非谓语动词 一、动词不定式 一） 不定式结构作主语 、 To see one time is better than to hear a hundred times. To persevere means victory! 注①：在很多情况下，特别是在口语中，常采用先行 it 代替主语，而把不定式后置： It’s a great pleasure to be here. It i
s not an easy thing to master a language. 注②：这种后置不定式的结构也适用于某些谓语动词不是系动词的句子，如： It took us five hours to get there. It made us very angry to hear him talk like that.注③： 注 不定式结构的逻辑主语通常可在特定 的上下文或情景中看出，也可以由“ for + 名词词组” 来表示，如： It is not hard for one to do a bit of good. It was difficult for me to do the work. 注④： 某些形容词在上述结构中作表语时， 常在不定式之前加上 “of + 名词词组” 来说明不 定式所指的是谁的情况，如： It’s kind of you to think so much of us. It’s very nice of you to be so considerate. It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal. It was careless of her to make such a mistake. 二） 不定式结构作表语 、 1．主语和表语都是不定式（其含义往往一是条件，一是结果） ，如： To be kind to the enemy is to be cruel to the people. To do that would be to cut the foot to fit the shoe. 2． 主语是以 aim, duty, hope, idea, intention, mistake, plan, proposal, job, suggestion 等为中心词 的名词词组，或以 what 引导的名词性从句表示，后面的不定式说明其内容，如： My idea is to climb the mountain from the north. Your mistake was not to write that letter. My suggestion is to start work at once. What I would suggest is to start work at once. 注： 在某些句型中， 当主语部分有动作动词 do 时， 作表语的不定式可以省略符号 “to”， t 如： All we have to do is push the button. The only thing I can do now is go on by myself. All I could do was send him a telegram. 三） 不定式结构作动词宾语 、 1．“动词 + 带 to 的不定式结构”。这类动词常见的有：afford, agree, arrange, ask, choose, 动 decide, demand, desire, expect, hope, learn, manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, like, hate, prefer, continue, try, start, forget, mean, intend, begin, 等，例如： I’ve arranged to meet him at ten o’clock. I didn’t expect to find you here. 2．“动词 + 疑问词 + 带 to 的不定式结构”。 动 （这种不定式结构接近一个名词从句） 。这类 动词常见的有：tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, forget, inquire, know, explain, remember, see, understand, wonder 等。 疑问词 （也称连接代/副词） what, where, who(m), when, how, whether, which 有： （why
除外） ，如： I don’t know what to do / where to go / who(m) to ask / when to stop / how to get there. I haven’t decided whether to sell it or not. We must find out what to do next / where to put it. 注① ：如果作宾语的不定式结构有自己的补语，则应使用先行 it，把不定式后置，例如： I find it difficult to understand him. We thought it wrong not to help her. They found it impossible to get everything ready in time. 注② ：不定式结构一般不可作介词宾语, 只有在个别场合, 即在含有否定意义的带有介词 except 或 but (=except) 的结构中才能这样用，例如： He seldom comes except to look at my pictures. The child did nothing except weep. She can do anything but sing. He will do anything for you except lend you money. They could do nothing but wait for the doctors to arrive. 注意不定式符号的省略问题！ 四） 不定式结构作定语 、 1．不定式作定语通常只能放在被修饰的名词之后，如： It’s time to go to bed. He is not a man to bow before difficulties. Have you anything to declare? She usually has a lot of meetings to attend in the evening. I want to get something to read during the vocation. 2．能带不定式结构作宾语的动词，转化成名词时往往也能带不定式结构作定语，如： I don’t wish to quarrel with you. →I have no wish to quarrel with you. They will attempt to cross the river tonight. → They will make another attempt to cross the river tonight. She promised not to do that again. → She made a promise not to do that again. 3．某些能带不定式结构作状语的形容词，转化成名词时，也能带不定式结构作定语，如： He was obviously anxious to go. → His anxiety to go was obvious. 4．不定式结构与所修饰的名词，有时意义上有着主谓关系或动宾关系，如： He has a large family to support (= that he must support). 注：处于动宾关系的情况下，如果不定式是不及物动词，它后面应加上必要的介词，如： She has a lot of things to attend to. The nurse has five children to look after. Let’s first find a room to put the things in. 5．有时为了明确不定式结构的逻辑关系，可以在不定式之前加上 for + 名词词组，如： Here’s a book for you to read. He gave orders for the visitors to be shown in. 五） 不定式结构作状语不定式结构可以作状语，修饰动词、形容词、副词等，表示目的、 、 目 原因、结果、条件等。
1．表示目的： They ran over to welcome the delegates. He bought a bicycle to go to town more quickly. He went home to see his mother. 注①：不定式结构表示目的时，通常句子的主语就是它的逻辑主语(参见以上三句)，但也有 例外的情况，例如： I stopped for him to speak to me. He opened the door for the children to come in. He brought a porter to carry the boxes / bags. They sent a man to mend the window. He stood up to be seen better.注②：为了强调表示目的的不定式结构，特别是在不定式结 注 构前有否定词 not 时，通常可以在不定式符号 to 之前加上 in order 或 so as，如： He came here in order to see Charlie. He shouted and waved so as to be noticed. He went early in order not to miss the train. I turned the radio down so as not to disturb him. 注③：表示目的的不定式可以置于句首，这也是区别于其他功能的标志之一。但是，置于句 首表示目的的不定式之前可以加上 in order，但却不可以加上 so as ，如： To draw maps properly, you need a special pen. (In order to draw maps properly, you need a special pen.) To get the best results, use clean water. 2. 表示结果： What have I said to make you so angry? He came round to find himself in hospital. 不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型： ① so …as to … Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle / tell me the time? ② such (…) as to … I’m not such a fool as to believe that. ③ enough to … The boy is old enough to go to school. ④ too … to … His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. 注意：下列句子中的不表示结果，也无否定含义： I’m only too glad to go. (= I’m very glad to go.) I shall be only too pleased to get home. (= I shall be very pleased to get home.) 〖 only too (adv.) 极; 非常; 太;很 〗 ☆☆有时，不定式结构还能表示一个随后发生的动作，相当于一个并列限定动词词组，这种 不定式结构也表示结果，如： She woke early to find it was raining. He got home to learn that his father was ill. 这种表示结果的不定式结构具有下列几个特点： ① 不定式所表示的动作是随后发生的，相当于一个限定动词词组，如： He arrived late to find the others had gone home. He arrived late and found the others had gone home. ② 不定式根据是否需要停顿而决定与主句是否用逗号隔开。 He left his native country (,) never to return. He returned home (,) to find his father lying sick in bed.
③ 不定式所表示的结果往往含有“令人意想不到”的意味，其中以“使人不愉快的结果”较为 常见。 （有时也可以表示令人愉快、惊喜的结果） ，如： He went home to find his old friend George waiting for him. ④ 不定式之前有时可以加上 only 或 but only，以加强语气，如： He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. They lifted a rock only to drop it on their own feet. 注： 不定式结构表示结果或表示目的， 往往形式相似， 这时， 须根据词汇意义认真加以区别， 试比较： He arrived late to find the others had gone home. ( = He arrived late and found the others had gone home.) He arrived late to avoid meeting Robert. ( = He arrived late in order to avoid meeting Robert.) He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. He went to the station to inquire about the times of trains. ( = He went to the station in order to inquire about the times of trains.) 3. 表示原因： 不定式所表示的动作先于谓语动词的动作） （ She wept to hear the news. I pretend to be happy to know him. He laughed to see such fun. She seemed surprised to meet us.六） 不定式结构作宾语补足语 六 、 Don’t force yourself to write when you have nothing to say. He believed the earth to be a globe. Did you see a young man enter the house? 1．只能用不定式结构作宾语补足语的动词： ① 表示“希望”“愿望”等心理状态的动词， wish, desire, expect, love, prefer, encourage, trust 如： 等。 What do you desire me to do? The director preferred her to act the old lady. ② 含有“让”“允许”“促使”“致使”等祈使意义的动词， let, allow, permit, decide, mean, lead, 如： bring, put, hurry, cause, 等。 We mustn’t let this happen again. His father put him to mind the sheep. ③ 带有“请求”“恳求”等感情色彩的动词，如：ask, desire, invite, beg, request, worry 等。 He begged me not to tell his father about it. She was always worrying her father to take her to Paris. ④ 含有“建议”“劝告”等意义的动词，如：advise, persuade, call on, urge 等。 He urged us to accept the compromise. The dentist advised me to have the bad tooth pulled out. ⑤ 含有“命令”“强迫”“禁止”等意义的动词，如：order, command, require, charge, tell, make, oblige, force, drive, forbid, warn 等。 He required us to keep it a secret. The doctor ordered him to stay in bed for a few days. I warn you not to do that again. ⑥ 其他还有：help, teach, show, assist, report, bear, wait for, train, depend on 等。 He promised to teach me to swim.
We should train them to make use of reference books. We are waiting for the train to stop.2．既能用不定式结构又能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动 2 词： △ see, watch, notice, look at, hear, listen to, observe, feel, have; △ imagine, find, discover, like, want, understand, hate, bring, get, leave, set Did you see anyone enter the house? Don’t imagine yourself to be always correct. We find him to be dishonest. He set the boys to carry water. I’ll leave him to solve the problem for himself. 注①： 有些动词用不定式与用现在分词作宾语补足语， 不 现 所表达的意义是有差别的。 一般说来， 用不定式表示一次性动作或动作的完成（即全过程） ；而用现在分词则表示动作正在进行， 即：谓语动词所表示的动作发生时，现在分词所表示的动作正在进行，如： Did you see anyone enter the house? He saw his father talking with his teacher. I once heard him sing this song. She heard Mr. White singing in the next room.注②：使用不定式作宾语补足语时，在有些 注 动词后面，不定式符号 to 应当省略。 △ 下列动词用不定式作宾语补足语时，必须省去不定式符号 to： let, make, have, see, watch, notice, look at, observe, hear, listen to He observed someone open the door. I watched them get into the car. Did you notice him leave the room? △ feel 一词在使用 to do 型不定式作宾语补足语时，不带 to；在使用 to be 型不定式时， 要带 to，如： He felt them to be right. Did you feel the earth shake? △ help 一词在使用不定式作宾语补足语时，可以带 to，也可以不带 to，如： Do you often help your mother (to) do the housework? △ 使用不定式作宾语补足语的句子，改为被动结构以后，宾语补足语就成了主语补足语，这 时，“to”不可以省略，如： The boss made them work from morning till night. They were made to work from morning till night.不定式的一般式所表示的动作，通常与主要 不 谓语所表示的动作 或状态） 时 或几乎同时） 生， 者是在它之后发生例如： （ 同 （ 发 或 Who heard him say that? They invited us to go there this summer. 如果不定式所表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生，这个不定式就要用 完成 式，如： I’m glad to have seen your mother. (cf. I’m glad to see you. ) 七） 不定式的完成式有下列用法 、 1．构成复合谓语，如： He is said to have written a new book about workers. (It is said that he has written a new book about workers.)
The enemy was reported to have surrendered. (It was reported that the enemy had surrendered.) She seemed to have heard about it already. (It seemed that she had already heard about it.) 2．在某些作表语用的形容词后作状语，如： You are lucky to have got tickets to the concert. (=You are lucky that you have got tickets to the concert.) I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble. (=I’m sorry I have given you so much trouble.) She was very glad to have done something for the people. 3．在某些动词后作宾语，如： He pretended not to have seen me. I meant to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so. 4．有时还可以作主语、定语或构成复合宾语，如： It was a great satisfaction to have revisited our native village.（主语） So you are the one to have cleaned all these rooms.（定语） They thought it a pity not to have invited her.（复合宾语） She felt it an honour to have taken part in the work. （复合宾语） 如果主要谓语所表示的动作（或情况）发生时，不定式所表示的动作正在进行，这时，不定 式就要用进行式。 八） 不定式的进行式主要有下列几种用法 、 1．构成复合谓语，如： They are said to be building another bridge across the river. They seem to be getting along quite well. I happened to be going that way too. 2．在某些动词后构成复合宾语，如： We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here. 3．在某些动词后作宾语，如： He pretended to be listening attentively. 4．有时可以作主语或状语，如： I am glad to be working with you. (状语) It’s nice of you to be thinking of us. (主语) 九） 如果不定式所表示的动作在谓语所表示的时间之前一直在进行， 需要用完成进行式， 、 就 如： They are said to have been collecting folk songs in Yunnan. She wished to have been training as hard as the others. It’s a great pleasure to have been working with you. 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时，不定式一般要采用被动形式。 十） 不定式的被动形式有下列用法 、 1．作主语： It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here. 2．作宾语： She asked to be sent to work in Xinjiang. 3．构成复合宾语：
He wanted the letter to be typed at once. She didn’t like herself to be praised like that. 4．构成复合谓语： The books are not allowed to be taken out of the room. 5．作定语： Are you going to the meeting to be held in the teachers’ office? 6．作状语： She was too young to be assigned such work.十一） 不定式有时还可以有完成式的被动式， 十 、 在句中作主语、宾语、定语，或者构成复合宾语、复合谓语等，如： It is a good thing for him to have been criticized.（主语） She preferred to have been given heavier work to do. (宾语)） He thought it an honour to have been invited to the party. （复合宾语） The book is said to have been translated into many languages. （复合谓语） She was the first woman to have been elected to such a post. （定语） 十二）不定式作独立成分。 ?To tell (you) the truth, he doesn’t agree with you. ?To begin with, Beijing is a very beautiful city. 1.We were surprised to hear the news. 2. We have to get up early to catch the first train. 3. He is considered to be a great scientist. 4. To see is to believe. 5. I have a lot of words to say. 6.It’s impossible for him to go alone. 7.She promised to make no mistakes at all. 8.I find it difficult to understand him. 9. To catch the train, we’d better hurry to the station by taxi.十三） 动词不定式省略 to 的情况 十 、 归纳 *1 当动词不定式作宾语补足语时， 如动词是 make, let , have 或 look at , see, watch, observe, hear, listen to, feel 、等，不定式不带 to. *2. 在下列结构后 had better, would rather, would rather…than, cannot but（不得不 ， 必然，不能不）, can’t help but 等 *3. Why…. 或 why not … 表建议 *4. 在介词 but , except 之后，如果其前有 实义动词 do 的某种形式，不定式不带 to,反之须 带 to . *5 不定时作表语时，如果解释 do 的具体内容时，to 可以省去。 *6 动词 help 或 help+宾语之后，可用带 to 的不定式，也可用不带 to 的不定式，但在 help+ 宾语+不定式结构中，如果用不带 to 的不定式，表示主语参与了不定式所表示的动作；如果 用带 to 的不定式，表示主语没有参与不定时所表示的动作。 分 词一、形 式△ 现在分词：△ 过去分词只有一种形式。 △ 二、 功 能 1．作表语。现在分词多表示主语所具有的特征或属性；过去分词多表示主语所处的状态， 如： The news was exciting. The situation is encouraging.
She looked disappointed. He appeared satisfied with my answer. He seemed quite delighted at the idea. Don’t get excited. 注①： 已经成为形容词的分词， 可以用 very 修饰； 没有完全成为形容词的分词宜用 much 或 quite，有时也可用 very much，如： I’m very much pleased. He’s very much worried about his health.注②：过去分词作表语时，应注意与被动结构的 注 区别。 系表结构说明主语的状态或具有的性质、特点；被动结构强调谓语动作，指主语所 被 承受的动作。此外还有： 系表结构：a. 常用一般现在或一般过去时态；b. 一般不带状语； c. 可以有不及物动词的过去分词。 被动结构：a. 有多种时态，常与主动语态的时态一致；b. 可以带时 间、方式或 by 短语作状语；c. 必须是及物动词。 The small village is surrounded by trees. (状态) The small village was soon surrounded by enemy soldiers. (动作) I’m interested in chess. I was interested by what you told me. The sun is risen. This novel was written by Lu Xun in 1921. 2．作定语： ① 单独作定语，应放在被修饰的名词之前，如： touching story / leading cadres / shining example / coming week / skilled worker / armed forces / boiled water / steamed bread Barking dogs seldom bite. Soon our respected and beloved leaders entered the banquet hall. 注：分词作定语时，意义上接近于一个定语从句，如： developing countries = countries that are developing a growing city = a city that is growing liberated areas = areas that have been liberated ② 在更多情况下，可以用分词短语作定语，这时分词短语应放在被修饰的名词之后，在 意义上也相当于一个定语从句，如： Who is the man standing (= that is standing) by the door? They built a highway leading (= which leads) into the mountains. They are problems left (= which have been left) over by history. Have you read any short stories written by Lu Xun? ③ 作定语的现在分词所表示的动作发生的时间有两种情况： a. 表示正在进行的动作, (变为从句时要用进行时态), 如： Tell the children playing there (who are playing there) not to make so much noise. Did you see the man talking (who was talking) to the manager? b. 表示经常性的动作, 或现在 (或当时) 的状态, (变为从句时, 用一般时态), 如： They lived in a room facing (= that faced) the south. The house standing (= that stands) at the corner of the street was built in 1955. ④ 过去分词作定语时，过去分词所表示的动作可以在谓语所表示的动作之前发生，也可以
是没有一定的时间性，如： Is this the book recommended by our teacher? The meeting held last week is very important. He is a man loved by all. I hate to see letters written in pencil. 注①：如果所表示的动作现刻正在发生，或是与谓语所表示的动作同时发生，可以用现在分 现 词的被动形式来表示，如： The meeting being held is very important. We must keep a secret of the things being discussed here. 注②：如果所表示的是一个未来的动作，可以用一个不定式的被动形式来表示，如： 不 The meeting to be held next week is very important. Please tell me the subjects to be discussed at the next meeting. ⑤ 分词还可以作非限制性定语（相当于一个非限制性定语从句） ，这时，它和句子的其他部 分用逗号隔开，试比较： All my brothers living in Shanghai are scientists. All my brothers, living in Shanghai, are scientists. All the letters in the drawer written in pencil are from my sister. All the letters in the drawer, written in pencil, are from my sister. ⑥ 本节值得注意的问题：现在分词短语作定语时，所表示的动作不能先于谓语所表示的动 作，也不可以表示将来。另外，一般不用现在分词的完成式作定语，所以，下列句子都是错 的： Here is Mr. Li coming from Beijing. (应改为 who has come from Beijing) Those having finished their work can go home now. (应改为 who have finished) The man giving us a lecture last week left for Shenzhen this morning. (应改为 who gave us) ⑦ 系动词的现在分词形式不可用作后置定语，此时要用从句来表示，如： Those being busy don’t have to go. (应改为 Those who are busy don’t have to go.) His brother being a PLA man is 18 years old. (应改为 who is) ⑧ 不及物动词的过去分词不可用作后置定语，若要表示这个意思要用从句，如： The lion died in this zoo the other day was a mother lion. (应改为 which/that died) 3．作状语： ① 现在分词作状语，表示陪衬性的动作或伴随情况，如： 陪 The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. They stood there for an hour watching the game. She sat at the desk reading a newspaper. 注意：a. 分词表示的必须是主语的一个动作；b. 分词表示的动作和谓语表示的动作（或状 态）是同时发生的；c. 分词表示的是比较次要的动作，对谓语表示的动作或状态加以说明； d. 大部分放在谓语之后；e. 分词有时可以与句子的其他部分用逗号隔开。 ② 现在分词作状语，表示行为方式或手段（这类状语可以放在句首，也可以放在句末，有 表 时还可以放在句中。其他参考上述 a-c） ，如： Following the guide, they started to climb. Working this way, they greatly reduced the cost. Travelling by jeep, we visited a number of cities. ③ 现在分词作状语，表示原因或理由，如： 表 Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note.
Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her. Being so poor in those days, we couldn’t afford to send the boy to hospital. 注：如果分词表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生，则要用完成形式，如： Having worked among the peasants for many years, he knew them very well. Not having received an answer, he decided to write another letter. Having lived in Berlin many years, he knew the city well. ④ 现在分词作时间状语（相当于 when 引导的从句） 时 ，如： Turning around, she saw a police car driving up. Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those days in Yan’an. 注①：这里分词表示的是一个极短暂的动作，这动作一发生，谓语动词所表示的动作立即发 生。这类分词一般放在句首。如果两个动作是完全同时发生的，多用 when 或 while + 分 词这种结构，如： Be careful when crossing the street. Don’t mention this while talking to him. 注②：如果要强调谓语动词的动作发生时，分词的动作已经完成，这个分词要用完成形式， 如： Having arrived at a decision, they immediately set to work. Having heard this, the woman astronaut expressed her satisfaction. ⑤ 现在分词作状语还可以表示结果、条件和让步，如： 表 Her husband died in 1942, leaving her with five children. (结果) The bus was held up by snowstorm, thus causing the delay. (结果) Working hard, you will succeed. (条件) Turning to the left, you will find the path leading to the site. (条件) Weighing almost one hundred jin, the stone was moved by him alone. (让步)⑥ 过去分词短 语作状语，可以修饰谓语，说明动作发生的背景或情况，如： 说 Built in 1192, the bridge is over 700 years old. Led by the party, the people have improved their living conditions greatly. Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the room. The trainer appeared, followed by six little dogs. ⑦ 过去分词短语表示原因（相当于一个原因状语从句） 表 ，如： The children, exhausted, fell asleep at once. He soon fell asleep, exhausted by the journey. (= as he was exhausted…) ⑧ 过去分词短语有时可以表示时间 表 （相当于时间状语从句） 和条件 （相当于条件状语从句） ， 如： United, we stand; divided, we fall. (=When / If we are united …) Heated, water changes into steam. (=When / If water is heated …) Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. 注：过去分词短语作状语时，前面有时可以加上 when, if, while, though, as if 等连词，这种 结构可以看作是一种省略的状语从句（省略部分多为 “主语 + be 的多种形式”） 。需要注意 的是，省略的主语必须和主句的主语相同，如： If / When heated, water changes into steam. Even if invited, I won’t go. We will not attack unless attacked.
The girl is very shy, and never speaks until spoken to. 4．作宾语补足语： ① 现在分词做宾语补足语，如： I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face. He tried to start the engine running. The words immediately set us all laughing. 注：现在分词做宾语补足语表示动作与谓语同时发生或正在进行，强调动作过程。 ② 过去分词做宾语补足语，如： He watched the TV set carried out of the room. Last year they had the house rebuilt. When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. You’d better have your shoes mended. 注：过去分词做宾语补足语表示动作完成结果，并有被动意义。 ③ 现在分词做宾语补足语时，与宾语有着逻辑上的主谓关系，宾语补足语一般为宾语所做 的动作；过去分词做宾语补足语时，与宾语有着动宾关系，宾语是过去分词所表示的动作的 承受者，如： He saw an old man getting on the bus. An old man was getting on the bus. I once heard this song sung in Japanese. This song was once sung in Japanese. I don’t want the children taken out in such weather. The children were taken out in such weather. ④ 以上句子可以变为被动结构，这时，宾语补足语就成了主语补足语，与谓语一起称为“复 合谓语”，如： We were kept waiting for quite a long time. She was never heard singing that song again. One of the glasses was found broken. ⑤ 有些动词既可以用不定式作宾语补足语，又可以用现在分词作宾语补足语，有些动词只 有 能用现在分词作宾语补足语，这些动词是：catch, keep, mind, prevent, remember, stop, start, smell, excuse, spy, send 等，例如： She caught her son smoking a cigarette. We’d better keep the fire burning. I don’t mind you joking. I like it. The heavy rain prevented us coming here on time. I don’t remember him ever saying anything like that. We must try to stop them getting into trouble. His words started me thinking seriously. Can you smell something burning? The earthquake sent the china and glass crashing to the ground. 现在分词的完成形式和被动形式 ① 现在分词的完成形式主要用在状语中，表示动作在谓语动作之前发生，如： Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide. The delegates, having fulfilled their mission, arrived back in Shanghai.
注：在独立结构中，也可以用现在分词的完成形式，如： His comrades having all left for the front, he didn’t want to stay in the rear.② 在表示一个被 动的动作时，如果这个动作是现刻正在进行的，或是与谓语表示的动作同时发生的，就可以 用现在分词的被动形式。这种形式可以作定语、状语或构成复合宾语，如： 定 构 That building being repaired is our library. （定语） He asked who was the man being operated on. （定语） You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere. （宾语补足语） As we entered the village, we saw new houses being built. （宾语补足语） Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse.（状语） Being protected by a thick wall, they felt they were quite safe. （状语） △ 有时还有完成被动形式，如： Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away?在用分词短语作状语 在 时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一致, 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主 语, 这种结构称为: 独 立 结 构独立结构可以表示伴随动作或情况, 表示时间、原因、条件 等, 例如： He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. (伴随情况) The shower being over, we continued to march. (时间) So many students being absent, we decided to put the meeting off. (原因) Weather permitting, we’ll have an outing tomorrow. (条件) All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours. The job done, we went home. The composition written, he handed it to the teacher.现在分词和过去分词用法之异同 现在 现 分词和过去分词的用法异同历来是学习中的难点和高考测试的重点。 众所周知， 两种分词的 区别很多，但它们之间的根本区别是： 过去分词在时态上强调动作已经完成，在语态上侧重于被动； 而现在分词在时态上强调动作正在进行，在语态上侧重于主动。 这种根本的区别具体体现在两种分词分别充当的各种句子成份中。细述如下： 一、分词作定语 共同点： 分词作定语时， 如果分词只是一个单词， 那么， 该分词就位于其所修饰的名词之前； 如果是分词短语， 那么， 该短语就位于其所修饰的名词之后， 它的作用相当于一个定语从句。 不同点：分词作定语时，被分词所修饰的名词就是该分词的逻辑主语。但现在分词与逻辑主 语之间是主动关系， 所表示的动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生； 而过去分词 则表示被动关系，所示动作一般发生在谓语动词之前或同时发生。 1.There was a terrible noise ____ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 简析：首先，根据语法分析可知，句子后半部分是一个 作定语、修饰 noise 的分词短语；再根据句意“一阵闪电之后，接着就是一声巨响。”可知， 巨响应是主动， 紧接在闪电之后的。 因此， 该题应选 B。 2.The Olympic Games, ____ in 776 B. C., didn’t include women until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be playing 简析：首先，根据语法分析可知，待选部 分是一个作定语、修饰 The Olympic Games 的后置分词短语；再根据 The Olympic Games 对于动词 play 来说只能是被动承受，且已完成 (in 776 B. C.)。因此，该题应选 C。3.What’s the language ____ in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak 简析： 该题应选 B。 测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动， 等于定语从句 which is spoken
4.Most of the people ____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting 简析：该题应选 A。测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动， 等于定语从句 who were invited5.Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 简析：该题应选 A。 测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动， 等于定语从句 who were invited6.The computer centre, ____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 简析：该题应选 D。测试过去分词短 语作定语放在所修饰的名词后，可以用非限制性定语从句“which was opened last year”代替 7.The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 简析： 该题应选 D。 测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动，等于定语从句 which were written 二、分词作表语共同 点：分词作表语时，它起着形容词的作用。 不同点：分词作表语时，句子的主语就是该 分词的逻辑主语。但现在分词作表语时，与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系，所表示的动作的一 般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生； 而过去分词则表示被动关系， 所示动作一般发生 在谓语动词之前或同时发生。 1.This news sounds ____. A. encouraging B. encouraged C. encourage D. to encourage 简析：首先，根据语法分析可知，待选部分在句中应作表语，因为 sounds 在此句中用作连 系动词； 再根据 The news 对于动词 encourage 来说应是主动关系， 即这个消息本身就鼓舞 人心。因此，该题应选 A。2. -How did Bob do in the exams this time? -Well, his father seems ____ with his results. A. pleasing B. please C. pleased D. to please 简析：首先, 根据语法分析可知, 待选部分在句中应作表语。因为 seems 在此句中 用作连系动词; 再根据 his father 对于动词 please 来说应是被动关系, 即这个结果使他的 父亲高兴; 换言之, 他的父亲因为受到这个结果的刺激而感到高兴。因此, 该题应选 C。3. -How did the audience receive the new play? -They got very ____. A . excite B. excited C . excitedly D . exciting 简析：该题应选 B。测试他们被那出 新戏所打动。 三、分词作宾语补足语 共同点： 分词在复合宾语中可作宾语补足语， 对句子的宾语起补充或说明作用。 不同点： 分词作宾语补足语时， 句子的宾语就是该分词的逻辑主语。 但现在分词与其逻辑主语之间是 主动关系， 所表示的动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生； 而过去分词则表示被 动关系， 所示动作一般发生在谓语动词之前或同时发生。 1.The next morning she found the man ____ in bed, dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 简析: 首先, 根据语法分析可知, 待选部分在句中应作宾补, 补充说明宾语 the man; 再根据宾语 the man 对于动词 lie 来说应是主动关系, 而且, lie 这个动作与谓语动词 found 同时进行。因此, 该题应选 A。2. -Good morning. Can I help you? -I’d like to have the package ____, madam. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed 简析: 首先, 根据语法分析可知, 待选部分在句中应作宾补, 补充说明宾语 the package; 再根据 the package 对于动词 weigh 来说, 只能是被动关系。 因 此，该题应选 D。3. I can hardly imagine Peter ____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. sailing C. to sail D. to have sailed 简析: 该题应选 B。 测试 动词 imagine 后要求跟动名词, Peter 是动名词的逻辑主语。4.If you wave your book in front of your face, you can feel the air ____ against your face. A. moved B. moving C. moves D. to move 简析: 该题应选 B。测试使役动词后用现在分词作宾补 表示宾语正发出的动作。 四、分词作状语
共同点：分词作状语时，一般在句子中作时间、原因、方式或伴随等状语。 不同点：分 词作状语时，句子的主语就是该分词的逻辑主语。但现在分词作状语时，与其逻辑主语之间 是主动关系， 所表示的动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生； 而过去分词则表示 被动关系，所示动作一般发生谓语动词之前或同时发生。 1.European football is played in 80 countries, ____ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make 简析： 首先， 根据语法分析可知， 待选部分在整个句中应作状语； 再根据 European football 对于 make 来说应是主动关系，即欧洲足球使之本身成为一项最 受世人欢迎的运动。因此，该题应选 A。2.____ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 简析：该题应选 C。 测试非谓语动 词的否定式是在其前直接加 not 。若动作发生在主句动作之前时用非谓语的完成式。3.The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ____ that he had enjoyed his stay here. A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added 简析：该题应选 C。测 试现在分词可以作补充说明的状语。 4. “Can’t you read?” Mary said ____ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing 简析：该题应选 A。测试现在分词 作伴随状语，通过副词 angrily 进行干扰。若 B 答案为 and pointed angrily 时也对。 另 外， 分词作状语时， 如果其逻辑主语与整个句子的主语不一致时， 需要独立主格结构或 with 复合结构来替代。(此时，也可把该分词看成介词的宾语补足语。) 例: The murderer was brought in, with his hands ____ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 简析：很显然，待选部分的逻辑主语是 his hands，而不是句子的主语 The murderer , 而 his hands 对于动词 tie 来说，只能是被动承受。因此，该题应选 D。 动 名 词一、动名词的形式 二、功能及用法 1．动名词（短语）做主语，如： Writing the book has taken up all his spare time. Seeing is believing. 注①：动名词（短语）做主语还常用于下列结构： a. It’s no use sending him over. It’s too late already. It’s no good talking a lot without doing anything. It’s a waste of time arguing about it. b. There’s no joking about such matters. There’s no saying what he’ll be doing next. There’s no telling what he’s going to do. 注②：动名词作主语与不定式作主语的区别： 动名词作主语通常表示抽象的或泛指的动作，一般不与特定的动作执行者联系在 一起； 不定式作主语通常表示具体的动作或行为， 往往与特定的动作执行者联系在一起， 如： It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (抽象) He realized that to go on like this was no use. (具体) 在实际运用中，一般可以互换，差异不大。但在下列几种情况中不能互换： a. 当表语是动名词时，主语也要用动名词；当表语是不定式时，主语也要用不定式，如： Seeing is believing. To see is to believe.b. 动名词和不定式作主语， 一般都可以使用形式主语 it， 而将动名词 或不定式放在句尾。但是在下列句型中，一般宜用动名词，不宜用不定式来代替：
一 完 般 成 式 式
主动形 式 doing having done
被动形式 being having done been done
It’s no use doing … It’s no good doing… It’s a waste of time doing …例如： It’s no use going there today; he won’t be at home. It’s a waste of time arguing about it. It’s no good waiting here. Let’s walk home.而在 It’s important … / It’s necessary … / It’s advisable … / It’s essential … / It’s fitting … 这类句型中，只能用不定式，如： It’s important to learn foreign languages. It’s quite necessary to read it many times.2．动名词（短语）作表语，如： 2 Their job is building houses. His job is raising pigs. 注①：动名词作表语与不定式作表语的区别： 动名词作表语时表示比较抽象的一般行为、 惯； 定式作表语时表示具体的某一 习 不 次动作，特别是将来的动作，试比较： My favourite sport is swimming. The first thing for us to do is to improve our pronunciation.注②：动名词作表语与现在分词 作表语的区别： 动名词作表语时相当于名词，说明主语的含义及内容，它与主语是同等关系，主语与 表语互换位置不影响句子的基本含义，但不可用副词来修饰。 现在分词作表语时相当于形容词，说明主语的特征、性质、状态等，主语与表语不可 互换位置，但可用 very, quite 等副词来修饰，如： My job is looking after the children. Our duty is serving the people heart and soul. The situation is encouraging. This cake is very inviting. The volleyball match we watched was very exciting. 3．动名词（短语）用作宾语的情 况很多，如： Hearing the words, she couldn’t help thinking of her past bitterness. We all avoided mentioning that matter. ★ 能用动名词作宾语的动词有两类： 一类是只能用动名词作宾语的动词，其中有：avoid, admit, consider, delay, advise, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, give up, can’t help, imagine, keep (on), don’t mind, miss, practise, put off, stop, go on, resist, suggest 等，如： Mary is considering changing her job. I enjoy working with you. Would you mind ringing me up tomorrow? 另一类是既可以用动名词，又可以用不定式作宾语的动词，其中有：begin, cannot bear, continue, forget, hate, intend, like, love, plan, prefer, propose, regret, remember, start, try, want, need, can’t afford 等。 上述动词尽管可以带两种结构作宾语，但用法不尽相同，需要注意下列几个情况： A. 在 begin, start, cease, continue, cannot bear, hate, like, love, prefer, propose 等动词后， 两种结构意义无大的出入，如： She can’t bear being laughed at / to be laughed at. 但是在下列情况下，通常用不定式： 不
a. 在 would like / love / prefer / hate 后表示一个特定的新动作时： I’d like to buy a suit. I’d hate to disappoint them. b. 当谓语动词已用进行时态时： The water is beginning / starting to boil. I’m starting to work on my essay next week. c. 在 begin 等后，非限定动词由某些状态动词构成时（即：指心理状态或精神活动时） ： She began to believe his story. He began to realize that he was wrong. d. 当主语是物，不是人时： The water started / began to boil. The ice started / began to melt. B. 在 need, want, deserve 等后，可用动名词的主动式表示被动含义，或用不定式的被动式， 意义上无差别。但用动名词较为普遍， （这时主语一般是物） ，如： The door needs oiling / to be oiled. C. 有的动词尽管可以用两种结构，但意义明显不同，须认真加以区别： I forgot to close the door before I left the room. I forgot having closed the door. He tried to write better. (尽量努力地写) He tried writing with a brush. (用毛笔试着写) I couldn’t help finishing it. (不能不结束某事) I couldn’t help to finish it. (不能帮助结束某事) They left off fishing. (停止钓鱼) They left off to fish. (离开某处出发去钓鱼) I regret to say that there is no wine in the bottle. (对现在要发生的事表示遗憾、抱歉) I regret not taking your advice. (后悔) ★ 动名词（短语）还常常跟在短语动词之后，作介词的宾语。常见的有： insist on / think of / dream of / object to / hear of / prevent … from / keep … from / stop … from / feel like / be engaged in / look forward to / depend on / thank … for / excuse … for / devote … to / set about / spend … in / get (be) used to … / be fond of / be afraid of / be tired of / succeed in / be interested in / be proud of / burst out / give up 等，如： He insisted on seeing us home. They all objected to putting the meeting off. Are you interested in going to the show? I’m thinking of going to town this afternoon. I don’t feel like eating anything. She is afraid of falling behind the others. He finally got tired of doing office work. She devotes hours to helping Mother with housework on Sunday. 4．动名词（短语）可以和 about, against, at, before, after, by, for, besides, from, in, on, upon, without 等介词构成短语，在句中作状语，如： They broke in loud cheers on hearing the news. He warned me against swimming there. She left without saying good-bye to us.
Besides cooking and sewing, she had to take care of the children. He felt uncomfortable about accepting the gift. They were surprised at your doing that. 5．动名词（短语）可以和介词构成短语作定语，如： He hasn’t much experience in running factories. What’s their reason for cancelling the English evening? Have you any objection to going there on foot? He has little hope of passing his examinations. They don’t approve of his way of looking at things. I’m glad to have this opportunity of coming to visit your country. 6．动名词还可以作定语，如： singing competition swimming pool dining car opening speech drinking cup living room typing paper waiting room writing desk washing machine frying-pan sleeping-pill walking stick teaching method 注：动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的用途，它和名词之间没有逻辑上的主谓关系；而现在分 词作定语，表示被修饰名词本身的动作、行为，它和名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。 三、 动名词的复合结构 动名词的复合结构就是前面带有代词或名词的动名词结构。 有时为了明确动名词所表示的动作的执行者， 可以在动名词之前加上一个物主代词 物 或名词所有格，来表示动名词逻辑上的主语。有时也可以用人称代词宾格或名词普通格，不 名 过，这主要用于口语中。如： She won’t hear of us leaving the village. Do you object to Li Ping’s joining the physics group? 注①：如果不是在句子的开头，这个结构常用名词的普通格或人称代词宾格，如： I don’t like the idea of us / our not helping at all. I don’t mind Jane buying another one. 注②：如果动名词的逻辑主语是表示无生命的东西的名词，或不定代词，就只能用普通格， 不能用所有格，如： Is there any hope of your team winning the match? The boy was alarmed by someone knocking at the door.动名词的复合结构有下列用法： 动 ① 作主语： Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. Nothing is worse than our bowing before difficulties. Lao Li’s (not: Li)going won’t be of much help. g ② 作表语： Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself. What’s troubling them is their not having enough machine tools. ③ 作宾语： Do you mind my reading your paper? Please excuse my interrupting you.
④ 作介词宾语： They insisted on my staying there for supper. Do you think there will be any chance of my seeing him again? 四、动名词的完成形式与被动形式 动名词的一般形式通常表示一般性动作（即不是明确地在过去、现在或将来发生的动作）或 是与谓语所表示的动作同时发生的动作，如： They are all interested in climbing mountains. He took a great delight in helping others. ① 如果要表示动名词代表的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生， 常用动名词的完成形式， 通 如： He didn’t mention having met me. I regret not having taken her advice. I don’t remember having ever promised you that. 注：在某些动词之后（或在成语中）常用（或可以用）动名词的一般形式表示在谓语动作之 前发生的动作，如： Excuse me for coming late. I don’t remember ever seeing him anywhere.② 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作 ② 的承受者时，这个动名词一般要用被动形式，如： This question is far from being settled. He did it without being asked. They insisted on their being treated as ordinary workers. He didn’t mind being left at home. They couldn’t stand being treated like that. 注：如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生，有时需要用动名词的完成被动形式，如： I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.
概念：在句中不充当谓语角色的动词形式，它的划分有两种标准（一） ：不定式；分词（过 去分词与现在分词） ；动名词 （二） ：不定式；v-ing.形式；过去分词. 一、考点聚焦 1、非谓语动词的句法功能
语 名称 形式 主语 √ 宾语 √ √(经常) √ √ √ √ 宾语补 足语 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √(动作完成) √ √ √ √可代替 having been done 法 功 表语 √ 能 定语 √ 状语 √
to do/to be done 不定式 to be doing to have(been) done 动名词 现在分词 having(been) done 过去分词 done doing doing
（1）不定式作表语与“be + to do sth.”的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。 His job is to guard.(说明内容) The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,＿＿＿＿＿it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ________whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen be + to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事，或必将发生的，或表示命令等口吻) 翻译: 这项计划得提前三天完成. （2）带不定式作宾语的词语，构成 v.+ to do 形式。 下列词语常不定式作宾语：afford、promise、refuse、expect、hope、learn、offer、wish、 want、fail、plan、agree、forget、like、prefer、decide、manage、try、arrange、determine、 desire 等。 We agreed here but so far she hasn't turned up yet. A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D .to have met I don’t know whether you happen , but I’m going to study in the U.S.A. this September . (2004 高考辽宁卷) A．to be heard B．to be hearing C．to hear D．to have heard 下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式，构成 decide what to do ..,wonder how to deal with sth.等 形式：teach、decide、wonder、show、learn、forget、ask、find、out、advise、discuss 等。 示例: 1). I've worked with children before , so I know what ________in my new job. A．expect ed B．to expect C．to be expecting D．expects 2). It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows________. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 3). The mother didn' t know ___to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. what （3）如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。 ① 动词 see、watch、notice、hear、listen to、observe、feel、taste、smell、make、let、
have 等的宾补用动词原形，变被动时要加 to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。 Paul doesn't have to be made .He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning ②常用带 to 不定式作宾补的情况： 主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like/advise/allow/cause/consider/ encourage/forbid/force/intend/order/permit/persuade/remind/request/require/urge/warn/ask/wish+s b. to do. sth. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him . A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to The patient was warned oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating My advisor encouraged ___ a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take ③主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider /imagine/consider + sb. + to be/to be doing/ to have done 注意：不定式的一般式、进行式以及完成式做宾语补足语的区别，同时要 注意不 定式被动语态的使用。 Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. A. to have invented B. inventing C. to invent D. having invented Robert is said ________abroad. but I don't know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C．to be studying D．to have been studying ④主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth. （4）不定式作定语的特殊用法。 ①下列词语后常接不定式作定语：chance、wish、right、courage、need、promise、time、 opportunity、way、the first、the second、the last、the only 等。 I have ______________________(一个出国留学的机会)。 He is _________________(第一个上学的)and __________________(最后一个离校的) ②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。 There is no one to look after her. ③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系 。 She is now looking for a room to live in. （5）不定式作状语的用法。 不定式作状语，修饰动词，在句中表示目的、结果、原因。only ． do 表示出人意料的 ．． to ．．．．．．．． ． ．． ． 结果。 ．．． To sleep well, I turned off the alarm clock. We hurried to the classroom only to find none there. in order(not)to,s o as(not)to 用来引导目的状语,enough to, so… as to do, such + 名词… as to do 作结果状语，如:The girl was so kind as ． help the old man off the bus. ． ． ． ．． ． ． ． ． to ．． ． ． I’m not such a fool as to believe that. You were silly not ____ your car. (2004 高考湖南卷) A. to lock B. to have locked C. locking D. having locked Helen had to shout _____ above the sound of the music. (2004 高考广西卷) A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard （6）不定式的完成时的特殊用法。 ①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。
The novel was said to have been published. I regret to have been with you for so many years. seem、appear、be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported 等动词常用于上面句型。 Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. A. to have invented B. inventing C. to invent D. having invented Robert is said ________abroad. but I don't know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C．to be studying D．to have been studying 此外，glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed 后也接完成时，但要注意 与一般时的区别。 I’m sorry ___________________ for a minute.对不起，请稍等。 （说话时还未等） I’m sorry _______________________for so long.对不起，让你久等了。 （说话时已等了很 久） ②不定式的完成时还可表示“过去本想做某事但未做”的虚拟语气。 （A）should like to / would like to / would love to + 不定式的完成时。 （B）was / were to + 不定式的完成时，表示该做某事或想做但未实现。 （C）expect / hope / mean / promise / suppose / think / want/ wish + 不定式完成时，表示 过去未曾实现的愿望。 注意：表示“过去本想做某事但未做”的虚拟语气还可以用： was/were going to do 或 was/were about to I would love to_______ the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone - -Alice, why didn't you come yesterday? - -I ______, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did （7）不定式的省略。 ①同一结构并列由 and 或 or 连接。 I want to finish my homework and (to )go home. I’m really puzzled what to think or (to)say. 特例：To be or not to be,this is a question. He is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比) ②不定式作表语，其前面的主语从句中含有 do 时，后面的 to 省略。 What he did was(to) lose the game. ③句中含有动词 do 时，but、except、besides、such as 等后面 to 可省略。即“前有 do, 后省 to” 。 Don’t do anything silly, such as marry him. 比较：have nothing to do but do /have nothing but to do have no choice but to do /can’t (help) but do ④主句含有不定式，后面有 rather than, rather than 后省 to。 Rather than ______ on a crowded bus, he always prefers a bicycle. A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding ⑤Why not、had better、would rather、can’t but 等词后省 to。如： He could not but walk home. （8）不定式的替代。 多用在同一句或联系紧密的对话中，为了避免重复，作宾语或主补，宾补的不定式再次
出现时，to 后的内容常承前省略（只保留 to 即可） ．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．． 。但如果承前省略的不定式有助动用的 have 或 be 任何形式，后应该保留原形 be 或 have。如： ．． ．． ．．．．．．．．．．．．． ．．． ．．． ．． ． ． ．． The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him . A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to Susan is not what she used to be. —You came late last night. You ought to have finished your homework. —I know I ought to have. 常见的有：I’d like / love / be happy to. 3、动名词复习中应注意的几个问题 （1）动名词作宾语。 ①下列动词后只能接动名词：suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, enjoy, require, practise, miss, escape, pardon, advise, consider, imagine, keep, appreciate, escape, permit。 ②下列动词短语接动名词：leave off, put off, give up, look forward to, feel like, have trouble / difficulty(in) doing sth. devote to, get used to, pay attention to, be fond of, be worth。 ③介词后要接动名词。what about、how about、without、be fond of、be good at 等介词 后接动名词。注意 on / upon doing sth. = as soon as 引导的从中。作此意讲时 on / upon 后也 可以接名词。如 on his arrival…。 ④动名词作宾语和动词不定式作宾语的区别： begin, start, continue, like, love, dislike, hate, prefer, can’t stand
例 句 解 析
1. It began to rain. It began raining. 2. It was beginning to snow. 3. I love lying (to lie)on my back. 4. I like listening to music, but today I don’t like to. 5. I don’ t prefer to swim in the river now.
1. 意思无差别，但谓语动词用进行时，后 面只跟不定式。 2. 表示一种倾向多接动名词作宾语，如果 表示某一特定的或具体的行动，多接不 定式。
remember, forget, regret, try
例 句 解 析 1. remember to do sth.记住要做的事 remember doing sth.回顾过去发生的事 2. forget to do sth.忘记要做的事 forget doing sth.忘记做过的事 3. regret to do sth.对将要做的事抱歉 regret doing sth.对发生过的事后悔 4. try to do sth.设法……，试图 try doing sth.试试看，试一试 5. mean to do sth.打算做……，想要 mean doing sth.意味着，就是
1. I remember to meet her at the station. I remember seeing her once somewhere. 2. I forgot giving it to you yesterday. I forgot to tell you about it. Now here it is. 3. I regret not having working hard. I regret to hear of your sister’s death. 4. Try knocking at the back door. We must try to get everything ready. 5. That will mean flooding some land. I had meant to go on Monday.
want, require, need, demand, request
例 These desks need repairing. These desks need to be repaired. The patient required examined 句 解 1. need doing 需要被做 need to be done 需要被做 2. want doing 析
The patient required to be examined.
want to be done 3. require doing require to be done
—You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. —Well, now I regret that. A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done —I must apologize for ______ ahead of time. —That's all right. A. letting you not know B. not letting you know C. letting you know not D. letting not you know Victor apologized for _____ to inform me of the change in the plan. (2004 上海) A. his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being able D. him to be not able One learns a language by making mistakes and _______ them.(2001 年春季高考) A. correct B. correcting C. corrects D. to correct 4、分词复习应注意的几个问题 （1）现在分词在句中作时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 ．．．．．．．．．．．．．． ①时间状语（分词作状语前面可加 when, while 等） Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. 做时间状语的分词，可以改成时间连词连接的主从句，如上面两句可以改成： _________________________________________________________ ______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered _____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited The old man, ____________abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. (2004 高考江苏卷) A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked ②原因状语 Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note Not having finished her work in time, the boss fired her. 做原因状语的分词，可以改成原因连词连接的主从句，如上句可以改成： _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ③伴随状语 The girls came in, following their parents. Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage ________ the girl and took her away, ________ into the woods. A. seizing ..., disappeared B. seized ..., disappeared C. seizing…, disappearing D. seized ..., disappearing "Can't you read it?" Mary said ____ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ______ that he had enjoyed his stay here.
A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added ④结果状语 The poor old man died, leaving nothing to his children. 分次做伴随状语和结果状语可以根据意思改成由 and 或 or 连接的并列句或改成非限制 性定语从句. 如③可改成__________________________________________ or __________________________________________ 如④可改成___________________________________________ or ___________________________________________ European football is played in 80 countries, _____it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. make D. to make 注意：现在分词作状语的几个特性。①时间性。与谓语动词同时发生，用一般时，如 ．．．．．．．．．．．．．．． ． 发生在谓语动作之前时则用完成式 having(been) done。 与句子的主语之间的关系， ．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．． ．．．． ．． ②语态性。 ．． ．．． ．． ． 是主谓关系或动宾关系。遵循的规则“主动用现在分词，被动用过去分词” 。③人称一致性。 分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。 ⑤定语 When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door＿＿＿＿＿ "Sorry to miss you； will call later." A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading The picture _________ on the wall is painted by my nephew.(2000 年春季高考) A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung （2）分词作表语。 S. + be /get/系动词+ 动词-ed 表示被动，主语是人；S. + be+ 动词-ing 表示主动，主语 是物。 S. +be/系动词+to do /to be done As we joined the big crowd I got ______ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed Sarah, hurry up. I'm afraid you can’t have time to ______ before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ________ as the plane was making a landing.(2004 上海) A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ________whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen 5、复习过去分词应注意的几个问题 过去分词作状语，相当于一个状语从句，用来说明原因、时间、条件等。 （1）过去分词作原因状语 Tired by the trip, he soon feel asleep. = ___________________________, he soon fell asleep. in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose by the beauty of nature , the girl from London decided to spend another two days on the farm . (2004 高考辽宁卷)
A．Attracting B．Attracted C．To be attracted D．Having attracted （2）作时间状语 Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden. =When (the city is) seen from the hill, it looks like a garden. （3）作条件状语 Given more time, I would have worked out the problem. =________________________, I would have worked out the problem. Given more time, I will do better than Tom =________________________, I will do better than Tom The research is so designed that once________ nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun with the size of the whole earth , the biggest ocean does not seem big at all . (2004 高考湖北卷) A．Compare B．When comparing C．Comparing D．When compared （4）伴随状语 The teacher came in, followed by some students. =The teacher came in and was followed by some students. After his journey front abroad, Richard Jones returned home, _____ A. exhausting B. exhausted C. being exhausted D. having exhausted 分词短语作状语时， 通常与主句中的主语在逻辑上一致， 但有时它也可以有自己独立的 逻辑上的主语，这种结构称为独立主格结构。如： Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at home looking after him. =___________________________, she had to stay at home looking after him. Time permitting, we will bring in more money. =_______________________, we will bring in more money. Homework (having been) finished, Tom is playing with his friends. =___________________________________________________ （5）定语 The Olympic Games, _______in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ____ as 3M. (2004 高 考浙江试题) A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known （6）分词作宾补与不定式作宾补的区别： ．．．．．．．．．．．．．．． 感官动词 动词原形→做了某事 S．+ + 宾语 + 现在分词→正在做某事 使役动词 过去分词→做了或被做 比较: see sb.(sth). do/doing/done/prep.短语 watch sb.(sth). do/doing/done/prep.短语 find sb.(sth). do/doing/done/prep. get sb.(sth.)to do/done/doing hear sb.(sth.)to do/done/doing feel sb.(sth.)to do/done/doing make sb do /make sth done
force sb. to do/cause sb. to do 等 Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents . (2004 高考重庆试题) A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry The missing boys were last seen ______ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play Paul doesn't have to be made .He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see _______the next year. A．carry out B．carrying out C．carried out D．to carry out A cook will be immediately fired if he is found in the kitchen. A．smoke B．smoking C．to smoke D．smoked Helen had to shout _____ above the sound of the music. (2004 高考广西卷) A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard （7）with+n. +to do/doing/done 的区别 （详见“介词专题” ）
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