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分词作状语


Grammar

分词的时态 1)一般式表示与主语动词同时发生。例如: Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. Arriving there, they found the boy dead.

The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long sp

eech for the president. 典型例题 A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个 谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B,C中选 一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主 动关系,应用现在分词。

2)完成时表示先于主语动词发生。例如:

While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 分词作时间状语,如果先于主动词的动作,且强调先 后, 要用having done。 Having finished his homework, he went out. =As he had finished his homework, he went out. 典型例题___ a reply, he decided to write again. A Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断, 词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写 信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构 成为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

分词的语态 1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。例 如: He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…)他就是给你钱的那个人。 He is the man stopped by the car. (= who was stopped by…)他就是那个被车拦住的人。 2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生, 如gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned等。 例如 a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人 a much-traveled man 一个去过许多地方的人 a burnt-out match 烧完了的火

注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句 的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出, 分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。 例如: Used for a long time, the book looks old. 由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful. 在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。

3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases. A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat 答案C. 本题要选分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正 在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来 说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个 状语从句 When it is heated,…
注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句

的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词 就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。例如:
Used for a long time, the book looks old. 由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful. 在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。

过去分词作状语,一是表被动的动作,二是表 动作已经完成。通常作如下几种状语: 1. 时间状语, 可在过去分词前加上连词when, while, until等. 一般放在句首

1. When it is seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful.
Seen from the hill

2. Don’t speak until you are spoken to.
Until spoken to

2.原因状语 ( 句首)

1. Because the boy was greatly touched by his teacher’s words, he did a lot of things to help his classmates.
Greatly touched by the teacher’s words

2. As he was surprised at what happened, Tom didn’t know what to do.
Surprised at what happened

3.条件状语(句首)

1. If we were given more time, we could do it much better.
Given more time

2. If it is heated to a high temperature, water will change into vapour.
Heated to a high temperature

4. 让步状语(一般句首 有时句末)

1. Though they had been warned of the storm, the farmers were still working in the fields.
Though warned of the storm

2. Even if I’m invited, I won’t take part in the party.
Even if invited

5. 方式、(一般句末 有时句首)
伴随状语(通常句末)

1. The teacher entered the classroom, and he was followed by a group of students.
Followed by a group of students

2. The manager held his head high, he walked into the room.
Holding his head high

? 过去分词短语作条件、原因及时间状语时, 通常放在句首; ? 作伴随、结果状语时,通常放在句末; ? 作方式状语时,一般放在句末,有时也放 在句首; ? 作让步状语时,一般放在句首,有时也放 在句末。

连词+分词(短语) 有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在 分词前加连词。 连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个。 例如: While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. 等在那儿时,他看见两个靓妹走出大楼。 (waiting 和saw 的主语相同)

分词作插入语 :分词作插入语的结构是固定的, 意思上的主语,并不是句子的主语。 例如: generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来 例如:Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。 Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs.
总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。(speaking 不是dogs 的动作)

Exercises:

1. ____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his B army.
A. Followed C. Being followed B. Followed by D. having been followed

2. There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden B burst of light.
A. followed C. to be followed B. following D. being followed

3. The next morning she found the man ___ A in bed, dead.
A. lying C. lay B. lie D. laying

4. I can hardly imagine Peter ___ across the B Atlantic Ocean in five days.
A. sail C. to sail B. sailing D. to have sailed

7. ___ a reply, he decided to write again. C
A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received

8. The visiting minister expressed his satisfaction with his talks, ___ that he had C enjoyed his stay here.
A. having added C. adding B. to add D. added

9. Don’t get your schedule C ___, stay with us in this class.
A. to change C. changed B. changing D. change

10. European football is played in 80 A countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world.
A. making C. made B. makes D. to make

11. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back. D
A. being tied C. to be tied B. having tied D. tied

12. ___ more attention, the trees could have A grown better.
A. Given C. Giving B. To give D. Having given

13. The ___ morning, the father came into the C lonely house, ___ by his naughty boy.
A. following, following
C. following, followed
B. followed, followed D. followed, following

14. Mrs. White was glad to see the nurse ___ B after her son and was pleased to see the boy well ___ care of in the nursery.
A. looked; taken C. looked; took B. looking; taken D. looking; taking

15. ___ his head high, the manager walked A into the room to attend the meeting ___ then.
A. Holding; being held
C. Having held; held
B. Held; holding D. Held; to be held

16. ___, but he still could not understand it. C
A. B. C. D. Told many times Having been told many times He has been told many times Though he had been told many times

注意: 用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语要与句 子的主语保持一致, 否则分词短语就要有自己的逻辑 主语, 这种结构称为独立主格结构.

1. All our savings gone, we started looking for jobs.
2. He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.

? 分词作状语时其逻辑主语应与主句的主语一致 ? 否则 分词自己带与句子主语不一致的逻辑主语放 在句首或句尾 形成独立结构 叫做独立主格结构 ? 独立主格结构由 逻辑主语+分词构成 ? 逻辑主语可以是名词或代词

? Mary coming back, they discussed it together. ? All being well, the project will be finished

? 逻辑主语+现在分词 表示主动 ? Advice failing, we have to use force. ? Nobody having any more to say, the meeting was closed. ? 逻辑主语+过去分词 表示被动 ? Good luck given, I will earn more money. ? The table set, they went out to dinner.


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