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2014年新外研版英语八年级下册知识点复习


八年级下册

知识梳理

一、语 法 1.动词时态

2.并列复合句
3.宾语从句

1、动词时态
名称 特征词 肯定句的动词 原形 第三人称单数 一般现在 sometimes, usually, often

always, every...,
现在完成 时

一般过去

ever, already , just ,yet have /has +V过去分 for /since so far 词 yesterday..., just now, 过去式 ...ago, this morning, When I was young,

否定句、一般疑问句的结构
一般现在时有be 的变法
否定句 只在其后+not (some-any) 一般疑问句 将其放到句首...+?

句中没有be的变法
否定句 一般疑问句 动词 在主语后+don’t Do +主语+V? 原形 Does +主语+动词原形? 第三人 在主语后+ 称单数 doesn’t+动词原 形

现在完成时的句子结构
肯定句:主语+have /has +V过去分词+其他.
否定句:主语+have /has +not +V过去分词+其他. 一般疑问句:Have /Has +主语+V过去分词+其他?

一般过去式的句子结构:
动词 过去式 否定句 主语+didn’t+ 动词原形+其他。 一般疑问句 Did+动词原形+其他?

一般疑问句回答:
Is he...? Do you ...? Does...she ? Did they...? Yes, he is. Yes, I do. No, he isn’t. No, I don’t.

Yes she does. No, she doesn’t. Yes, they did. No, they didn’t. No. I haven’t.

Have you...? Yes, I have .

Were they...? Yes, they were. No, they weren’t. Was he...? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t.

2、并列复合句
并列复合句----是由并列词and ,but ,or 等把两 个或者两个以上的简单句连在一起而构成的 句子。 并列复合句的构成: 简单句+并列连词+简单句。 并列连词前后简单句之间的关系。 (1)并列关系用and (2) 选择关系 用or (3)转折关系用but

3、宾语从句
1.引导词的选择
陈述句充当宾语从句 一般疑问句充当宾语从句 特殊疑问句充当宾语从句

that if/whether
疑问代词或疑问副词

2.语序 3.时态

陈述句语序
主 一般现在时 句 一般过去时
从 按实际情况用相应时态 句 过去的某种时态

4.当主句谓语动词为think,suppose, expect,believe
等时,其后的宾语从句为否定句时,常将否定词not从从 句中移到主句中,构成否定转移

5.如果从句说的是客观现象或真理,无论主句是什 么时态,从句都用一般现在时。

直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系 1.陈述句变为引导的宾语从句
e.g. 1. He said, “You are younger than I ”. He said that I was younger than him. He says, “Tom is a good student ”.

2.

He says that Tom is a good student.

直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系
2.特殊疑问句引导的宾语从句
e.g. 1. He asked, “Where do you live?”

He asked where I lived.
2. he “How can we get to the post-office?”
asked. He asked how they could get to the post-office.

直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系

3.一般疑问句引导的宾语从句
1. She said, “ Do you often come here to read newspaper? ” She asked if (whether) I often came here to read newspaper. 2. “Will they go to visit the Great Wall?” he asked. He asked if (whether) they would go to visit the Great Wall.

二、话 题
1.人的相貌及性格 2.天气及季节 3.看病与健康 4.假期

简单句 并列句

三、 句 子

复合句 选择问句 特殊疑问句 感叹句 一般疑问句

否定句
祈使句

简单句
并列句 复合句 选择问句 特殊疑问句 感叹句 一般疑问句 否定句

This is an orange bike.

He knows me and I know him. When I was 5, I could swim. Did you live here or there? What did they learn just now? What a heavy rain it is!
Does Tom speak French?

I don’t understand it.
Stand (Don’t) up.

祈使句

四、句型 (及交际用语)
1.对某人来说做某事是怎么样的:
It is +adj. for/of sb. + to do sth.

2. 提问看病的:
What can I do for you ?
Can I help you ?

What’s wrong?
What’s the matter?

3.回答生病情况:
1)
headache . stomach ache . toothache.

I have got a

fever. cough.

catch a cold

cold.

? Take / Have some / these medicine
times a day.

2) 就此病症提出合理建议

three

? Drink more water and stay in bed for a few days. ? It’s nothing serious.

? You’ll be / get / become OK / well soon/ in one or two days. ? Don’t be so tired.

4.提问某人的爱好:
What ’s your hobby?
collecting fans/tickets. writing. playing basketball. My hobby is swimming. running.

collecting stamps/model cars.

回答爱好:

singing.

5. 提问人的相貌:

What does...look like?
6. 提问人的性格:

What is ... like?
7. 到该做什么事的时候了。 It’s time to do sth. It’s time for sth.

8. 提建议用语: Why not do sth...? Why don’t you do sth...? What/How about sth. / doing sth...? It’s best to do sth. You’d better do sth. You should do sth.

五、词 类
1. 动词 6. 形容词、副词

2. 系动词 3. 代词 4.不定代词
5. 连词

7.数词 8. 频率副词 9. 介词
10. 疑问词

He watches TV every day.
1.动词
(谓语)

He is watching TV now.
He watched TV a moment ago.

He enjoys watching TV.
动词
(非谓语)

Jim makes me laugh.
I wanted to see it again.

2.系动词 (+形容词的动词)

look turn sound taste smell

be get become feel

1) Jim’s idea sounds nice. 2) Kate looks taller. 3) I feel nervous now.
4) Beijing becomes bigger. 5) The days get long.

6) The cake tastes delicious.

3.不定代词
1. other, others, the other, the others, another, One..., the other..., any other 2. one, ones, one’s

3. something
anything

somebody / someone
anybody / anyone

everything
nothing

everybody / everyone
nobody / no one

5. 连 词
1. and 7. when

2. but
3. or 4. so

8. before
9. after 10. as

5. though 11. if 6. because

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

1. Jim often helps me with my English _____ and I often help him with his Chinese. 2. _________ Because the question is very difficult, few of us can answer it. 3. Mr. Black is over 70 years old, ____ but he still works 8 hours a day.

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

4. Everyone must be here _________ before 6:00 tomorrow. 5. __________it is raining Though heavily, the farmers are still working in the field. 6. I can help you ___ if I have time.

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

7. ______ After getting up, I always listen to the radio for a while.

8. We must be quick, ___ or we can’t follow them.
9. To catch the early bus, ___ so I got up very early this morning.

用and, when, because, but, or, so, though before, after, if, 填空

10. ______ When the teacher came in, I was thinking about the game.

11. __ If you know him, why not go and meet Jim instead of me, Kate?

6.形容词、副词
在词尾处+ ly

形容词 与副词 的转换

y结尾时,去y + ily 有的e结尾的单词,需去y + ly,有的则直接+ly。

1.quick—quickly 3.terrible-terribly 5.brave-bravely

2. easy--easily 4. true-truly 6. careful-carefully

形容词、副词的使用
形 容 词
修饰名词

They are clever boys. I prefer long hair.
修饰动词、形容词

副 词

It really sounds nice.

They work very hard.

7. 数词
基数词变序数词

数 词

用来表达年、月、日

用来表达时、分

百,千,万,的表达 几分之几

8. 频率副词

? 用How often 对它们进行提问。
? 他们体现了动词出现的频率程度。

? I always have milk for breakfast. ?I usually have eggs for breakfast. ?I often have noodles for it. ? I sometimes have fruits for it. ? I seldom have rice for it. ? I never have meat in the morning.

9. 与 时 间 相 关 的 介 词

on 具体日子、节日、
生日、星期几前

in 某年、某月前 at 某分,某时前 for 时间段前
当“早上、下午、晚 上”被修饰时不用 in 而用on.

表示方位的介词:

The Position

某物/处在某处的东南西北。

north

northwest
west

northeast east

southwest southeast south

in, to, on 的区别
某处 在某 处之

to

in



on
某处与某 处相接壤

某处在某 处之内

with
的多 种用 法

do sth. with sb./ sth. a girl with long hair a room with two doors a city with large population be busy with sth. be popular with... be with a style of... talk with sb. help sb. with sth. an action movie with Jackie Chan What’s wrong / the matter with...?

10. 疑问词
提问 几点 钟 地点 What time is it? What’s the time? where 价格 how much 数量 how many... how much... what...do... 动词、 宾语 what 性格 What’s...like? 长相 What does/ do... look like? 天气 What’s ...like? How’s...?

程度、how 方式 主语 who, whom... 时间 when

频率 how often

六、易混淆的词、词组 1. 2. 3. 4.
What is ...like? What does...look like?
what to do how to do wake up wake sb. up there be have / has

5.

join take part in...

易混淆的词、词组
6.
in the east of... to the east of...

7.

trip travel

8.

other, others the other, the others One..., the other..., another any other schools any other school

9. 11.
12.

stop to do sth.
stop doing sth.

10.

as well as
except

a little, little, a bit, a bit of... a few, few get to... arrive in / at... reach by car take a car

besides

13.

too much much too

14.

15.

excited, interested, amazed exciting, interesting, amazing

like It’s time to ... . 16. 17. as It’s time for... . 18. noise, voice, sound

19. hear, listen, listen to 20. say, tell, talk, speak 21. read, watch, see, look, look at

八、易错的词
finish enjoy spend keep prefer practice

还有介词&busy +doing

+doing
plan order decide want ask …

make

let

+do

+to do

1.Without thinking more, he left here. 2.I can’t finish writing it in only a few minutes. 3.Everyone is busy getting ready for the final exams. 4.Mother always spends much time doing such foolish things. 5.Jim was good at dancing when he was young.

6.Let’s practice speaking English,

九、不易用对的词 enough enough
(名词前) (形容词、副词后)

enough water enough books

tall enough

strong enough
good enough

enough time
enough people

big enough

十、形容词与不定代词的位置
something easy,

hard, important...
anything useful,

interesting, funny...
nothing difficult, cheap, amazing, exciting...

Where there is a will ,there is a way.


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