Unit 7 The Sea
Ⅰ. 单元教学目标 技能目标 Skill Goals ▲Read a brochure, an article, a short story and a report ▲Listen to a conversation, a debate and a song ▲Talk about the sea, sea pollution, sea
animals and take part in a conversation and a debate ▲Write notes and a report ▲ Learn how to use comparative structures and relative clauses II．目标语言 a. Sentences and expressions used to show interest 1. It sounds like… 功 2. Really…? 3. That’s a good idea. 能 4. I suppose it must be… 5. Mm, were there… 句 6. Did you really…? 7. I would like to see… 式 b. Expressions used to solve problems 1. If I were on a boat going towards a big whirlpool, I would tie myself to something light. 2. If I was on boat and the boat was leaking, I would quickly put on a life-jacket and call for help. 3. When I saw our house was on fire and smoke was everywhere, I quickly wetted a towel and put it around my nose. 4. If I were lost in a desert, I would use my own shadow to tell directions. 5. If I were the president of our country, I would call on people to save the sea.
1. 掌握词汇 词 ski, water skiing, windsurfing, frightening, underwater, spirit, explorer, sailor, voyage, ancestor, AD, further, persuade, unknown, eventually, present-day, deed, journey, lecture, brake, apologise, pollute, the Antarctic, pollution, over-fishing, industrial, agricultural, chemical, ban, altogether, handle, department, solution, port, present, intelligent, intelligence, energetic, coral, discovery, educate,
up-to-date, attraction, attract, shark, discount, trick, melt, measure, 汇 length, schoolboy, centimeter, whirlpool, horrible, float, terrify, escape, terror, soul, survive, recover, scream, sink, unable, recognise, Oceania, opposite, net, leak, stadium, debate, local, shopkeeper, bay, wildlife, disagree 2. 认读词汇 iceberg, Viking, seal, penguin, crab, barrel 3. 词 组
set sail, according to, get into trouble, make it to, in search of, make a living, watch out, all at once, pick up Relative clause 1. By around 900 AD, there were many places in Northern Europe where the Vikings chose to live. 语 2. Eric reached Greenland and discovered that people could live in the place where he landed. 3. The Chinese people will never forget the day when China’s first manned spaceship returned safely to the earth after 21 hours in space. 法 4. I still remember the day when I attended my first lecture in college. 5. There’s no reason why we shouldn’t be friends. 6. Could you help me to find out the reason why the brake doesn’t work? 7. Eric set sail once again, this time with 25 ships, of which only 14 make it to Greenland.
8. Eric the Red was forced to leave because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble. 9. Biarni was the man with whom Leif discussed his plans. Comparison of adjectives 1. They can eat fish as big as themselves. 2. Look carefully for the tiniest fish in the world. 3. It is not as big as a fly in your house. 4. Some fish can produce sounds almost twice as loud as your speaking voice. 5. You certainly won’t find a noisier fish. 6. Special discount before the 22nd so the sooner the better. III. 教材分析与教材重组 1． 教材分析 本单元的话题是“The Sea”, 单元总共分为 8 个小模块，模块的序列为：导 入单元话题→阅读（语法）→听力（技能）→阅读（语法）→阅读（技能）→表 达（写作和口头表达）→文化交流→研究性学习。整个单元的结构和序列遵循了 语言知识输入→知识积累→语言输出的编排程序， 单元的整体性和结构性结合得 很好。模块之间的衔接设计也很有特色，The Spirit of Explorers 和 The Sea World 侧重培养学生的语言知识，Protecting the Sea 和 Sea Stories 两个模块分别以听力 和阅读为载体，侧重培养学生的技能。8 个模块之间知识和技能设计都有预设性 特征，前部分知识和技能是后部分知识技能的铺垫，知识和技能之间相互联系， 又互为促进。例如在阅读文章的选材上，The Spirit of Explorers 和 Sea Stories 两 个模块都是记叙文体，文章的结构、衔接策略都有相似之处，因此学生在前一个 模块中习得的技能和策略可以在后一个模块的学习中得到迁移和发展。 本单元的 语言知识设计也很有特点，本单元的重点语法知识是定语从句和形容词的比较， 设计中都把这两个重要语法现象寓于阅读中，这样凸现了语言知识的运用性，强 化了学习语言知识的目的， 能够调动学生的学习积极性。单元的词汇知识设计中 强化了词汇策略的形成和自然习得。在每个模块的活动设计中，词汇都是以单元 话题为载体承载了话题词汇。例如在 Protecting the Sea 模块中，词汇都是以污染
和问题解决为主题的词汇群，通过活动设计强化词汇策略的运用。例如在 Sea Stories 模块中的 Vocabulary 设计了 Word building 这个小板块, Activity 7 要求学生 归类表述情感的词汇；Activity 8 和 Activity 9 要求学生运用词根和词源知识记忆 和运用词汇。总体来说，单元的技能训练中含有语言知识的学习，语言知识的学 习又是寓于语言技能中，知识、技能、策略浑然一体，体现了培养学生综合运用 语言能力的设计思想。 1. 1 Warm-up 的主题内容是海上运动。 通过聆听大海的声音把学生活动引向整 个单元话题。 海上运动是学生关注的话题，以此导入能够极大调动学生学 习本单元的兴趣。 1. 2 The Spirit of Explorers 模块的特征是以阅读为载体，既促进学生的阅读策 略发展，同时又要求学生掌握定语从句中关系副词和“介词＋关系代词” 的用法。阅读材料的内容是“Viking Voyages to America”，这段历史记录 的基本结构分为“Introduction, Contents, Meaning”，活动设计共有 5 个。 Activity 1 和 Activity 2 是 Pre-reading activities, 主要目的是激活学生的背 景知识， 使学生熟悉课文内容。Activity 3 的 Chart 设计能够让学生迅速把 握文章的核心，了解 the Vikings 的三次探险经历。Activity 4 的问题设计 能促进学生对课文的熟悉程度。Activity 5 和 Activity 6 属于 Post-reading， Voice your opinion 属于读后讨论，问题设计合理，讨论价值很高。 Vocabulary 旨在培养学生的猜词意识和运用英语解释词汇的能力。本模块 的第二部分设计是 Relative Clause。总体设计思想是寓定语从句关系副词 和“介词＋关系代词”的用法于活动。组织方式以归纳方式为主，首先使 学生熟悉课文中出现的定语从句现象，让学生形成感性认识，然后通过选 词填空和句型转化加以练习，句型写作既是学生的成果展示，又是一种测 试形式。Language in use 中 Activity12 同 Activity 10 和 Activity 11 之间的 过渡略显突兀。 1. 3 Protecting the sea 模块的目标是以听力为承载，学生通过识辨信息理解语 料的情景功能。Writing and Speaking 是具体的情景设计，也是促进学生运 用 “Showing interest” 这一功能的支架，Project 的设计把话题导向研究性 学习。设计的结构很有创造性，但是活动设计坡度太大，操作环节还不太
适合普通高中学生语言发展能力序列。 本模块的 Activities 设计程序分为： Pre-listening， While-listening, Post-listening, Practice 和 Production。 Activity 1 和 Activity 2 属于 Pre-listening。Activity１旨在激活学生的背景知识，让 学生了解 The Sea 在人们生活中的重要地位。 Activity 2 的目的是促进学生 理解 Sea Pollution 这个社会问题，并用相关词汇激活学生对此话题的相 关知识。Activity 3 是对听力材料的整体理解。Listening Strategies 指导学 生认知并运用听力策略加工细节信息。 Activity 4 运用 Chart 为学生预测和 带着目的获取信息提供支架，促进学生对听力材料内容和结构的理解。 Activity 5 强化学生理解并运用“Showing interest”这一功能。Activity 6 是 衔接听力向写作的转化。 Activity 7 是写作策略的提纲练习，培养学生 “make notes”的能力。Activity 8 把“showing interest”运用到对话中，强化 其语境运用能力。 1. 4 The Sea World 模块以阅读为载体，侧重学生语言知识的发展和运用能力 培养。阅读内容以“Underwater World”为主题，培养学生阅读应用文体文 章的能力，在阅读技能方面侧重培养学生 Scanning 的阅读技能。本模块 的第二部分内容是在指导学生理解 brochure 的基础上， 对其语言知识现象 形容词的比较的学习和运用。本部分内容遵循了归纳的设计思路，引导学 生对此语法现象认知、练习，并加以熟练运用。本模块的活动设计同 The Spirit of Explorers 的模块设计有相似之处。 Activity 1 旨在把词汇识记同图 形结合， 促进学生的识词和记忆能力，激发学生对海底世界生物的认识和 了解。 Activity 2 的活动设计要求学生通过 Scanning 快速跳读并定位信息。 Activity 3 的活动需要学生对信息加工推断，把对内容的理解引向评价， 为学生的口头表达做必要的铺垫。Activity 4 是读后活动设计，旨在培养 学生的读后表达能力。Activity 3 和 Activity 4 之间过渡平缓合理，互为补 充。Activity 5 通过 match 练习，促进学生认知 comparison 的功能及其语 境含义。Activity 6 的设计促进学生对一些特殊的比较用法的意义理解。 Activity 7 是针对 comparison 形式的训练。Activity 8 是在前 3 个活动的基 础上，学生通过对 comparison 意义、功能和形式的认知，通过句子写作 形式练习 comparison。Activity 9 的综合性很强，旨在促进学生理解和掌
握各种形式的 comparison。Activity 10 引入了互动性游戏，趣味性很强。 1. 5 Sea Stories 模块是以技能训练为主要目的设计。第一部分内容以一次航海 经历为主题，文章以经历前、经历中、经历后为结构，旨在阅读过程中培 养学生识别结构及其衔接策略的能力。 Vocabulary 和 Speaking 设计非常新 颖。Vocabulary 旨在培养学生的词汇归纳意识，强化学生运用词根和同源 词等策略建构词汇网状知识结构，把词汇学习置于 Post-reading 中加以强 化的设计使得词汇同阅读技能的发展互为补充，相互促进。 Speaking 是 阅读主题的拓展， 培养学生解决问题的能力。本模块的活动设计侧重策略 训练和技能培养。Activity 1 和 Activity 2 是 Pre-reading 活动。Activity 1 以电影为主题，导出本模块的话题。Activity 2 通过图片让学生对文章内 容形成初步预测。Reading strategies 可以帮助学生把握文章线索，促进学 生形成篇章结构意识，在此基础上通过 Activity 3 的活动设计发展学生的 篇章结构的识别和判断能力。Activity 4 的设计能够帮助学生熟悉文章内 容，是建立在结构基础上的再加工。Activity 5 是读后阅读互动，旨在促 进学生批判性阅读能力的发展。Activity 6 是记叙类文章衔接策略的归纳， 熟练运用 Time order 可以促进学生阅读向写作能力转化。Activities 7、8、 9 旨在培养学生运用词汇网策略，培养学生以语群和句群方式理解文章， 同时通过阅读扩充学生的词汇网状结构。 Activity 10 把话题引向问题解 决，这一设计有很强的导向性和应用性。 1. 6 Communication Workshop 模块是本单元的 production， 旨在知识输入和技能 发展的基础上，发展学生的输出性技能。本单元共由 Writing、Speaking 和 Listening 3 个小板块组成。Writing 是写一个 Report, Speaking 是 Public debate, 两个小板块的内容都是“give comments”, 表达组织都涉及到运用 事实支持观点。Listening 把单元内容的学习引向欣赏，这不仅切合主题， 而且有利于激发学生的学习兴趣。Activity 1 的主要目的是让学生根据已 学习内容做出评价， 激活学生了解相关话题的语言知识和基本的句子组织 方式。Activity 2 的目的是让学生识别 Report 的结构。通过 Activity 1 和 Activity 2 两个基本步骤为写作做好准备。写作过程设计共分为四个步骤： 确定主题→准备语料→确定结构并打草稿→实际写作→检查校正。
Talkback 旨在促进交流成果。Speaking 中的 Activity 1 旨在让学生获取必 要信息，了解 Dolwyn Bay 的基本情况。Activity 2 的目的是检索信息，旨 在让学生归类并列举必要信息让学生形成价值判断。Debate 共分为 3 个 Stages，步骤依次为：确定角色→语言准备→辩论。Talkback 的目的是交 流口头表达成果。Listening 旨在让学生欣赏音乐的同时，听歌辨词，听词 达意， 进而明确歌词所表达的情感。Listening 的活动设计趣味性和互动性 很强。 1. 7 Cultural Corner 的设计旨在拓展学生的文化意识。模块内容以郑和下西洋 为题裁， 以中国在明王朝时代所拥有的海上文明为背景，记叙了郑和七下 西洋的经历及其对世界文化交流所做出的贡献。活动设计的形式是阅读， 旨在促进学生在阅读中了解文化，形成跨文化理解。Activity 1 通过英英 释义方式促进学生的词汇理解能力。Activity 2 旨在通过问答形式帮助学 生明确文章的细节内容，熟悉文章。 1. 8 Bulletin Board 的模块设计是以 “Sea Animals”为主题的学生研究性学习项 目。Project 的设计简单易行，学生只需根据自己的兴趣查阅相关资料，对 资料进行适当加工而做出相应回应的互动式设计。 2． 教材的整合与重组 本单元的教学内容结构安排紧凑合理，教学序列科学，首先通过输入性技能 训练强化学生的听读能力，然后通过 Communication Workshop 促进学生的输出 性技能——说写能力。 但是各个模块的内容安排比例需要适当调整以适应课堂教 学的课时要求，通过宏观考虑，课时安排如下。 2．1 Warm-up 旨在激发学生对整个单元话题的兴趣，以 Sea Sports 的娱乐活动 导入，进而把学生带入海洋世界，关注海洋。The Spirit of Explorers 是本 单元的“明星”模块, Viking Voyages to America 是本模块的主打课文，承 载本单元的重点语法现象——定语从句。教学中需要给予特别的关注，需 要调动学生的注意力和兴趣，方能有效实施教学计划。因此，可以通过 Warm－up 激发学生的注意力，导入课文学习，设计一节阅读课。 2．2 Relative Clauses 是本单元的重要语法现象， 关系副词和 “介词＋关系代词” 的运用和熟练需要过程， 并且是定语从句中的难点，因此本部分的内容需
要专题讲练才能使得学生熟练运用这两个用法。 根据这部分内容可设计一 节专门的语法课。 2．3 Protecting the Sea 是以听力技能训练为主，本模块的活动基本围绕听力活 动展开，因此，可以根据本模块的活动设计一节听力课。 2．4 The Sea World 模块的第一部分内容是阅读一个 Brochure，重点培养学生 的重要泛读技能——Scanning 和 Skimming，所以可根据本部分内容设计 一节泛读技能训练课。 2．5 The Sea World 模块的第二部分内容是形容词的比较级，形容词和其比较 级的用法贯穿高中学习的始终， 尤其在阅读中学生对形容词比较级的理解 程度决定其对文章理解的流畅性。因此，可以根据本部分内容设计一节语 法课。 2. 6 Sea Stories 模块的主要目的是培养学生的阅读策略，活动设计基本以策略 培养和形成为主，因此可以根据本部分内容设计一节阅读策略训练课。 2. 7 Communication 的第一部分内容是以培养学生的写作能力为主，重点是强 化学生的笔头表达能力。因此，可以根据第一部分内容设计一节写作课。 2. 8 Communication 的第二部分内容是以 Debate 为主题， 活动设计以口头表达 为主，可根据本部分内容设计一节口语课。 2. 9 Culture Corner 是以文化交流为主题，培养学生的跨文化意识，因此可根 据本部分内容设计一节文化交流课。 2. 10 Bulletin Board 是以简单易行的 Project 为主题的设计， 也是本教材的特色， 旨在培养学生的探究能力，因此可根据本部分内容设计一节探究性学习 课。 3．课型设计与课时分配（经教材分析，根据学情，本单元可以用 10 课时教完） 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th period period period period period period period Reading (I) Grammar (I) Listening Extensive reading Grammar (II) Reading (II) Writing
Speaking Culture Communication Project Learning The First Period Reading (I)
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 语言目标 a. 重点词汇和短语 spirit explorer voyage originate set sail unknown deed murder direction in search of
persuade northeastern b. 重点句子
The Vikings were a group of people whose ancestors came from Scandinavia. According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble. He persuaded some people to go back with him to Greenland. Biarni was hoping to join his father who was with Eric, but he was blown off course and found himself in an unknown land, from where he eventually reached Greenland. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable students to generalize the structure of a historical event. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help students learn how to generalize the structure of a historical event. 4. The moral goals 道德目标
Strengthen the students’ awareness of protecting the environment. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students follow the procedure to get to know the content, structure and purpose of the text. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Teach students how to generalize the main idea and its structure. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning.
Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式
Step I Warm-up Activity one: match the sounds T: In this lesson we will start a new topic —the Sea. First, please listen to the tape and distinguish what sounds they are. Then match the four sea sounds with the pictures on page 7. Let the Ss listen and tell what these sounds are about. Then match the sounds with the four pictures of A. B. C. D. Activity two: State preferences to the water sports T: Look at the water sports in the box and then ask your desk-mate the following questions. After that, please state your own preference of these water sports to your desk-mate. Questions: 1. Do you like these sports? 2. Which sport do you prefer? 3. Where would you like to go to do your favorite sport? Let the Ss do pair question-answer practice and then state their own preferences. Possible statement: S: I know some of these sea sports. Among these sports I prefer surfing. I like to do the sport in Hainan Province because the waves there are challenging. Activity three: Listen and find the topic T: Listen to the tape and find what activities they are talking about. Match the speakers with the sea sports above. Let the Ss listen to the tape and understand the major topic of the four speakers. Distinguish and match the sports they are talking about. Activity four: Note making T: Listen to the tape again and try to make notes by referring to the words in the box. You can follow the example on page 7. Let the Ss listen and make notes to describe the comments of the speakers about these
sea sports. Step II Pre-reading Activity one: Introduction T: We have known a lot about sea sports. But in the early days in 900 AD, the sea was not as exciting as it seems today. At that time, the sea was frightening and full of challenge. For sailors the sea seems mysterious, but full of possibilities. Thus curiosity sometimes may win over fear. Some sailors risked their lives to explore the unknown lands. Vikings were people who were curious and wanted to explore the sea. Now let’s read the text to see how Vikings overcame their fear to find America. Turn to page 8 and look at the topic of the lecture. Activity two: Predict the content of the text T: Look at the title and the world map on page 8 and predict the content of the text by using the following questions as a clue. Let the Ss look at the title and answer the questions to get a general understanding of the text. Questions: 1. Which of the following people do you think arrived in America first? A. Christopher Columbus B. Ancient Greeks Note: The answer is open. 2. What was the early sailors’ purpose of exploration? A. To satisfy curiosity B. To seek wealth Note: The answer is open. 3. Vikings were people living in northern Europe, which ocean did they cross to reach America? A. The Indian Ocean C. The Arctic Ocean Key: B and C Activity three: Predict the structure of the text T: Look at the title, we may find that the text is to record the historical events. According to your own experience, what may be included in the text?
C. Chinese sailors
C. To seek excitement
B. The Atlantic Ocean D. The Pacific Ocean
Let the Ss call up their experience of this kind of reading materials and think about the structure of these texts. Sa: The text may be organized like a story, that is, it should include background, development of the story and the result. Sb: The text may include the background of the Vikings’ voyages and their experiences on sea. Sc: The text may include the meaning of the voyages in the last part. T: Your answers are possible and you all did good jobs in guessing the structure of the text. Next I will give you the structures and you should judge which structure may be the possible structure of the text. Let the Ss to choose the structure and give reasons. Structure A: Structure Opening paragraph Developing paragraph Conclusion paragraph Structure B: Structure Opening paragraph Developing paragraph Conclusion paragraph Content Characters and background Experiences Ending Content Introduction Record of major events Meaning of the voyages
Sa: I think structure A is possible, because the text is about historical records and it may follow a structure of this kind of reading material. Sb: I agree with Sa and I think structure B is a structure of a personal story. Activity four: Predict the purpose of the author T: Guess what the writer ’s purpose of writing is by using the multiple choices. Help the Ss guess the possible purpose of the text. Question: What is the purpose of the text? A. To inform people of an interesting discovery.
B. To tell people some interesting experiences. C. To tell people some early historical records. Key: C Activity five: Background information input T: In this passage you will come across some places you are not familiar with. These places may hinder your understanding of the text. Now please turn to page 100 and find the Chinese names of these places. Let the Ss check the Chinese names of these places each other. Step III While-reading Activity one: Get familiar with the content T: Read the passage for the first time. Then complete the chart on page 8 (activity 3) about the Viking’s three major discoveries. Let the Ss read the passage and check important information about the three major events of Vikings’ voyages. Then let them complete the chart. Check students’ answers about the Viking’s three voyages. Let the Ss get familiar with the content of the text through the practice. T: Read the passage again and answer the following questions. The Ss read the text carefully and check detail information about the text. Questions: 1. Why did Eric the Red leave Iceland? 2. Who was Biarni looking for when he was blown to an unknown land? 3. Who planned the journey to Newfoundland? 4. Where did we know about Eric the Red and Leif ’s deeds? 5. Why is it very important to know the record of Viking’s voyages to America? 6. Compared with Columbus, who was earlier to reach America? Possible answers: 1. Because he had committed a murder. 2. Biarni set sail from Iceland in search of his father, who was in Eric’s party. 3. Eric the Red’s son Leif planned the trip and discussed it with Biarni. 4. We know about Eric the Red and his son’s stories through stories which were
written down centuries later in Norway and Iceland. 5. Because they are the first records we have of Europeans’ sailing to America. 6. Viking’s voyages were earlier than Columbus’s. Activity two: Generalize the main idea of each paragraph T: Go through the text quickly and match the main idea of each paragraph. The Ss read the text and match the main idea. Sample chart: Paragraph Para 1 Main idea Introduction Discovery of Greenland The first voyage to Iceland The meaning of the voyages Leif ’s voyage to Newfoundland Biarni’s journey to an unknown land Key: Paragraph Para 1 Para 3 Para 2 Para 6 Para 5 Para 4 Main idea Introduction Discovery of Greenland The first voyage to Iceland The meaning of the voyages Leif ’s voyage to Newfoundland Biarni’s journey to an unknown land
Activity three: Discover the structure of the text T: Since you have known the main idea of each paragraph. It ’s possible to find the structure of the text to prove if your prediction in pre-reading is true. Please fill in the chart below to find the structure of the text. The Ss check the text and fill in the chart following the examples. Sample chart: Structure Paragraphs
Opening paragraph Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Key: Structure Opening paragraph Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Para 6 Step IV Post-reading Activity one: Discussion T: Since the text is a history record. Its meaning is important and has great influence in the history. Discuss with your partner the following question and voice your opinion.(activity 5) Let the Ss discuss and state one’s own understanding of the text. Sa: It’s important to know who was the first to reach America. History has to record the truth, and the first is always the most important event because it is about the nation’s pride to produce such important heroes and they add pride to our nation. Norway people find it matters if Vikings first reached America and it is true of Chinese to say Zheng He first explored the Indian Ocean. Sb: It really matters because the first is always the most courageous. They had to face the unknown of their adventure and some people died of the risk. Therefore, it is important to remember those who first tried an exploration. This is the spirit of explorers. Activity two: Paraphrasing T: Find the words in the text that match the meaning of the words. The Ss read and pick out the words with the similar meaning in the text. Words: 1. Finally (para 4) 2. Looking for (para 5)
Para 2-Para 5
Paragraphs Para 1 Para 2-Para 5
Content Introduction 3 voyages
3. Succeed (para 4)
4. Sea journey (in the title) 5. Never heard of (para 5) 7. Start a sea journey (para 2) Step V Homework 8. Based on (para 3)
6. Now (para 5)
Task one: Find another reading material of historical event record to see if it follows the structure we learnt in our text. Task two: Group the words on page 106 following the example and try to memorize them. Sample chart: Sea exploration spirit, explorers, voyages, sailors, journey Task three: Preview the grammar on page 9. The Second Period Grammar (I) Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 语言目标 a. 重点词汇和短语 eventually, looking for, made it, voyage, unknown, present-day, set sail, according to, have sb agree to do sth, say sorry to b: Structural content of connective words to introduce relative clauses Connectives when Meaning showing time Function Attribute a word showing time and join two sentences where showing places Attribute a word showing
places and join two sentences why showing reasons Attribute a word showing
reasons and join two sentences “preposition which/whom” + showing places, time ect Attribute according to the context a word showing
reasons and join two sentences
2. Ability goals 能力目标 Help students master both the meaning and the function of connective words: when,
where, why, preposition + which/whom. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help students learn to use these connective words in the context. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students practice the usage. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Enable students to compare the two groups of connectives and know the difference between their usages. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Check homework Activity one: Paraphrase the words T: At the beginning of this class I will check your memory to see if you can paraphrase the words. Let the Ss paraphrase the words. Words: 1. eventually 2. looking for 3. made it 4. voyage 5. unknown 6. present-day 7. set sail 8. according to 9. have sb agree to do sth 10. say sorry to
Key: 1. finally 2. in search of
3. succeed 4. sea journey 5. never heard of 6.
now 7. start a sea journey 8. based on 9. persuade sb to do sth 10. apologize Activity two: Group the words T: You are required to group the words according to certain rules. Now please present your work. Let the Sa present his homework. Student’s work: Sea sports surfing, windsurfing, water skiing, swimming, boating, fishing, sea diving, sailing
Activity three: Structure summary T: I think you have read a historical event and summarize its structure, now I will call someone to present your structure. Sa: I read a story of Columbus’s voyage to America, and it has the same genre with the one we learnt yesterday. Student’s work: Paragraph function Opening paragraph Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Para 7 StepⅡ Revision Activity one: Translation T: In Unit 6 we have learnt Relative Clause and the usage of the relevant words: that, which, who, whom and whose. Now please translate these words into English using these words as connectives. Let the Ss read and translate the the following sentences into English. Exercise: 1. 北欧海盗是一群居住在斯堪德纳维亚半岛的后裔。 2. 在埃里克·雷德登上格林兰岛后不久，一个叫比阿尼的人就从冰岛起航寻找 埃里克·雷德一行人。 3. Leif 南航到一个现被称为纽芬兰的岛上。 4. 我们是从几个世纪的记录中知道埃里克·雷德和赖伊夫的故事。 5. 它们是我们知道欧洲人到达美洲的第一个记录。 Key: 1. The Vikings were a group of people whose ancestors came from Scandinavia. 2. Not long after Eric the Red had landed in Greenland, a man who was called Biarni set sail from Iceland in search of Eric’s party. 3. Leif sailed further south to a island which is known as Newfounland. Meaning Paragraphs Para 1 Para 2-Para 6 Content Introduction 2 voyages
4. We know about Eric the Red and Leif ’s deeds through stories which were written down centuries later in Norway and Iceland. 5. They are the first records that we have of Europeans sailing to America. Step III Presentation
Activity one: Distinguish and make judgment T: Read the two sentences from the text and work out if the italic words “where” introduces a relative clause and what it refers to.(activity 7) Let the Ss read the two sentences and know that “where” introduces relative clauses and they separately refer to “Europe” in the first sentence and “the place” in the second sentence. T: Read the four sentences of activity 8 on page 9 and decide which words in italic refer to time or reason. The Se read the four sentences and make decisions. Activity two: Understand the form of “preposition + which/whom” T: Read the four sentences from the text and decide what these words “preposition + which/whom” refer to and refer to the learning resources on page 92. Then understand the function of the forms. Ss: These forms are used as connectives to join the two simple sentences together. They are also connectives. Activity three: Summary T: “When, where, why” are important connectives to introduce relative clause. It is the same with “preposition + which/whom”. Therefore, it is important to understand their function and meaning. The following chart will help you understand their function and meaning. Let the Ss look at the chart and get a structural understanding of the usage of these connectives. Structural content of these words: Connectives when Meaning showing time Function Attribute a word showing time
and join two sentences where showing places Attribute a word showing
places and join two sentences why showing reasons Attribute a word showing
reasons and join two sentences “preposition which/whom” Step IV Practice Activity one: Choose the words to complete the sentences T: Finish the exercise on page 9 (activity 10). Help the Ss to work out the answers. Activity two: Join the two sentences T: Please join the sentences using relative pronouns. Help the Ss to finish the task. Step V Comparison Activity one: Presentation T: We have learnt the usage of “which, who, whom, that and whose” in the previous lessons, what are the difference between this group of words and those we learnt today. Look at the following chart and you may have a clear idea of their differences. Let the Ss to compare the two groups of connectives and form a clear understanding of the usage of these words. Structural content of these words: Connectives that Meaning Function + showing places, time, ect Attribute according to the context a word showing
reasons and join two sentences
refer to a person or a Attribute a person or a thing and join two thing sentences Attribute a person and join two sentences Attribute a thing and join two sentences Attribute a word and join two sentences
who/whom which whose
refer to a person refer to a thing refer to sb’s or sth’s
Activity two: Production T: Work in groups and write a famous event or a famous person in the history. Try to use relative clauses following the example on page 9.(activity 12) Let the Ss work out some sentences in pairs. Possible answers: 1. Lincoln, who was murdered when he was making a speech, is one of the most famous presidents in American history. 2. Zheng He, who set sail from China to Africa, is regarded as one of the most important explorers in the world. 3. The Earth Summit, which was first held in 1972, was one of the most important summits in the world. Step Ⅵ Homework
Task one: Compare the two charts we have learnt Task two: Finish exercise 4-6 on pages 54&55 Task three: Preview the next unit—Protecting the sea Task four: Preview the words on page 63 which focus on public issues and water activities.
Lesson 2 Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target Language 语言目标
Sentences and expressions used to show interest 1. It sounds like…. 2. Really…? 3. That’s a good idea. 4. I suppose it must be… 5. Mm, were there… 6. Did you really…? 7. I would like to see… 2. Ability goal 能力目标 Enable the students to listen and check the right information. 3. Learning ability goal 学能目标 Help students learn to listen by following some procedures and use the listening strategies in practice. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students master the way to show interest. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Enable students to make a plan for a project. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Activity one: Translation T: I will check the grammar we learnt yesterday. Now please translate the sentences into English. Let the Ss translate the sentences into English and go over the relative connectives.
Exercise: 1. 月圆的午夜时候，你可以听到狼嚎。 2. 我喜欢你在我生日时给我的那本书。 3. 我从不去价格很高的商店。 4. 你知道一些人每周日都去教堂的原因吗？ 5. 举行 NBA 篮球比赛的体育馆距离我们的大学不远。 6. 我不会忘记我赢得演讲比赛第一名的那一刻。 7. 这就是老虎逃走的地方。 8. 同我一起工作了十年的布朗先生明年就会退休。 9. 他是一位令我害怕的人。 Possible answers: 1. At midnight when the moon is full, you can hear wolves. 2. I like the book that you gave me for my birthday. 3. I never go to the shop whose price is high. 5. The stadium where the NBA basketball game is played is not far from our university. 6. I will never forget the moment when I won the first prize in the speech contest. 7. This is the place from which the tiger escaped. 8. Dr. Brown, with whom have worked for 10 years, will retire next year. 9. He is a person of whom I am afraid. Activity two: Care about the public issues T: In our daily life many of the public issues concern us, such as business, drugs and so on. Do you know other issues that worry us? Sa: I think environmental protection is very important. Sb: I think sea pollution is a serious problem. Sc: I believe wildlife protection is very important. T: Yes, all that you have mentioned are issues that concern us. Today we will learn a new topic — protecting the sea. StepⅡ Pre-listening Activity one: Mini discussion
T: Sea is important for people. People have tried to make use of it long ago. But do you know why sea is important? How do people use the sea? How is the sea important to people? Discuss with your partner and state your opinion by referring to the example. (activity 1) Let the Ss think for a minute and discuss the importance of the sea in people’s life. Sa: People can not only get food from the sea, but also they can make use of sea transportation. Sb: People like sea sports, from which people can entertain themselves. T: Your answers are to the points. Sea provides human beings food, transportation and fun. But overuse of it makes sea polluted and causes many other problems. Next we will deal with another topic—sea protection. Activity two: Voice your opinion T: Sea pollution has become a serious social concern in the world. Find the meanings of these key words and use them to talk about the issue.(activity 2) Let the Ss ask each other the meaning of these words and state opinions. Sa: There is a lot of rubbish in the sea because people who do sports on the beach throw rubbish around, so it is of great importance to raise their awareness of taking rubbish away. Sb: The government should ban the building of factories along the beaches. Thus there will be less industrial waste in the sea. Step III While-listening Activity one: Listen to grasp the main idea T: Listen to the conversation and find what is Zhi Hong’s project. Let the Ss listen and grasp the main meaning of the project. Task two: Listening strategies T: Read the four strategies listed on page 10 and ask yourself if you applied the four tips before. If not, try to make it your own habit while listening by following the procedures below. Look at the procedures and get familiar with it. Then be ready to apply it while listening. Procedures:
Be clear about the Complete a chart, answer questions, or fill in gaps task Prediction Make notes Marking Look at activity 4 and predict the content Use abbreviations Mark a question which you are not clear about
Activity three: Listen to fill in the chart T: Listen to the tape and fill in the chart of activity 4. Let the Ss listen carefully and fill in the chart. T: I will check your understanding of the listening material. Activity four: Listen to understand the function T: Listen to the conversation a third time and complete the sentences in the Function File with words and expressions that we use to show interest. Help the Ss finish the task required in activity 5. Step IV Post Reading Activity one: Repeat and practice T: It is important to become a good listener. Learning to listen is an art. If you can respond properly, you may find you can keep the conversation going smoothly. Next listen to the tape and pay attention to the words which you use to show interest. Let the Ss concentrate on the function words and decide whether the listed words in activity 6 are used to show interest. T: This time I will play the tape again and you are required to listen to the words and repeat them. Listen and repeat the words showing interest. Activity two: Performance T: Interest and curiosity lead to discovery and research. If we are interested in a topic, we can plan a project and explore the unknown facts about it. This way we can also do research and study the unknown. Look at the list of subjects and you can choose
a topic that interests you. Write notes about the facts that you have known about and the unknown facts of it. Let the Ss go through the list and pick out a topic. List the facts of it. After choosing the topic the students are required to make a plan for it. Sa: I will choose water sports as my project. I am interested in it because I love sport and I love the feeling to be with water. I have tried surfing, sailing and sea diving and all of these sports are very interesting and challenging. Water-skiing and windsurfing are also challenging sports that I prefer, but they need skills. So I will know more about them after the project. Besides, I will attend some training classes to learn them in practice. After the project I will make a bulletin board in our school and invite more students to join me. If possible, we will establish a water sport club. Activity three: Make a dialogue T: Since you have made a plan about your project, now please make a dialogue in pairs. One will act as the speaker to introduce your project, and your partner will act as the listener to keep the conversation going. Make sure to use the words we learnt to show interest. You can use the example as a pattern. Help the Ss make dialogues and practice. One possible version: A: What are you going to do for your sea project? B: I always love water sport, so I will do a project about sea sports. A: Oh, really? B: Yes, I like surfing and diving. They are challenging and exciting sports. A: Mm, I see. Have you tried these sports? B: Yes, nearly every summer our family would spend a-week long holiday on the seaside, and I would do these sports. It’s really interesting. A: Do you show interest in other water sports? B: I also like water skiing and wind surfing, but I know little about them. This is what I would like to know in my project. A: Really? What would you do to find more facts about them?
B: I would surf the Internet and go to the library to find more about them. A: It’s a good idea. Besides this, do you have other plans? B: I will also attend some training classes. Practice makes perfect. This way I will try them and become skilled. A: Your plan sounds reasonable. But have you considered establishing a water sports club? B: That sounds a good idea. After the project, I may try the idea. A: Wish you success in your project. B: Thank you. Step V Homework Task one: Write a project plan. Task two: List one problem of sea pollution and give reasons and solutions. Task three: Finish the oral practice (activity 1 on page 56). Task four: Finish task 3 (Vocabulary on page 56).
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target Language 语言目标 a.重点词汇和短语 undersea educational athletic emperor coral tropical attraction ray attract discovery up to daily
tiny giant deadly shark discount b. 重点句子 How they stop it from melting? P13 On the one hand, we loved most of the attractions, especially the one for the children. On the other hand, I didn’t think that the cafe was as good as it should be. P13 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Help students read a brochure by building the structure chart. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Students learn to read and locate information by using titles and subtitles. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students use the structure to read this kind of reading materials following the same way. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Enable students to read some important facts about the text and the underwater world. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Check homework
Activity one: Check homework T: Good morning/afternoon, at the beginning of the class I will call a student to present your project plan in the front. The student presents his works. One possible version: Sea Travel Plan I like stories of sea travels when I was young. These stories are full of excitement and attract me greatly. Explorers like Columbus and Zheng He are my favorite heroes. Their courage inspires me to try something new all the time. But I still feel puzzled about their real records during the journey. How could they tell directions? How did they overcome the difficulties they met? What was the exact number of people who died in the journey? These questions make me curious and eager to know the real facts about them. I have made a reasonable plan to do my project. I will list the great explorers I want to know and then I will make a chart according to time order. Following the order I will check the information about them through the Internet and do library research. Activity two: Find solutions T: I will call one student to present your problem analysis and solutions. Sa: I think over-fishing is a big problem. Though many people believe most of the countries in the world should obey the international law of fishing and some countries have special regulations that forbid fishing some kinds of sea animals. However, this is not effective. I think this problem can be solved only through heavy punishment. StepⅡ Pre-reading Activity one: Get familiar with seas animals T: Look at the pictures on page 12 and find which of these animals you can see. Ss: I can see crab, dolphin, penguin and shark. T: Where can you see all these sea animals? Ss: I can find the sea animals in the sea or in an underwater world. T: Have you found the brochure of an underwater world with inviting pictures which
attract you to go for a visit to them. Ss: Yeah, we could see a lot of such ads. Activity two: Learn the function of the brochure T: What is the purpose of these brochures? A. To persuade. inform. Sa: I think A and C are right, because in a brochure you can find what interests you easily and the language is very persuasive. T: Yeah. The purpose of all the ads is to give people clear information and persuade people to have a try of it. And also the way they organize these promoting activities or sales is very special. Activity three: Learn the structure T: Now please scan the brochure on page 12 and tell me in what way the organization of brochure is different from that of other reading materials we read. Sa: There are a lot of sub-titles. Sb: The whole article is divided into small items. Sc: There are eye-catching pictures. T: Yeah. You surely have got the answers. The brochures are to promote something, and they will use pictures and make the whole text short and easy to read. The titles and subtitles make the whole passage like different kinds of products for you to choose from. Therefore if you want to find any information that interests you, you just find the subtitles and find information under it. Step III While-reading Activity one: Discover useful information T: Read the brochure. Please find the subtitles in the brochure. Ss: There is one big title and five subtitles in the brochure. Under the fifth subtitle, four items are included. T: OK. In what way do you know that? Ss: The size of these subtitles is different and this makes me easy to distinguish the whole structure. Activity two: Locate information
B. To warn. C. To
T: Well-done job. Next please read the brochure and quickly locate the information in the text. Find where you can see these things in Underwater World. (activity 2) Let the Ss read the brochure and find the information quickly by using the titles and subtitles as a clue. Sa: We can take part in Virtual Reality Voyage and find the prettiest fish with a light. Sb: I can see dolphins in performance in Sea Theatre. Sc: I can find the flying fish in Ocean Floor. Sd: I can find sea creatures that children can touch in Discovery Pool. Se: I can find a big iceberg in Polar World. T: It is very helpful to use the structure to locate specific information. Therefore, it is very important to find the organization of the target reading material. Knowing the organization will help us quickly locate necessary information. Most of the brochures or ads have clear structure using different titles or sub-titles, so we can use them to quickly locate the information that we need. Step IV Post-reading Activity one: Match the comments T: Since we have a clear picture of all the activities in the brochure, please match these comments from the visitors with different areas of underwater world. Do the task required in activity 3. The Ss follow the example and match the comments with different areas. Activity two: Voice your opinion T: Since you have what we can see and what activities we can do in underwater world, now please voice your own opinion on which underwater world you would like to visit? Why? Sa: I would like to take a Virtual Reality Voyage because I can find many unusual fish. Sb: I want to experience the coldness in Polar World because it gives me a fresh experience. Step V Homework Task one: Finish exercises 2 and 5 on pages 58&59.
Task two: Preview Grammar — Comparison of Adjectives. Task three: Write down the structure of underwater world using the chart below as a clue. Sample chart: Structure of a brochure Title: Underwater World Sub-titles Polar world Ocean floor Sea theatre Discovery pool Virtual reality voyage Activities See polar creatures and icebergs See beautiful coral and flying fish See dolphin shows Children can touch small creatures See the strangest fish
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target Language 语言目标 a. Important chart Comparatives Form 同级比较 比较级 A …as+ adj+as…B A …comparative form +than … B A …not +as+ adj+as…B 最高级 A …the + super form…B A is super in a certain range Meaning A equals B A is not equal to B
b. Important special forms of comparison Special usage of comparison Structures The + comparative form…, the + comparative form… A ＋ Negative + comparative form A…twice/3 times + as + adj + as…B A…twice/3 times + comparative form + than…B Meaning 越??，越?? A 是最高级 A 是 B 的几倍 A 比 B（大、高??）几 倍 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Help students master both the meaning and forms of different comparatives and enhance their understanding these usage in the context. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Learn to use different forms of comparative forms to make sentences and understand the usage in the context. Teaching important points 教学重点 By presentation help students master different kinds of structures of comparative forms. Teaching difficult points 教学难点
By designing different kinds of practice help students master the use of comparatives in the context. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Activity one: Present the structure of the brochure T: First I will call some students to the front to present your structure of the brochure. Let the Ss come to the front and present the structure of the brochure. Student’s works: Title: Underwater World Sub-titles Polar world Ocean floor Sea theatre Discovery pool Virtual reality voyage Activity two: Review the words T: Next please turn to page 59 and I will check your answers. The Ss offer their answers and correct their errors. T: Read these phrases and memorize them. Phrases: attract people to the beauty of underwater world, offer discount tours, educate people, energetic people, measure the length, compare one’s discovery, melt the ice, watch out the sharp coral T: Last class we learnt to group the words according to a certain topic. Now please look at the topic and list the words in the group. Let the Ss fill in the chart with the words listed in the group. Activities See polar creatures and icebergs See beautiful coral and flying fish See dolphin shows Children can touch small creatures See the strangest fish
Sample chart: Sea creatures Crab, seal, penguin, shark, coral, polar bear, starfish, whale, dolphin. StepⅡ Presentation Activity one: Understand the meaning of comparatives T: Read the underlined structures and match the meaning of these usages. The Ss read the structures and match the meaning with these sentences. T: We have learnt the structure of comparison of adjectives, but we need to understand the forms in real context. Activity two: Match the meaning with the forms T: Look at the chart below and get a clear understanding of the forms and meanings. Let the look at the chart and get a structural understanding of comparatives. Comparatives Form 同级比较 比较级 A …as+ adj+as…B A…comparative form +than…B A …not +as+ adj+as…B 最高级 A …the + super form…B A is super in a certain range Meaning A equals B A is not equal to B
Activity three: Understand the special forms of comparison T: Look at activity 6 and match the meaning with sentences listed above. Let the Ss read and match the meaning with the structures. T: We need to match the structure with the meaning to understand their usage in real context. Now please look at the chart to understand the meaning of comparatives. Let the Ss look at the chart and get a structural understanding of these special comparatives. Sample chart: Special usage of comparison Structures The + comparative form…, the + comparative form… Meaning 越??，越??
A ＋ Negative + comparative form A…twice/3 times + as + adj + as…B A…twice/3 times + comparative form + than…
A 是最高级 A 是 B 的几倍 A 比 B（大、高??）几 倍
Step III Practice Activity one: Understand comparison in the context T: Look at the three sentences of adjectives and comparatives. See if you can understand the meaning of the underlined sentences. The Ss read the three sentences and understand the underlined sentences in the context. Exercise: 1. Most people believe that environment protection has nothing to do with ourselves. Nothing is further from the truth. It’s exactly what we do that we can change the world. A. It is very true. B. It is not true. C. It is not true at all. 2. Now we find cars everywhere. Many people rush to become drivers, though their driving skills are not good at all. Therefore, for our kids, you can’t be too careful on roads. A. You can be careless on roads. B. You can’t be careful on roads. C. However much careful you are on roads, it is necessary and important. 3. Little is always better than not. This is a truth in our life. Some people like to complain that they earn less than his peers. They spend much time complaining, so they will not spare effort to do better jobs. But if we change our view of life, we may find it even worse if we are spared to nothing. A. We shouldn’t complain about anything. B. We should value what we have.
C. If we have nothing, we shouldn’t complain. Key: 1-3CCB Activity two: Get familiar with structure T: Look at activity 7 and finish the exercise. Help the Ss finish the task with correct forms. T: Next look at activity 8 and make sentences following the examples. Use every given word twice following the example. The first time you should focus on the comparative form and the second time you had better use the exact times to compare. Example: 1. The motorboat is more expensive than the wooden boat. 2. The motorboat is 5 times expensive than the wooden boat. Sa: The motorboat is faster than the wooden boat. Sb: The motorboat is 3 times faster than the wooden boat. Sc: The wooden boat is smaller than the motor boat. Sd: The wooden boat is 4 times smaller than the motor boat. T: You all have mastered the structure of these forms. Compare the second group of pictures and make sentences following the example below. This time use these words once. Example: The man with a rod is younger than the man with a fish. Sa: The man with a rod is more handsome than the man with a fish. Sb: The man with a rod is taller than the man with a fish. Step IV Consolidation Activity one: Consolidation T: We have learnt the meaning and forms of comparatives. Next we will learn another form of it. Look at the examples below and observe in what way we can find the meaning of comparison. (activity 9) Let the Ss look at the examples and find the meaning of comparison using other forms of comparison. Sa: I think this is to show contrast. This is also a way to show comparison.
T: Yes. Contrast is also a way to show comparison. Now please finish the task of activity nine. Help the Ss finish the task. Activity two: Guessing game T: Now please look at the requirement of activity 10. Then please make descriptions of a person or an animal using comparatives, and other students will guess what it is. But make sure that your information is enough. Sa: He has darker skin than most of the American people. He enjoys better fame than most of black people. He died a more heroic death than most of people. He led the most important movement in the 1960s. Sb: Martin Luther King. Step V Homework Task one: Finish the exercise 1、3、4 on pages 58 & 59. Task two: Memorize the phrases below. Words and expressions: horrible sight, fell terrified, scream for help, stand in terror, float on the sea, survive the risk, recover from the illness, opposite side, recognize one’s voice.
The Sixth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target Language 语言目标 a. 重点词汇和短语
horrible sight, fell terrified, scream for help, stand in terror, float on the sea, survive the risk, recover from the illness, opposite side, recognize one’s voice. b. Expressions used to solve problems 1. If I were on a boat going towards a big whirlpool, I would tie myself to something light. 2. If I was on boat and the boat was leaking, I would quickly put on a life-jacket and call for help. 3. When I saw our house was on fire and smoke was everywhere, I quickly wetted a
towel and put it around my nose. 4. If I were lost in a desert, I would use my own shadow to tell directions. 5. If I were the president of our country, I would call on people to save the sea. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Help students read to pick out the information and structure of the text and fully understand the text. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Students will learn how to generalize the structure of the same genre: unusual experiences. Teaching important points 教学重点 Enable students to follow a certain procedure to put the texts into the right order. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Help the students to predict and prove their predictions. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team work learning, activity-based learning, co-operative learning Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Activity one: Translation T: Last class we have learnt comparatives. Please translate the following sentences into English and review the usage of comparatives. Let the Ss do translation work and recall the forms of comparatives. Exercise: 1. Luke 是 3 个人中最不活跃的一个。 2. Anthony 比 Luke 聪明。 3. 今天没有昨天冷。 4. 象棋没有阅读有趣。 5. 哪个海洋生物最危险？ Key:
1. Luke is the least active of the three. 2. Anthony is clever than Luke. 3. Today’s weather is not as cold as yesterday’s. 4. Chess is not as interesting as reading. 5. Which of the sea creatures is the most dangerous? Activity two: Read and Check T: Read the phrases I gave you yesterday and I will check your memory. The Ss read and get prepared for the check. StepⅡ Lead-in Activity one: Brainstorm T: Suppose you are sailing across the sea. Suddenly, you see a whirlpool, how do you feel? Fill in the chart using the words showing feeling of fear. The Ss think for a while and call up the words to show fear. Sample chart: Feeling of fear
Key: Feeling of fear terrify, frighten, terror, horrible, fear, horrify, afraid Activity two: Experience a sea story T: Have you seen the following films? What are they about? How do you find them? (activity one) Sa: I watched Titanic. It is a love story. The romance between the hero and the heroine is moving and the pictures of the film are fascinating. Sb: I have seen Treasure Island. It’s about a sea adventure to find treasure on an island. I think the pirates were very cruel. I also believe that wisdom can win over cruelty. Step III Pre-reading
Activity one: Predict the content T: Look at the key words and find them in the pictures. Help the Ss find these words in the pictures and get a general understanding of the story. T: From the pictures, what content may be dealt with in the story? Ss: The story may tell us two persons who met with a whirlpool. One person died, but the other survived the disaster. Activity two: Predict the structure T: According to your own knowledge in what way will the author write the story. Sa: The author may first tell us what they are doing on the sea. Sb: The author may then tell us how they met with the whirlpool. Sc: The author may end the story by telling us how a man was saved. T: You all did good jobs in the prediction. When we read stories, we may find most of the stories are organized as the following structure. Therefore, this will help us understand the story well following the structure. Sample structure: Paragraph function Opening paragraph Developing paragraph Conclusion paragraph Content Background (before the event) Major event (in the event) Result (after the event)
Activity three: Predict the purpose of the writer T: What may be the purpose for the writer to write the text? Sa: This passage is mainly about a risky experience. He may just want to tell us an exciting story. Sb: In the story, I found one person was able to escape because he used a barrel. This may tell us how to face and escape from the danger. Maybe this story wants to tell us how to solve problems in face of danger. Step Ⅳ Reading Activity one: Learn the strategies of sequence
T: Look at the three pictures and decide which shows the beginning, middle and end of the story. Ss: The right order should be: B→A→C. T: Read each paragraph and decide which paragraph is the background, which is the major event and which is the result. Let the Ss read each paragraph and generalize the main idea of each paragraph. Then fill in the chart. Sample chart: Para A B C Key: Para A B C Major event Background Result Main idea Main idea
T: According to the main idea and the pictures, what should be the right order of the text? S: I am sure the right order is: B→A→C Activity two: Check the order T: Now please check the order using these phrases as a clue: One day, About 3 years ago, One day, All at once, Our boat survived, At that moment, Without waiting, Some time after, Soon afterwards, In the end. Let the Ss read the passage and check the order using these connectives as clue. Activity three: Learn the use of signal words T: Among the listed words above, which words are used to express a quick decision? Ss: All at once, suddenly, at that moment, without waiting. T: These words are very helpful to be used to distinguish the order of events. Also in
your own writing it would make your writing fluent and readable by using them. Please use some of these signal words to make a short paragraph orally. Sa: One day I was walking along a small river. Suddenly, I heard a cry for help. I rushed to the spot where the cry came from without waiting. At that moment, the boy was struggling in the water. All at once I jumped into the water. Catching him in one hand, I swam towards the bank quickly. Activity four: Get familiar with the text T: Read the story again and answer the questions. The Ss read the story and answer the questions. Questions: 1. What happened when we came back from the island with our boat full of fish? 2. What happened to my younger brother when the first wave struck our boat? 3. Why did the boat go towards the whirlpool? 4. How did the writer feel when the boat was moving towards the whirlpool? 5. What was the boat like when we were inside the huge whirlpool? 6. What made the writer notice that the heavier objects went down quickly than the smaller ones? 7. Why did the writer tie himself to a barrel? 8. Why didn’t his brother do the same? 9. What happened to the writer ’s brother and their boat? 10. Why didn’t his old friends recognize him? Possible answers: 1. All at once the sky was covered with dark clouds and we were in a terrible storm. 2. My younger brother fell into the sea. 3. The wind and the waves pushed us towards the whirlpool. 4. The writer felt calmer than before. 5. The boat was going around in circles at great speed. 6. His calmness. 7. He could float on the sea with a light object. 8. His brother didn’t understand him.
9. The boat and my brother sank into the bottom of the whirlpool. 10. The writer ’s hair changed from black into white. Activity five: Voice your opinion T: Do you think the story is true? Discuss with your partner and say why or why not? Sa: I think it is true. The description is vivid and everything in the text is like a true experience. Sb: I believe it is not true. The writer just coined a story to amuse the readers. The reasons are the following: Firstly did he have enough time to tie himself to a barrel? Second, how could he manage to tie himself to the barrel with the boat moving at great speed? Step V Post-reading Activity one: Vocabulary building T: Find the words in the story that the writer uses to describe his feeling. Sa: In the passage, the writer always felt terrified, so most of the words are used to show the feeling of fear: terrifying, terrified, horrible. T: Next please finish tasks required in activities 8 and 9. Help the Ss finish the tasks with the correct forms of words. Activity two: Solve the problems T: What would you do if you were in the following situation? (activity 10) Ss: Think out an idea to get out the following difficult situations. Samples situations: 1. You are going towards a big whirlpool. 2. You are on boat and the boat was leaking. 3. You saw your house was on fire and smoke was everywhere. 4. You are lost in a desert. 5. You are the president of our country. Students’ works: 1. If I were on a boat going towards a big whirlpool, I would tie myself to something light. 2. If I was on boat and the boat was leaking, I would quickly put on a life-jacket
and call for help. 3. When I saw our house was on fire and smoke was everywhere, I quickly wetted a towel and put around my nose. 4. If I were lost in a desert, I would use my own shadow to tell directions. 5. If I were the president of our country, I would call on people to save the sea. Step Ⅵ Homework
Task one: Finish exercises 1 and 2 on page 60. Task two: Tell a short story to your partner following the sequence: background, major event and result. The Seventh Period Writing Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 语言目标 a: Words and expressions terrible—horrible, freezing—cold, large—huge, frightened—terrified, get
away — escape, get better — recover, continue to live — survive, recognize b：Important structure Structure of an Attraction Report Paragraph functions Opening paragraph Content
General introduction: location, basic information, special feature and so on.
Good points Bad points
Conclusion paragraph Comments: dos and don’ts 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Help students to master the structure of a report. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Learn to write a report by following a certain structure given by the teacher. Teaching important points 教学重点
By imitating, practicing and paragraph-by-paragraph writing help students learn the basic procedures of writing a good report. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Help students give comments and express their own idea clearly. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team work learning, activity-based learning, co-operative study Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and some slides Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Activity one: Check the words and expressions T: Please paraphrase the words with a similar meaning. Let the Ss match the words according to their memory. Words exercise: terrible—horrible, freezing—cold, large—huge, frightened—terrified, get away—
escape, get better—recover, continue to live—survive, remember—recognize Activity two: Present your story T: Next I will call a student to present your story to the class. Sa: Here is mine. Sample story: One day I swam across a strip of water to an island. There were many beautiful shells. Though I found many beautiful shells, I found it impossible for me to take them back to the shore I came from, for I could see many dangerous sharks in the sea playing happily. Suddenly, an idea struck me. I pulled off my shirt and cut it into pieces and tied them together into a long rope. Then I cut my leg and dipped some blood in one end of the rope. I threw the end of rope with blood into the sea while I pulled the other end and ran very fast toward the other end of the island. Soon after that, the sharks began to chase the rope because they had smelled the blood. After I succeeded in cheating the sharks to the other side, I ran back and dived into the sea without any delay. In the end, I was able to reach the other side of the shore.
StepⅡ Lead-in Activity one: Make comments T: Read the comments from the tourists and tell me what opinion they want to express. Let the Ss read the comments and find their real purpose. Sa: The first speaker gave two opinions about the performance of the dolphins. Sb: The second speaker expressed his satisfaction with the iceberg, but he was not content with the conditions. Sc: The third speaker also expressed two sides of opinions. One is to show his satisfaction with the scenery, but he was not content with the food. Sample comments: 1. The performance of the dolphins was good, but it was cruel to train them and make them do tricks. 2. Seeing the real iceberg was really exciting, but if they could provide better conditions for the exhibition it would be better. 3. On the one hand, we loved most of the attractions. On the other hand, I don’t think we enjoy the food. Activity two: Make comments T: Use the notes and words below to make comments about underwater world. Sa: Seeing real seals and penguins from the polar area was really exciting, however, the food in the caféwas too expensive. Sb: These unusual fish were interesting, but the dolphin show was cruel. Sc: Sea Theatre brought us great fun. On the other hand, virtual reality voyage was not realistic. Sd: The views from caféwere very good, but the taste of food and coffee was terrible. Activity three: Read and match the headings T: Read the report below and match the headings with the report. Sa: The first paragraph is general description. Sb: The second paragraph is the list of good points. Sc: The third paragraph is the list of the bad points. Sd: The fourth paragraph is conclusion.
Step III Pre-writing Activity one: Know the requirement of writing T: Suppose your summer job is to help write a tourist guide book about your area. Write a report about a place you have visited. Before you start writing, choose a topic for it. Ss: Discuss with each other and think out a topic for your writing. Sa: In our area we have Beijing Animal Park. Sb: I want to choose the Great Wall as my topic. Sc: I would take Fragment Hill as my topic. Activity two: Language preparation T: Work on your own and list the good points and bad points about your topic. Then I will call a student to present your works. Let the Ss think out the good points and bad points. Sa: Present the list of good and bad points of Beijing Animal Park. Good points: 1. The largest animal park in China. 2. Tigers walk around like a king. 3. Monkeys are very naughty. 4. Elephants look very friendly. 5. Children can feed animals. 6. Bears are very lazy and funny. Bad points: 1. in busy season, too crowded 2. not enough seats for people to rest 3. not enough toilets, people have to wait in line 4. less show programs 5. not enough educating themes Activity three: Learn to open and conclude a report T: When you are required to write a report, you are to give a general introduction of it. In your introduction of this topic, you may include the location, the special feature and other basic information to introduce a place. Please write a general introduction
for your topic. The Ss try to include the content in the introduction. And then present their opening paragraphs. Sample opening paragraph: Beijing Animal Park attracts tourist from all over China. It covers a large area with many different parts and this will take tourists at least half a day to see all the parts. It is located in the northwest of Beijing in Haidian District with convenient traffic. T: In the presentation Sa listed the feature, location and traffic of Beijing Animal Park. The introduction is well written and catches the readers’ attention easily. Now let’s see how we conclude our topic. Now please read the given report on page 16 and see what the content of the conclusion paragraph of the report is. Ss: There are some pieces of advice on how to enjoy a visit without much trouble. T: In most reports after you have listed the good or the bad points, you may show your own comments on it. So the conclusion of the report is mainly about your own comments or advice. Now please write down some dos and don’ts to conclude your topic. Let the Ss think about the valuable advice and write down them. Show one’s conclusion to the class. Sample conclusion: Never forget to see the monkeys, especially when you are taking children. Remember to take a camera and take photos of the animals. However, don’t choose holidays for your visit and make sure to take your own food. Activity four: Get familiar with the structure T: Since we have the basic knowledge of the language needed in the passage, now please look at the structure. Then write down your report following the structure. Look at the structure and memorize it. Then try to get a general understanding of an attraction report. Sample structure:
Structure of an Attraction Report Paragraph functions Content Opening paragraph General introduction: location, basic information, special feature and so on. Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Step IV Writing Activity one: Drafting T: Please write a passage following the structure and use the language listed by yourselves. The Ss write the report. Activity two: Checking T: After you have finished, please read through your report and check it by yourself. The Ss check their works. Activity three: Pair check T: Pair checks your works to see if the grammar is OK and the sentence structures are well organized. The Ss do pair check. One possible version: Beijing Animal Park attracts tourists from all over China. It covers a large area with many different parts and this will take tourists at least half a day to see all the parts. It is located in the northwest of Beijing in Haidian District with convenient traffic. On the one hand, there are several good points about visiting the park. 1. Beijing Animal Park is the largest animal park in China, which feeds and owns the largest number of animals in China. Therefore, we can enjoy seeing animals from all over the world. 2. Tigers walk around like a king on the Tiger Hill. Good points Bad points Comments: dos and don’ts
3. Monkeys are very naughty and catch any food from the tourists. 4. Elephants look very friendly and wave their big trucks. 5. Children can feed some kind of animals and make friends with them. 6. Bears are very lazy and funny which amuse children very much. On the other hand, there are some bad sides of Beijing Animal Park. 1. In busy seasons the whole park is too crowded. 2. On holidays there are not enough seats for people to rest. 3. The toilets are not enough and people have to wait in line. 4. The show programs are not very attractive. 5. Educating themes are not good and young children cannot learn much during their visit. Never forget to see the monkeys, especially when you are taking children. Remember to take a camera and take photos of the animals. However, don’t choose holidays for your visit and make sure to take your own food. Step V Homework Task one: Finish exercises 1 and 4 on page 62. Task two: List the good points and bad points of surfing. Task three: Recite the words and phrases of lesson 4. The Eighth Period Speaking Teaching goals 教学内容 1.Target language 语言目标 Giving opinions: 重点句式 1. I think the plan will work well. 2. In my opinion, the plan will be good. 3. I am for the plan. 4. I am totally against the plan. 5. I think the plan will be bad. 6. It would be much better if we… 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable students learn to follow the procedures of debating: choose a topic, make
notes, practice giving opinions, presentation. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help students learn how to solve problems using the form of debating: not only to make self-voice heard, but also learn to listen to other people’s voices. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students follow the procedure of debating and practice the skill of group debating. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Enable students to cooperate and do teamwork to finish the writing task. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and some slides. Teaching Procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Activity one: Check words and expressions T: I will check how well you have mastered the words and expressions I gave you yesterday. First please read the phrases, and then I will check your mastery. The Ss read and recite. Words and expressions: unable to recognize, opposite direction, leak, survive the test, all at once, stadium, local government, wildlife protection, disagree with sb Activity two: Present good and bad points of surfing T: I will check if you have listed the good and bad points of surfing. Sa: The good points of surfing are: 1. challenge our courage 2. make one relaxed 3. show different styles. Sb: The bad points of surfing are: 1. hard to master the skills 2. a little dangerous challenges one’s strength. Activity three: Mini discussion T: Every coin has two sides. If you want to persuade somebody to believe you, you
should provide enough proof and supporting details. Otherwise, it is hard to get others to join you. Therefore, debating is necessary because it can help solve problems. Now Sa can disagree with Sb by following the example. Sb can also debate with Sa. Example: I don’t agree with you. Surfing is safe, because you needn’t go to the deep part of the sea. Sa: I disagree with Sb on his idea that surfing challenges one’s strength. From his view only those who are strong enough can do it, which is not true. Everyone can try surfing if he wants. Sb: I don’t agree with Sa because I believe that surfing sometimes makes people exhausted. So you can’t relax yourself at all. On the other hand, you need time to recover after doing the sport. Step Ⅱ Lead-in Activity one: Reading T: Read the passage about Dolwyn Bay and get a general understanding of the main points of this passage. The Ss read the short passage of Dolwyn Bay and know that the small town is a beautiful town facing some problems. Activity two: List good and bad points of the small town T: Work in pairs and make a list of the good points and bad points of the plan to build an oil factory in the town. The Ss work together and discuss the good points and bad points. Good points: 1. beautiful area with a wildlife park 2. discovery of oil Bad points: 1. fishing industry is bad 2. The population is getting older.
Activity three: Listen to match T: Listen to someone giving his opinion of the plans, which of these people do you think they are? Let the Ss listen to the tape and match the person with their opinions. Activity four: Make notes T: Work in a group of five. Each person chooses a different role from the list above and writes notes about his/her opinions of the plan. Use the key words to help you. The Ss work in groups and choose a role separately. Sa chooses to be an unemployed person with children; Sb will play the role of a local shopkeeper; Sc will play the role of the owner of a fishing boat; Sd chooses to become the person who has just bought a cottage in Dolwyn Bay; Se wants to become someone from the oil company. T: Now I will call a group to present your list of notes in the front. Group one come to present their ideas: Sa: My role is an unemployed person with children. I agree to the plan. My lists of notes are: produce more chances; improve people’s living conditions. Sb: My role is a local shopkeeper. My notes are: create jobs, attract more young people to work here, business is prosperous. Sc: My role is the owner of a fishing boat. My notes are: destroy fishing industry, lose my job, do harm to sea life. Sd: My role is the person who has just bought a cottage in Dolwyn Bay. My notes are: bring in noises, cause pollution, destroy the beauty, the traffic becomes bad, and the wild life parks lose the attraction. Se: My role is someone from the oil company. My notes are: give the town a new life, many more people get employed, pollution can be reduced to the least. Step III Debating Activity one: Give opinions T: Study the Function File on page 17. Work on your own, and practice giving your opinions following the example. The Ss study the Function File and learn to apply the sentence structures in their debating following the example.
Example: I think the plans will work well. If the oil factory is built here, we will have more job chances. As the bread earner in my family, winning a job is very important to me. Activity two: Presentation T: This time I will call a group to present your ideas in the front in the following turns: the unemployed person with children; the local shopkeeper; the owner of a fishing boat; the person who has just bought a cottage in Dolwyn Bay; someone from the oil company. Sa: I totally agree to the plans. The establishment of an oil factory will provide more jobs. More job chances will give those who are unemployed more chances to work. As for me, I may find a job in the company and work again. The more employment we have, the better living conditions we enjoy. Sb: I think the plan will work well. Business helps the development of our town. Nowadays more and more young people work in big cities, and our town will face the depression of economy. However, the oil factory will create more jobs and attract young people to work here. Sc: I have always been in fishing industry. The oil factory will cause pollution and kill many sea creatures. It’s a strike on fishing industry, and I may lose my job. Therefore, I totally disagree with the plan. Sd: I think the plan is a disaster to sea life. The establishment of the oil factory will break the beauty of the town. She will lose her attraction. I don’t think a noisy and polluted town will draw more tourists into our town. On the other hand, the sudden increasing population will give great pressure on the town’s traffic. All in all, we should try to keep the original beauty of the town. Se: Everything has two sides. The town needs to develop, therefore, it is necessary to bring in new industry. This will give a new life to the town. But on the other hand, it may cause pollution. I think it would be much more reasonable if we choose the right place and reduce the harm to the least. Activity three: Summary T: Since we have had a heated debating, we know that debating can make all voices
heard. This will help to solve problems. With all the opinion collected, the decision-makers will have a wiser decision to solve the problems. Next let’s listen to a song to relax ourselves. The Ss listen to the song of I Am Sailing. T: Listen to the song for the second time and complete the lines of the song. The Ss listen and put the right words into the gaps. Step Ⅳ Homework Task one: Review the word bank on page 63. Task two: Finish exercises 1 and 2 on page 63. The Ninth Period Cultural Communication Teaching goals 教学内容 1. Target language 语言目标 a: Words and expressions intelligent dolphins, local factories, educational system, unknown facts, underwater world, agricultural countries, industrial cities, horrible sight b. Structure of Historical Events Content Structure Historical Events of Introduction Background information Major events Meaning 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Help students read, generalize and do comparison reading. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Students learn to read following a certain procedure: predict, get a general understanding, generalize the main idea of each paragraph, summarize the structure, test understanding. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students compare the reading materials with the same structure. Teaching difficult points 教学难点
Enable students to read independently with the help of reading procedures. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Activity one: Make short phrases T: Look at the listed phrases and read them aloud. Then please turn to page 63 and look at the adjectives for animals. Make some short phrases following the example. Let the Ss read the phrases and find that these phrases are useful adjectives to be used in writing. Sample phrases: intelligent dolphins, local factories, educational system, unknown facts, underwater world, agricultural countries, industrial cities, horrible sight Students’ work: intelligent dogs, fast arrow, friendly pigeons, dangerous shark small fish, colorful birds, ugly crabs, unusual jobs, noisy fish Activity two: Group the words T: In this unit we have learnt a lot of words of different themes, such as public issues, sea creatures and water activities. (listed on page 63) Now please follow the example and group these words in different topics. Let the Ss list the words using the following topics: sea stories, sea pollution and then present their works. Sa: sea stories: explorer, exploration, adventure, communication, risk, storm, whirlpool, survive Sb: sea pollution: protection, industrial waste, agricultural waste, oil pollution, rubbish StepⅡ Warm-up Activity one: Background information input T: Look at the following two pictures and tell me what they are about. The Ss look at the two pictures and find what they are.
Sa: The first picture is about Forum on Sino-African Cooperation. Sb: The second picture is Zheng He, a famous sailor in China. T: Do you know who the first person in China that reached Africa was? Ss: Maybe it was Zheng He. T: Yes, it was Zheng He who first reached Africa. Zheng He first established friendship between China and Africa. Nowadays most of African countries are friendly to China. FOCAC (中非合作论坛) brought 41 African officials to China and it is one of the most important diplomatic summit in our country. This sets an example for people in other lands. Zheng He’s voyage represents the first contact between the two lands while FOCAC has proved how important Zheng He’s voyage was. Activity two: Read a short passage T: Read the short passage and answer the following questions. The Ss read the short passage and get familiar with the content of the short passage. Questions: 1. What is the purpose of the summit? 2. Before the opening ceremony, what was held? 3. On Saturday morning what happened? 4. What is the meaning of the summit? Key: 1. The purpose of the summit is “Friendship, peace, cooperation and development”. 2. A grand welcoming ceremony was held at the Great Hall of the People. 3. The high-level dialogue and second conference of Chinese and African
entrepreneurs （企业） opened at the Great Hall of the People, and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a speech. 4. The summit will strengthen China’s relationship with African people, and China will embrace a prosperous future with African friends. Besides, African countries will enhance their economical development with the help of China. Forum on Sino-African Cooperation The historic Beijing Summit of the Forum on Sino-African Cooperation (FOCAC) opened at the Great Hall of the People at 10:00 a.m. Saturday, with major Chinese TV and radio networks and websites live broadcasting the opening ceremony. President Hu Jintao, 41 heads of state or government and senior officials of 48 African countries that have diplomatic ties with China, attended the gathering highlighting (主题为) “ friendship, peace, cooperation and development”. Before the opening ceremony, a grand welcoming ceremony was being held at the Great Hall of the People, and Chinese and African leaders put their signatures(签 名) on the stamps in honor of the summit. Shortly afterwards, President Hu, Prime Minister of Ethiopia which co-chairs(合 作主持) FOCAC （中非论坛） , and President of the Republic of Congo （刚果） who chairs the AU for the 2006 session, addressed the opening ceremony. Also Saturday morning, the high-level dialogue and second conference of Chinese and African entrepreneurs （企业）opened at the Great Hall of the People, and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a speech. The Beijing Summit is a milestone(里程碑) for both Chinese and African people. As to China, this is the first time that China has invited 41 nation-level heads to China. The summit will strengthen China’s relationship with African people, and China will embrace a prosperous future with African friends. African countries also benefited a lot from the contact, 10 billion of their debt was canceled by China’ government. Besides, African countries will enhance their economical development with the help of China. Activity three: Fill in the chart T: Read the short passage again and pick out the structure of the passage.
The Ss read and fill in the chart. Sample chart: Functions of paragraphs Structure of Opening paragraph FOCAC Theme paragraph Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Key: Functions of paragraphs Structure of Opening paragraph FOCAC Theme paragraph Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Step III Pre-reading Activity one: Prediction T: Now please turn to page 18, look at the title and the picture, and please answer the questions. The Ss try to predict the content of the text according to the title and the picture. Sa: I think this passage is mainly about Zheng He and his seven great voyages. Sb: The text may tell us how he accomplished his great voyages. Sc: The passage may deal with his effort to build the friendship between China and African lands. T: Since we have got a general understanding of the content of the text, please predict the structure of it. The Ss predict the structure of the text according to the title. Sa: The text may include two parts including introduction and Zheng He’s voyages. Sb: Zheng He is a historical hero; therefore, the text may follow the structure of most versions of historical events. The text may include: introduction, his seven voyages and the meaning of his voyages. T: Your predictions are reasonable. Now think for a while about the purpose for the writer to write this passage.
Paragraphs Para 1 Para 2 Paras 3-5 Para 6
Content Introduction Background information Major events Meaning
Sa: This text is under the title of Cultural Corner, so it may help to promote students ’ understanding of cultural communication. Sb: The text aims at raising our national pride, because China was able to carry out such great explorations before most of European countries. T: You both have come to the point. Cross cultural communication help promote mutual understanding of the countries involved. Zheng He set a good example for the world, that is, China was a peace-loving country in Zheng’s time, though China had the power to invade other countries. Step Ⅳ Reading Activity one: Get to know the content T: Read this text and answer the following questions. The Ss read the text and get familiar with the content of the text. Questions: 1. What was Zheng He most remembered for? 2. What were the things found on Zheng He’s ships? 3. What was the most interesting experience during Zheng He’s first voyage? 4. What were the things Zheng He brought back? 5. What happened after Zheng He’s death? Key: 1. Zheng He was remembered for as one of China’s most famous explorers. 2. He brought with him gold, silver, silk, china and other treasures. 3. He met with a storm, but the storm disappeared after a lightening was seen. This convinced the sailors the belief that they were protected by the gods. 4. Zheng He brought back medicines, pearls and strange animals. 5. The stories of his travels made him one of China’s most famous sailors. Activity two: Generalize the main idea of the text Let the Ss generalize the main idea of each paragraph and fill in the chart. T: Since you have got a general understanding of the text, now please work out the main idea of each paragraph. Sample chart:
Para Para 1 Para 2 Para 3 Para 4 Para 5 Key: Para Para 1
Main idea Zheng He was remembered as one of the most famous explorers in China.
Zheng He made good preparations for his explorations and brought with him many gifts.
Para 3 Para 4
Zheng He had an interesting experience during his first voyage. Zheng He completed seven voyages and took back home a lot of gifts from other lands.
Zheng He shared the glory of China with the world.
Activity three: Summarize the structure of the text T: Fill in the chart to summarize the structure of the text. The Ss prove their prediction and get the exact understanding of the structure of the text. Sample chart: Functions of paragraphs Structure Opening paragraph Theme paragraph Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph Key: Functions of paragraphs Structure Opening paragraph Theme paragraph
Paragraphs Para 1 Para 2
Content Introduction Background information
Developing paragraphs Conclusion paragraph
Paras 3-4 Para 6
Seven voyages Meaning
Activity four: match the meaning of the words Let Ss match the meaning. T: Look at activity 1 on page 18, please match the words in the box with the meaning below. StepⅤ Comparison reading Activity one: Prediction T: Read another passage of Zheng He’s story, in some way they are similar with the text in our book and what are the differences. But this time the passage is a little challenging, because the order of the paragraphs are wrong, you need to put them in the right order after two activities. Before that you can predict the content of this passage according to the title. The Ss look at the title and make predictions. Questions: 1. The title of this passage is “Reaching Out Across The Ocean”. Look at the title and guess who reached out across the Ocean? 2. What is his purpose to reach out across the ocean? 3. What did the explorer meet when he reach out for the visit? 4. What is the meaning of his explorations? Key: 1. Zheng He. 2. To build friendship with other lands. 3. He may experience a lot of happenings. 4. He shared glory of China’s culture with the world. Activity two: Generalize the main idea of each paragraph T: Read the text and generalize the main idea of each paragraph. The Ss read and find the main idea of each paragraph. Sample chart:
Para C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Key: Para C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Main idea Zheng He’s explorations are ripe. Introduction of the hero of the text—Zheng He. The meaning of Zheng He’s voyages. Zheng He set sail. Zheng He renewed the relationship between China and African countries.
Activity three: Restore the order of the text T: Pease restore the order of the text according to the main idea of each paragraph and the structure of Historical Events shown below. The Ss put the text into the right order. The correct order should be: C2→C1→C5→C4→C3. T: In this unit we have learnt a lot of texts recording historical events. From our reading experience we come to know that all of these passages share the similar structure, because they follow certain pattern of organization. Therefore, it is very important to discover this certain pattern to help us better understand the reading materials of the genre. Reference structure of Historical Events: Content Structure Historical Events of Introduction Background information Major events
Meaning Activity four: Test understanding of the text T: Knowing the structure of the text also can help us exactly locate the detail information, this way, we can understand the text better. Next are “true or false” tests for you, and you are required to first locate the information in the exact paragraph and then quickly find whether the information is right or wrong by using the reference structure. The Ss use the reference structure to help with understanding of the text. Sample exercise: 1. Zheng He’s explorations to the Western Ocean were earlier than Columbus’s. 2. Before Zheng He’ explorations Chinese people didn’t know anything about African people. 3. Zheng He’s explorations were ripe （成熟） because the Ming Dynasty was prosperous and had a large navy. 4. Zheng He was the first person to discover the sea route from China to the East Africa. 5. Zheng He was the first person to establish relations with the kingdoms of East African coast. 6. The exchange of goods between China’ government and African kingdoms led to friendship between them. 7. In Ming Dynasty China was one of the most important powers over the sea. 8. Zheng He’s explorations were earlier than Columbus’s. Key: 1. In paragraph one in “introduction” part. True. 2. In paragraph two in “background” part. False. 3. In paragraph two in “background” part. True. 4. In paragraph three or four in “major events” part. True. 5. In paragraph three or four in “major events” part. False. 6. In paragraph three or four in “major events” part. True. 7. In paragraph five in “meaning” part. True.
8. In paragraph one in “introduction” part. True. Sample reading: Reaching Out Across The Ocean C1 The contacts between China and Africa before Zheng He’s voyages led to the awareness(知觉) of each other ’s existence, but still no accurate （精确的） maps of the countries around the Indian Ocean existed. By the beginning of the fifteenth century the time was ripe for a grand meeting. In East Africa the Coastal towns were reaching the height of their power. In the east, China prospered under a new dynasty(王朝). The Ming government had a large navy and the will to use it. C2 Trade and curiosity have often formed the foundation for mankind’s greatest endeavor. To people of early civilizations(文明), the world map was a great puzzle. Marco Polo’s stories inspired Christopher Columbus and other European explorers to search for sea routes to the distant, wealthy Asian lands. However, long before that brave merchants were the real explorer of the Western Ocean—Zheng He. C3 The fleet made several expeditions before the exploration was stopped,
probably for economic reasons. For a short time, China had ruled the seas. Zheng He’s exploration not only proved that China was leading the world in her power over the sea at the time, but also it showed China’s will to build friendly relationship with the world. Zheng He brought with him good will to exchange friendship and peace, and based on fairness and equality, his fleet won trust and friendship wherever they go. Zheng He’s journeys were far-reaching, and today the events are still commemorated(纪念) by the world. C5 In the years 1405, under the command of Zheng He, the fleets set sail from the South China Sea across the Indian Ocean to the mouth of the Red Sea, and then traveled further south, discovering the eastern coast of Africa. C4 Zheng He renewed relations with the kingdoms of the East African coast. One African king sent the Ming emperor a royal present: two giraffes. The wonderful gift and the contact with the court(宫廷) aroused China’s curiosity about Africa so that the Ming emperor made Zheng He send a message to the king and to other African states, inviting them to send ambassadors and open embassies in the new Ming capital, Beijing. The response of the African rulers was very generous. They sent the emperor
zebras, giraffes, shells, elephant ivory and rhinoceros-horn medicine. In return, the Ming court sent gold, spices, silk, and various other presents. The exchange of goods had a symbolic meaning far more important than the value of the goods themselves. By trading with the fleet the African kings were showing their friendship to he emperor of China. Step Ⅵ Homework Task: Read the following text of another historical event following the procedures below. Procedures Purposes Procedure one Predict strong to Activities form Predict content, structure and purpose.
of reading Procedure two Get a general Make up questions and answer these questions. of Eg: What was Cook’s purpose of voyage? Key: He was to watch a very unusual event, that is the planet Venus passing between the earth and the sun. Procedure three Generalize the Fill in the chart
understanding the text
main idea of each paragraph
Procedure four Procedure five
the Fill in the chart
structure of the text Test understanding Text oneself using “true or false” exercise. of the text
Sample reading: Captain Cook and His Voyage James Cook was born in the north of England on October 27th, 1728. He was remembered as a famous explorer in history. In 1768 the British navy (海军) was planning an expedition to the South Pacific Ocean with the purpose of watching a very unusual event, that is the planet Venus
passing between the earth and the sun. Cook was to be in charge of this expedition as captain of the ship Endeavor. In July 1768 the Endeavor set out for the Pacific. The ship carried a total of 94 people, including scientists. In April 1769 Cook’s expedition arrived at the beautiful island of Tahiti in the Pacific Ocean. There they spent three happy months and were also able to watch the planet Venus crossing in front of the sun. In July they set sail again and headed south and west in search of new land. They finally reached New Zealand and for a period of six months Cook charted the coasts of the two islands, separated by the narrow channel of water that was called Cook Strait. Cook and his sailors sailed west to Australia. Other sailors had already charted parts of the west and north coasts of Australia and the island of Tasmania, but Cook was the first to map the east coast. They landed in a beautiful Bay because of the beautiful plants that they found there. Later this was to become the place of the first foreign settlements in Australia. Next they sailed up the east coast between the mainland and the Great Barrier Reef. There the expedition nearly ended in disaster. The ship struck a coral bed, which tore a large hole in the side of the ship. But cook ordered the crew to throw over the side of the ship guns, iron balls, pots and chains and even stores to raise the boat in the water. Then they beached the ship on the shore where they were able to repair the damage. It was Cook’s quick thinking that saved the expedition. The expedition passed close by the island of Java and then returned by the southern point of Africa, arriving back in England in July 1771. The whole country celebrated Cook’s return. He had sailed around New Zealand and up the east coast of Australia, charting over 8,000 miles of coastline that had been unknown before. The Tenth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 语言目标 Procedures to design a Bulletin Board Procedures Activities Project learning
Choose a theme which interests the students in the same group.
Procedure two Procedure three
Work out a plan Group leader assigns(布置) different tasks to each person. Eg: Sa and Sb will design the background of the Bulletin Board; Sc will work as the host to write inviting lines; Sd will act as one of the student who respond; Se will act as another person to respond to the show.
Procedure four Procedure five
Collect information and carry out the tasks separately. Present the Bulletin Board to the whole class.
2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable students to design projects. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help students learn to design a bulletin board by cooperative learning. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help students collect information independently. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Enable students to finish a project following a procedure. Teaching methods 教学方法 Team-work learning, co-operative learning, discussion, activity-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 Multimedia. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step ⅠLead-in Activity one: Introduction T: In the early days, primitive people know little about the world. But gradually they discovered fire, farming and so on. Nowadays human beings have stepped into a world of information age. The meaning of information age lies in the fact that people master information and make use of information. Therefore, people who
know more will do better jobs in their life and people who can discover more will own more information. But do you know what kind of people in our world discover more than ordinary people? Ss: Scientists know more and discover more than us. They make a difference between the known and the unknown. Activity two: Stimulate students’ curiosity T: Yes, scientist can make a difference because they are curious about unknown things. Then they work hard at it until they succeed. You can also make a difference if you are interested in something and make effort to work out it. This way you can also become a little scientist. Ss: Can we? In what way? In English class? T: Surely you can. But before you become a little scientist, you should learn how to follow scientific procedures to make a discovery of the things that are unknown to you. Step Ⅱ Guidance on scientific procedures Activity one: Look at the example T: Now please turn to page 19. Look at the Bulletin Board on this page and find what the topic of this Bulletin Board is about. Ss: The Bulletin Board is about Sea Animals. T: In what way does the host of the bulletin want to present his works? Ss: He wants to make a Sea Animal show for it. T: Yes, it is very important to choose a topic that interests you or your group. Also you should know in what way you can present your works. Activity two: Know how to design the Bulletin Board T: What are included in the Bulletin Board? Ss: Two students are interested in the show and responded to it. One is interested in starfish and the other is fond of penguins. T: Besides these, what can you see from it? Sa: There are pictures of penguins and a starfish. Sb: The background of the Bulletin Board includes sea water, fish and sea plants.
T: Yes, you have come the points. To make a bulletin board, we need to design it. Bulletin Board should be eye-catching and well designed. This way you may invite more people to respond to it. In this Bulletin Board, what items are include? Ss: The Bulletin Board includes: A title, Background design, Introduction words, Responses. Activity three: Respond to the topic T: You have known the Bulletin Board well. Now please present your response to it after surfing the Internet and collecting information in the library, you can work in groups. The Ss choose a sea animal and collect information. Then present information about a certain sea animal. Sa: I am always interested in sharks. So I have come to know something interesting about sharks the project. Sa’s works: Sharks Sharks are fish that have been around long before the dinosaurs(恐龙) existed. They live in waters all over the world, in every ocean, and even in some rivers and lakes. Unlike bony fish, sharks have no bones, and this makes it possible for dolphins to attack them. Dolphins, on the other hand, have strong bones and they can attack sharks by jumping up and strike the sharks’ body. Therefore, with many dolphins attacking from all the sides the shark will die soon. Sharks may have up to 3,000 teeth at one time. Most sharks do not chew their food, but gulp (大口吞咽) it down whole in large pieces. The teeth are arranged in rows. When one tooth is damaged or lost, it is replaced by another. Most sharks have about 5 rows of teeth at any time.
Sb: I like killer whales because they are the largest dangerous animals in the world. So I made a study of their life. Sb’s works: Killer whales Socializing among killer Whales includes a great variety of communication
between members of the group. Killer whales can be distinguished by the kinds of underwater communication sounds they produce - squeals and screams. Killer whales have acute hearing and also acute vision both in and out of the water. When resting, whales slow down and at times stop altogether, and usually become very quiet underwater. Periods of rest may last from less than an hour to more than 7 hours. They may travel from one good feeding spot to another, or it could simply be a means of transiting an area.
Step III Do-it-yourself project Activity one: Know the procedures to plan a Bulletin Board T: It is no easy job to plan a project. We need careful plan and design before we carry out the project. But scientific procedures will ensure its success. Now please look at the following sample procedures of making a project, choose a topic in groups and make a do-it-yourself project. The Ss work in groups and try to do a project. After careful study the students will use the procedures to guide their own project plan. Sample procedures: Procedures Procedure one Activities Choose a theme which interests the students in the same group. Procedure two Procedure three Work out a plan. Group leader assigns(布置) different tasks to each person. Eg: Sa and Sb will design the background of the Bulletin Board; Sc will work as the host to write inviting lines; Sd will act as one of the student who respond; Se will act as another person to respond to the show. Procedure four Procedure five Collect information and carry out the tasks separately. Present the Bulletin Board to the whole class.
Activity two: assign the projects
T: Now you will be divided into groups, and you can work together to design a bulletin board by yourselves. I think everyone of you can do a good job. Ss: Form groups and choose a topic. Then follow the procedures to carry out their tasks. Step Ⅳ Presentation Activity one: Group one does presentation T: I will let one group present your bulletin board in class. First, group one will present your works. Group one’s leader: Our group chose water sports as our theme. Sa and Sb: In our design we use water, sky and people’s exciting expressions as our background. This means that water sports provide people with enough water and wide range of sky, and people can enjoy themselves by simply joining in the sports. Besides, water sports are challenging and this means that this kind of sports can give people great excitement. Sc: I work as the host of the Bulletin Board. Here are my lines: Hello, everyone. Sea sports, as one of the most important part of sports items in the Olympic Games, need your attention. You needn’t have to be a skilled athlete or a real fan of the sport. You can show your love for the sport by simply put on information of sea sports on the bulletin board. Just write something down on it, you have become a participant of the activity. Sd: My response to the Bulletin Board is diving. Sd’s works: A world of adventure awaits you underwater, and we are just waiting for the chance to take you there. The underwater world is one of amazing new experiences and memorable encounters where you will see and get close to some of nature's most beautiful creations. Diving will take you to new places and introduce you to new friends who will share your fascination for exploring and discovering the exciting world beneath the sea. It is an experience like no other on our planet.
Sd: My response to the Bulletin Board is windsurfing.
Se’s works: Windsurfing, is arguably the most exciting sea sports in the world. Ask any windsailor and he will describe windsailing as the ultimate lifestyle. Of course there will be some falling and balancing practices needed before you can do that. Windsurfing gives you both challenge and satisfaction. After you have experienced once on the ocean you will know how exciting it is.
StepⅤ Homework Task one: Go over the whole unit we have learnt and finish the unit diary on page 20. Task two: Preview unit 8.
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