospital this morning. who(m) This is the doctor 3 from _______ she got the information of

whose her mother’s death. 作啥成分?
4 __________ wife teaches at our school. 作啥成分? whose

5 without ________ help we couldn’t have
saved the baby.

根据引导词在从句的作用判定引导词
1 _____________ saw the founding of the People’s 作啥成分? which Republic of China in 1949. where 作啥成分? 2 _______________ the 29th Olympic Games were Beijing, successfully held last year. which 3 ___________ the Greens intend to visit during the 作啥成分? coming vacation. 作啥成分? 4 in ______________ the famous poet was born and which brought up. 作啥成分? 5 ___________ environment has been improved the whose past few years. is located in the north of China.


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