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高中英语必修三 Unit 4 Astronomy


Unit 4
词语 辨析 1. loudly / loud / aloud 4. climate / weather

Astronomy: the science of the stars
2. unlike / dislike 3. remain / leave 5. now that / since / because / as vi

olence n.暴力, 强暴; violently adv. 强暴地; 猛烈 猛烈地 fundament n. 基础;根 本 developed adj. 发达的 developing adj. 发展的 lie n.&vi. 谎话;说谎 lie---lied---lied---lying preventable adj.可防止 的,可预防的

单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)

1. violent adj.强暴的,猛烈 的

2. fundamental adj.基本(础) fundamentally adv. 基 的 n.[pl.]基本原则(法则) 本地;根本地 3. development n.生长,发 展;新情况 词形 变化 develop vt.发展;产生 vi.生长;发展

4. lay vt.放下; 摆设; 产(蛋) lie vi. 躺,平放;位于 lay---laid---laid---laying lie---lay---lain---lying 5. prevent vt. 预防,防止 6. gentle adj.和蔼的;轻柔 的 7. physics n.物理,物理学 prevention n.预防;阻 止;妨碍 gently adv.温和地;静 静地 physicist n.物理学家

词 汇 部 分 重点 单词

physical adj.身体的;物 理(学)的;物质的

重点 词组

1. system n.[c] 系统;体系;制度;方法 2. lay vt. (laid, laid, laying) 把……放下;摆设;铺(地毯) ;产(蛋) 3. harmful adj. 有害的;伤害的 4. exist vi. 存在;生存 5. puzzle v.(使)迷惑;(使)苦思 n.谜;难题 6. pull v.拉,拖,拔;移动 n.拉,拖;拉(引)力 7. cheer vt.&vi. (使)高兴、振奋;(对)欢呼 1. to begin with 以……开始;由……作为开头;首先 2. in time 及时;最终;迟早 3. in one’ s turn 轮到某人;接着 4. prevent...from 使……不做事;阻止……做某事 5. block out 挡住(光线) 6. be off = set off 出发;动身;不用上班/学/开张 7. break out (灾难、战争等)突发;爆发 8. watch out 密切注视;当心;提防 1. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, which were to make the earth’ s atmosphere. 2. That made it possible for life to begin to develop. 3. But when I tried to step forward I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. 宾语从句和表语从句(见语法部分)

重点句子

重点语法

语言要点(模块) Ⅰ .词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料) 1. loudly / loud / aloud 【解释】 loudly adv 响亮地,高声地 loud adj/adv 与 sing, speak, talk 连用 aloud adv 相对默读而言;出声

【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). Will you please speak ______? 2). It is good for you to read English ______ every morning. 3). The bomb exploded ______. 4). Is her voice ______ enough ? 5). Action speaks ______ than words (事实胜于雄辩). Keys: 1). louder 2). aloud 3). loudly 4). loud 2. unlike / dislike

5). louder

【解释】 unlike prep. 不像,和……不同 adj. [作表语] 不相似;不同 dislike vt./n. 不喜爱,厌恶 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). A good hotel manager should know his regular guests’ likes and ______. 2). Her latest novel is quite ______ her earlier work. 3). If you go on like that you’ ll get yourself _______ (like). 4). I was very interested in the lecture, ______ many of the students. Keys: 1). dislikes 2). unlike 3). disliked 4). unlike 3. remain/leave 【解释】 remain vi. 仍然是;留下;剩下 常用句型:remain + n. 仍然是 remain + adj./adv./prep. 仍然是 remain + v-ed/v-ing 仍然是 remain to be done 有待去做,依然要做 leave vt. 剩下,忽略或未拿或未带(某物) ,使或让(某人、事物)处某状态﹑某地等 常用句型:leave sb. sth. / leave sth. to sb. 给某人留下某物 leave sth (for sb) 留下,交待下(某物) leave sth to sb 将某物遗赠给某人 remaining/left 两者都可以作形容词,表示“剩下的”,前者用于被修饰的名词之前,后者用 于被修饰的名词之后。 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). Someone ______ you this note while you were out. 2). After the earthquake, little ______ of the village. 3). He used the ______ money to buy a dictionary. 4). After buying the dictionary, he had not much money______. 5). Arriving home, I found that I’ d ______ my key in the office. 6). Don’ t leave her ______ (wait) outside in the rain. 7). She remained _______ (change) after all these years. 8). A great many things remain _______ (do). Keys: 1). left 2). remained 3). remaining 4). left 5). left 6). waiting 7). unchanged 8). to be done 4. climate / weather 【解释】 climate 指从长时间的范围来看某地的平均气候或经常性的气候; weather 指某地一时的天气,如寒暖、晴雨和干湿的变化情况。 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). We shall go out for a picnic tomorrow if the _______ is fine. 2). A drier _______ would be good for your health. 3). I couldn’t imagine what it would be like to live in a hot ________. 4). The _______ of our country is mild, but individual places experience bad ________. Keys: 1). weather 2). climate 3). climate 4). climate; weather 5. now that / since / because / as

【解释】 都可引导原因状语从句, 语气最强的是 because, 引导直接而明确的原因, 也用来回答 why 的问句或用于强调句型;其次是 since/now that,表示已知或明显的原因,再次是 as,引 导的原因是不言而喻、显而易见的;for 引导的是并列分句,表推测或判断的原因,前面 有逗号隔开。 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). _______ everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. 2) It was _______ he was ill that he didn’ t go to school. 3). It must have rained last night, _______ the ground is all wet. 4). _______ we are alone, we can speak freely. Keys: 1). since/now that 2). because 3). for 4). Now (that) Ⅱ .词性变化(旨在提供语法填空所需材料) 1. violent adj.强暴的,猛烈 的 2. fundamental adj.基本(础) 的 n.[pl.]基本原则(法则) 3. development n.生长,发 展;新情况 4. lay vt.放下;摆设;产(蛋) lay---laid---laid---laying 5. prevent vt. 预防,防止 6. gentle adj.和蔼的;轻柔的 7. physics n.物理,物理学 violence n.暴力,强暴;猛烈 fundamentally adv. 基本地; 根本地 develop vt.发展;产生 vi.生长;发展 lie vi. 躺,平放;位于 lie---lay---lain---lying prevention n.预防;阻止;妨 碍 gently adv.温和地;静静地 physicist n.物理学家 physical adj.身体的; 物理(学) 的;物质的 violently adv. 强暴地; 猛烈地 fundament n. 基础;根本 developed adj. 发达的 developing adj. 发展的 lie n.&vi. 谎话;说谎 lie---lied---lied---lying preventable adj.可防止的,可 预防的

【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空。 1). The naughty boy _______ (lie) to me that the hen that _______ (lie) there just now had ______ (lay) two eggs the day before. 2). In my opinion, ________ (prevent) is more important than treatment. 3). Some programs on the Internet are full of ________ (violent) and sex. 4). With the ________ (develop) of modern industry, more and more pollution is caused. 5). China is a ________ (develop) country belong to the third world. 6). There are ________ (fundament) differences between your religious beliefs and mine. 7). His ambition is to become a great ________ (physics). Keys: 1). lied; lay; laid 2). prevention 3). violence 4). development 5). developing 6). fundamental 7). physicist Ⅲ .重点词汇(旨在提供词汇综合运用材料) 1. system n.[c] 系统;体系;制度;方法 systematic adj 有系统的; 有条理的 [典例] 1). The solar system includes the sun and its eight planets. 太阳系包括太阳和它的八颗行星。 2). Alcohol is bad for your system. 喝酒对身体有害。 [练习] 根据句子的意思完成句子。 1). The ______ ______ (教育系统) operates very differently in the US and China. 2). He introduced us a well-designed ______ ______ (铁路系统). Keys: 1). educational system 2). railway system 2. lay vt. (laid, laid, laying) 把放下;摆设;铺(地毯) ;产(蛋)

[典例] 1). He laid his hand on my shoulder. 他把手放在我的肩上。 2). Who should we lay the blame on? 我们该责备谁? [重点用法] lay 短语: lay eggs 下蛋 lay sth. aside 把某物放在一边;积蓄(钱) lay sth. down 把某物放下 lay the blame on sb.责备某人 lay the table 摆桌子 lay emphasis / stress on sth. 把重点放在某事上 [练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). The bird ______ its eggs in other birds’ nests. 2). He is a political leader that _____ _____ _____ _____ (非常强调) individual responsibility. 3). He ______ some money ______ for rainy days. Keys: 1). lays 2). lays great stress on 3). lays/puts; aside 3. harmful adj. 有害的;伤害的 harm n.&vt. 伤害(某人) [典例] Many people are aware of the harmful effects of smoking. 很多人都意识到吸烟的危害。 [重点用法] be harmful to sb./sth. 对……有害 do harm to sb.= do sb. harm = harm sb. 对……有害;伤害…… [练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). Everyone knows that smoking is ______ to your health. 2). In many cases, too much care for children from parents might even do ______ to their growth. 3). 在阳光下看书对你的眼睛伤害很大。 _______________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). harmful 2). harm 3). Reading in the sun does a lot of harm to your eyes. = Reading in the sun does your eyes a lot of harm.= Reading in the sun is very harmful to your eyes. 4. exist vi. 存在;生存 existence n. 存在 [典例] 1). Does life exist on Mars? 火星上有生命吗? 2). I can hardly exist on the wage I’ m getting. 我靠我挣的工资简直难以餬口。 [重点用法] exist + prep. 存在于地方 exist on sth. 靠某物生存 [练习] 用 exist 的短语或其适当形式填空。 1). This plant ______ only ______ Australia. 2). Can you ______ ______ such a low salary? 3). I doubt the ______ (exist) of alien. Keys: 1). exists; in 2). exist on to 3). existence 5. puzzle vt.&vi. (使)迷惑;(使)苦思 n.谜;难题 puzzled adj.无法了解的;困惑的 puzzling adj.令人费解的 [典例] 1). Her reply puzzled me. 她的回答把我弄糊涂了。 2). Their reason for doing it is still a puzzle to me. 他们为什麽要做此事我仍莫名其妙。 [重点用法] sth. puzzles sb. 某事使某人迷惑/为难 sb. be puzzled by sth. 某人对……感到迷惑 puzzle about/over sth. 对某事感到迷惑或苦苦思索(以便理解) puzzle one’ s brain 苦思苦想;绞尽脑汁 solve a puzzle 解决一个难题 [练习] 用 puzzle 的适当形式填空或翻译。 1). To explain the ________ (puzzle) findings, he offers two theories. 2). I _______ (puzzle) that I haven’ t heard from Liz for so long. 3). She listened with a _______ (puzzle) expression on her face.

4). No one has yet succeeded in explaining the _______ (puzzle) of how life began. 5). He _______ (puzzle) what to do next. 6). _______ _______ _______ (使我困惑的事情) is why he left the country without telling anyone. Keys: 1). puzzling 2). am puzzled 3). puzzled 4). puzzle 5) was puzzled 6). What puzzles me 6. pull v.拉,拖,拔;移动 n.拉,拖;拉(引)力 [典例] 1). You push and I’ ll pull. 你来推,我来拉。 2). I felt a pull at my sleeve and turned round. 我觉得有人扯我的袖子,便转过身来。 [重点用法] pull ahead (of sb/sth) 领先(於某人/物) pull (sb) back(使某人)退却;撤回(某人) pull off (sth)(指机动车辆)驶离(道路) (至路侧停车处停下) pull out (sth.) 拉掉;使分离;掏出;驶离(车站) pull on 穿,戴上(袜子、手套等) pull together 同心协力;通力合作 [练习] 用 pull 短语的适当形式填空。 1). I arrived as the last train was ______ ______. 2). He ______ ______ a gun and aimed at the criminal. 3). So long as we ______ ______, there’ s no mountain top we can’t conquer. Keys: 1). pulling out 2). pulled out 3). pull together 7. cheer vt. & vi. (使)高兴、振奋;(对)欢呼 cheerful adj.高兴的 cheerless adj.不高兴的 [典例] 1). The crowd cheered loudly as the Queen appeared. 女王出现时群众高声欢呼。 2). He was greatly cheered by the news. 他听到这个消息非常高兴。 [重点用法] cheer sb. on 为某人加油 cheer (sb) up(使某人)更高兴或更快活 [练习] 用 cheer 的短语或其适当形式填空。 1). Your visit has greatly ______ him up. 2). The crowd ______ the runners ______ as they started the last lap. 3). You look as though you need ______ up. Keys: 1). cheered 2). cheered; on 3). cheering Ⅳ .重点词组(旨在提供词汇综合运用材料) 1. to begin with = to start with 以……开始;由……作为开头;首先 [典例] To begin/start with, I couldn’ t understand a single word. 起初,我一句也没弄明白。 [重点用法] begin/start with 从……开始 begin/start sth with 从……开始…… [练习] 根据句子的意思完成句子。 1). He ______ his speech ______ a poem. 2). His speech ______ ______ a poem. 3). ______ ______ ______, pets are good friends of many lonely people, especially the old. Keys: 1). began/started; with 2). began/started with 3). To start/begin with 2. in time 及时;最终;迟早 [典例] 1). They caught the bus in time. 他们及时赶上了汽车。 2). If you keep on, you will succeed in time. 如果坚持下去,你们总有一天会成功的。 [短语归纳] time 短语: in time for sth./ to do sth. 及时;不迟 in no time 立刻;马上 at no time 永不…… at one time 有个时期;曾经;一度 at a time 一次;每次 at times = sometimes 有时

all the time 一直;始终;老是 on time 按时;准时 by the time 到……的时候为止 for the time being 暂时;暂且 take one’ s time 不着急;慢慢来 kill time 消磨时间 from time to time 不时地,间或 many a time 常常;多次 once upon a time 从前 at the same time 同时;尽管如此 ahead of time 提前,提早 race against time 争分夺秒 time and again 一次又一次;重复地 keep time (钟表)走得准 keep bad time(钟、表)走得不准 take one’ s time 慢慢来,别急 have a good/nice/hard time (in) doing sth 做某事很…… It’ s (high/about) time that sb. did/ should do sth. 是做某事的时候了 [练习] 用 time 短语填空。 1). They sent the mail to me just _______ _______, before I 1eft. 2). William arrived at the theatre just _______ _______ for the play was to be on. 3). Hurry up! The concert will begin _______ _______ _______. 4). _______ _______ _______ will I give up. 5). The boy laughed and cried _______ _______ ______ ______. 6). _______ _______ _______ he was addicted to playing web games, but now he devotes himself to writing, which delights his parents. 7). Don’t try to do everything at once; take it a bit _______ _______ _______. 8). You’ll have your own office soon, but _______ _______ _______ _______ you’ ll have to share one with me. Keys: 1). in time 2). in time 3). in no time 4). At no time 5). at the same time 6). At one time 7). at a time 8). for the time being 3. in one’ s turn 轮到某人;接着 [典例] I will see you, each in your turn. 我将要一个接着一个地看你。 [短语归纳] turn 短语: in turn 轮流;一个接着一个 by turns 轮流;一阵……一阵…… take turns (to do sth.)轮流(做某物) It’s one’s turn to do sth. 轮到某人做某事了 [练习] 用 turn 短语填空或翻译句子。 1). She went hot and cold _______ _______. 2). 我们轮流着开车。 ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3). 今天轮到谁发言了? ____________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). by turns 2). We drove the car by turns / in turn. = We took turns to drive the car. 3). Whose turn is it to give a speech today? 4. prevent...from = stop...from = keep....from 使……不做事;阻止……做某事 [典例] His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow’ s game. 他背部的伤可能使他参加 不了明天的比赛。 【用法辨析】注意: prevent / stop sb. from doing sth.中的 from 可省, keep sb. from doing sth.中 from 不可省略,因为 keep sb. doing sth.是“使某人一直做某事”之意;但如在被动语态中, 三者的 from 都不可省;当后接 sb’ s doing sth. 作宾语时,只能用 prevent 或 stop,不能用 keep, 因为没有 keep sb’ s doing sth. 的句型。 [练习] 根据句子的意思完成句子或翻译。 1). Doctors took action to _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ (防止这种疾病的蔓延). 2). Of course I can’ t _______ your going abroad. 3). 警察阻止他们携带武器。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). prevent/stop/keep the disease from spreading 2). prevent / stop 3). The police prevented/stopped/kept them from carrying weapons.

= They were prevented/stopped/kept from carrying weapons. 5. block out 挡住(光线) [典例] That wall blocks out all the light. 那堵墙把光线都遮住了。 [短语归纳] out 短语: break out 爆发,发生 burst out 大声喊叫,突然…起来 go out 外出;过时;(灯)熄 put out 关(灯);扑灭;生产come out 出现,显露;出版,结果是 help out 帮助解决难题(或摆脱困境) look out 留神;注意 watch out 注意;提防 find out 找出,查明,发现 pick out 挑出,辨认出,分辨出 speak out 大声地说,大胆地说 think out 仔细思考某事;想出(主意等) hang out 挂出,闲逛 knocked out (拳击中)击倒,打昏 sell out 售完(某种货物),脱销 turn out 结果证明是 run out (of) 用完,耗尽 check out 结帐离去,办妥手续离去 hand out 分发,散发 give out 分发;用完,消耗尽;发出(光、声音等) [练习] 用 out 短语填空。 1). At the end of the race his legs _______ _______ and he collapsed on the ground. 2). It’ s easy to _______ him _______ in a crowd because he is very tall. 3). His nwe book will _______ _______ next month. 4). We thought it was going to rain; it _______ _______ to be a find day. 5). We _______ _______ of/from our hotel at 5 a.m. to catch a 7 a.m. flight. Keys: 1). gave out 2). pick; out 3). come out 4). turned out 5). checked out 6. be off = set off 出发;动身;不用上班/学/开张 [典例] Then we were off. 随后我们就启程了。 [短语归纳] off 短语: get off 下车 fall off 从……摔下来 take off 脱下;起飞 turn off 关闭 pay off 付清,还清 set...off 给……送行 jump off 跳下 give off 散发 show off 炫耀 [练习] 用 turn 短语填空或翻译。 1). It is a Sunday and we _______ _______ (不用上班) today. 2). Her husband _______ _______ on a business trip somewhere. 3). There we saw a sign reading, “_______ _______ the grass”. 4). After ten years of hard work, she finally _______ _______ all her debts. Keys: 1). are off 2). was off 3). Keep off 4). paid off

keep off 远离 kick off 踢球 shut off 关闭

7. break out (灾难、战争等) 突发;爆发 [典例] Fire broke out during the night. 夜间突然发生了火灾。 [短语归纳] break 短语: break away from 脱离(党派) ;摆脱(控制) break down 毁掉;坏掉;(计划/谈判)失败 break up 打碎;拆散;(会议)结束;分裂(解体) break off (使)停止;中断;折断 break into sth. 强行进入某处 break one’ s word/promise 食言;说话不算数 [练习] 用 break 短语填空。 1). A terrible tsunami _______ _______ in the southeastern countries of Asia at Christmas, 2004. 2). When do you _______ _______ for Christmas? 3). Negotiations between the two sides have _______ _______. 4). His house was _______ _______ last week. Keys: 1). broke out 2). break up 3). broken down 4). broken into 8. watch out 密切注视;当心;提防

[典例] Watch out! There’ s a car coming. 小心! 汽车来了。 [重点用法] watch out for sb/sth 警惕或注意某人/事物 watch over 保护;照看 [练习] 用 watch 短语填空。 1). There must have been an angel _______ _______ me that day. 2). What problems should I _______ _______ _______ when buying an old house? 3). You’ ll become an alcoholic if you don’ t _______ _______. Keys: 1). watching over 2). watch out for 3). watch out Ⅴ .重点句子(旨在提供句子结构等所需材料) 1. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, which were to make the earth’ s atmosphere. 它(地球)巨大的爆炸喷出了烈火与岩石。最终产生了水蒸气、二 氧化碳、氧、氮和其他多种气体,从而形成了地球的大气层。 [解释]“be + 不定式”结构通常用来表示“按计划或安排将要做的事情”,或表示上级对下级、父母对子女下命令,“应该 做某事”或表示某事“将必然发生”。例如: 1). Here is a message for you from your head teacher: you are to go to her office after class. 你的班主任给你一个口信, 要你 下课后到她的办公室去。 2). The worst is still to come. 更糟糕的事情还会发生。 3). We’ ll hold a meeting tomorrow. = We are to hold a meeting tomorrow. = A meeting is to be held tomorrow. 我们明天将开 会。 4). The train is to arrive in Beijing at 10: 25 am. 这趟火车将于上午 10: 25 到达北京。 [练习] 完成句子或翻译。 1). Here is a message for you from your head teacher: you ______ ______ ______ to her office after class. (你的班主任给你 一个口信,要你下课后到她的办公室去。) 2). The worst is still ______ ______ (come). 3). We’ ll hold a meeting tomorrow. = We ______ ______ ______ a meeting tomorrow. = A meeting is ______ ______ ______ tomorrow. 4). 这趟火车将于上午 10:25 到达北京。 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). are to go 2). to come 3). are to hold; to be held 4). The train is to arrive in Beijing at 10: 25 am. 2. That made it possible for life to begin to develop. 那使生命的生长发育成为一种可能。 [解释] 此句中的 made 后跟带形式宾语 it 的复合结构, 其中 it 是形式宾语, 真正宾语是不定式复合结构, “for live to begin to develop”,宾语补足语是 possible。再如:She made it her business to find out who was responsible. 她非要弄清楚是谁 的责任不可。 提示:常用于此结构的动词还有 think,feel,find,consider 等。例如: 1). We make it a rule to get up at 6 o’ clock every morning. 2). I find it hard to get along with him. 3). He found it impossible to leave Germany for the USA. 他发现不可能离开德国去美国了。 4). I think/find/feel/consider it my duty to help you.我觉得我有责任帮助你。 [练习] 完成句子或翻译。 1). We ______ ______ ______ ______ (规定) to get up at 6 o’ clock every morning. 2). I ______ ______ ______ (发现很难) to get along with him. 3). 他发现不可能离开德国去美国了。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4). 我觉得我有责任帮助你。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). make it a rule 2). find it hard 3). He found it impossible to leave Germany for the USA.

4). I

think/find/feel/consider it my duty to help you. 3. But when I tried to step forward I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.而当我试着向前迈步的时 候,我发觉我被送出去很远,步子的跨度竟是地球上的两倍,因而我摔倒了。 [解释] twice as...as... “是……的两倍”,英语常见倍数的表示句型: 1). 倍数+ as + adj./adv. + as “是……的几倍” My room is twice as large as his. 2). 倍数+ adj./adv.比较级+ than “比……(多/大)几倍”My room is twice larger than his. 3). 倍数+ the +表示长度/高度/宽度等的名词+ of “是……的长度/高度/宽度几倍” My room is twice the size of his. 注意:此结构中常用的名词有:size, height, weight, length, width depth 等。例如: 1). This ruler is three times as long as that one. = This ruler is three times longer than that one. = This ruler is three times the length of that one. 这把尺子是那把的三倍那么长。 2). There are four times as many students as we expected. 到的学生是我们预计的五倍。 [解释] twice as ... as... 是的两倍,英语常见倍数的表示句型: 1). 倍数 + as + adj./adv. + as “是……的几倍” My room is twice as large as his. 2). 倍数 + adj./adv.比较级 + than “比……(多/大)几倍”My room is twice larger than his. 3). 倍数+ the +表示长度/高度/宽度等的名词+ of “是……的长度/高度/宽度几倍” My room is twice the size of his. 注意:此结构中常用的名词有:size, height, weight, length, width depth 等。 [练习] 完成句子或翻译。 1). 这把尺子是那把的三倍那么长。 __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2). 到的学生是我们预计的五倍。There are ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ we expected. Keys: 1). This ruler is three times as long as that one. = This ruler is three times longer than that one. = This ruler is three times the length of that one. 2). four times as many students as 课文要点(模块) Ⅰ .课文词汇填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等) 根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法: As the result of "Big Bang", the violent earth slowly settled into a globe 1 (move) around the sun. The gasses which were to make the earth's 2 (大气层)came into being from the explosion of the dust ball, with water 3 (follow) them while the earth cooled down. It allowed the beginning for life. Many millions of years 4 , the first 5 (极度的) small plants began to appear 6 the surface of the water, 7 (繁殖) and filling the sea and oceans, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. As time passed, green plants taking carbon dioxide and producing 8 (氧气)came to land and grew into forest. Later the chains of lives continued, such as insects, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs and mammals, the typical of 9 is human being. They don't only do 10 to the earth but cause damage to it. 答案:1. moving 2. atmosphere 3. following 4. later 5. extremely 6. on 7. multiplying 8. oxygen 9. which 10. good Ⅱ .课文大意概括(旨在训练用 30 个单词概括大意的能力) 阅读课文,试着用 30 来个单词概括课文大意或将下面的短文译成英语, 短文解释了生命如何在地球上开始的。首先,地球爆炸和产生水。因为水的存在,然后植物和动物,包括人类逐 渐在地球上出现。 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 答案:The passage explains how life began on the earth. At first, the earth exploded and produced water. And then plants and animals including human beings appeared on the earth gradually because water exists on the earth. Ⅲ .课文佳句背诵与仿写(旨在培养对难句的理解和写作能力) 1【原句】What it was to become was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. [模仿要点] 句子结构: what+主语从句+is … till +时间名词+定语从句 【模仿 1】他要给我什么礼物一直不知,直到昨天下文他来看我是我才知道。 __________________________________________________________________________________ 答 案 : What gift he

would give me was uncertain until yesterday afternoon when he came to see us. 【模仿 2】没人知道我们将要得到什么样的工作,直到 3 年后我们从大学毕业以后才知道。 __________________________________________________________________________________ 答案:What jobs we will get is unknown until 3 years later when we will graduate from university. 2【原句】What many scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas. [模仿要点] 句子结构: 主语从句+ is + that 表语从句 【模仿 1】他想告诉我们的是一天下文当他在回家的路上看见一只小鸟受伤了。 __________________________________________________________________________________ 答案:What he wanted to tell us is that one afternoon when he was on his way home he saw a bird which was dying. 【模仿 2】他缺席的原因是他在上学时被一辆小车撞伤了。 __________________________________________________________________________________ 答案:Why he was absent is that he was badly hurt by a car when he went to school. 3【原句】They multiplied and filled the oceans and seas with oxygen, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. [模仿要点] 句子结构:which 引导一个定语从句对上句情况的进一步说明。 【模仿 1】我们常常看到有人乱丢乱吐,这弄得我们的环境很脏 __________________________________________________________________________________ 答案:We often see some people throw rubbish and spit everywhere,which makes our environment dirty. 【模仿 2】她的父母非常感激我们,医生也高度评价了我们的急救,这使得我们意识到学习急救的必要性。 __________________________________________________________________________________ 答案:Her parents were very thankful to us and the doctors thought highly of our first aid, which made us realize the necessity of learning first aid. 单元自测 (模块) 1 完形填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1—10 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该 项涂黑。 字数:196 完成时间: 14 分钟 难度:***

Who said: "If I didn't have bad luck, I wouldn't have any luck at all! " However, not all "bad luck" should be considered as a (n) 1 thing. When life gives you a kick, let it kick you 2 ! In the 1920s, Ernest Hemingway 3 something about "bad luck" and got just such a kick. He was 4 to succeed as a writer when 5 struck. He lost a suitcase containing all the manuscripts (手稿) that he had been planning to publish. Hemingway couldn't imagine doing his work all over again. All those months of writing were simply 6 . He told a friend about his bad luck, who told him it was actually very good 7 ! He assured (向...保证) Hemingway that when he rewrote the stories, he would forget the 8 parts; only the best material would reappear. He encouraged Hemingway to start again, but with optimism and 9 this time. Hemingway did rewrite the stories and eventually became a world-famous writer. Don't pray for fewer problems; pray for more ability. Don't ask for smaller challenges; ask for greater 10 . When life gives you a kick, let it kick you forwards! 1. A. essential B. confusing C. acceptable D. bad 2. A. backwards B. off C. on D. forwards 3. A. learned B. said C. heard D. solved 4. A. waiting B. struggling C. dreaming D. wishing 5. A. challenges B. changes C. disaster D. failure 6. A. buried B. failed C. wasted D. undone 7. A. fortune B. result C. journey D. idea 8. A. weak B. important C. good D. last 9. A. knowledge B. confidence C. imagination D. luck

10. A. chance B. sympathy C. wisdom D. kick 答案: 文章用海明威的例子来说明一个问题:当生活给你一个打击,你就借势向前。 1. D 通读全文可知“不应该把所有的坏运气都看作坏事”(它也许是推动你前进的一次机会或者动力)。根据此意需 要选 D 项 2. D 根据文章最后一段可以得到提示:“When life gives you a kick, let it kick you forwards!” 当生活给你一个打击, 你就借势向前。 3. A 海明威通过这个“厄运”学到了一些东西。学到了 / 学会了要用 learn 表达。 4. B 从第四段最后一句“Hemingway did rewrite the stories and eventually became a world-famous writer.”可知在他丢 书稿的时候他尚未成名,所以是在努力(struggling)当中。 5. C 即将出版的书稿丢了,这对尚未成名的海明威来说不啻是一次灾难(disaster)。 6. C 这几个月的辛勤劳动的成果就这样付诸东流了(simply wasted)。 7. A 他向朋友哭诉时,朋友却认为这是运气(fortune) 。从下文他劝告海明威重新来写作并且取得成功可以看出 来。 8. A 忘记那些不太有印象的东西,这些也是小说里不怎么重要或不精彩的(weak)部分。weak 与 the best 相对。 9. B 朋友鼓励他要乐观(optimism),要有自信心(confidence),而 confidence 与 optimism 并列,表达相近的意思。 10. C 从前一句的 “Don’t pray for fewer problems; pray for more ability.”可知不是要祈祷问题会减少,而应该去起到 自己获得更大的能力。 那么, 下一句: 不是祈祷少一些挑战, 而应该祈祷自己具备更高的智慧 (greater wisdom) 来应对这些挑战。不是寻找一个简单的解决途径,而是要可能的最佳的方法。 2.语法填空 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正 确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 1—10 的相应位置上。 字数:143 完成时间:8 分钟 难度:*** On Wednesday morning at eleven o'clock, I was walking down Main Street. I had just parked my car. Suddenly I heard two shots. I thought they 1 (come) from the bank. I ran toward the bank. I saw a man 2 (come) out. He was short and fat 3 a big moustache. More 4 (importance),he had a bag of money and a gun in his hands! 5 I could do anything, he ran up the street 6 disappeared behind a bus. That afternoon I went to the movies. 7 happened? I saw the thief again at the foot of the stairs! I telephoned the police from a telephone next to the rest rooms. The police arrived in 8 than five minutes. They arrested the thief just as he 9 (buy) a chocolate bar from the candy machine. What an exciting day! And best of all, the bank gave me 10 $ 100 reward. 答案: 1.had come 考查动词的过去完成时态,表枪声在我想/认为之前发生: 2.Coming 考查动词短语 see somebody doing sth.的结构: 3.with 介词,"有,具有": 4.importantly more importantly 表“更重要的是”: 5.Before 时间状语从句,表“在……之前”: 6.and and 连接 ran up...和 disappeared 两个动作,表并列关系: 7.What What happened?是固定句型,表惊讶: 8. 1ess less than 5 minutes 表“不到五分钟”。 9.was buying 过去进行时态,表当时正在买巧克力时,警察逮捕了他: 10.a 表一份奖品: 3.信息匹配 阅读下列应用文及相关信息,并按照要求匹配信息。 请阅读下列某书店各书架的相关信息: Section A: Do-It-Yourself Section---On these shelves customers can find the latest manuals on how to do everything from building a computer to constructing your own home. Section B: Sports & Leisure Section--Stocks a large range of the latest books on your favourite sporting teams and events. Pick up the perfect Father's Day present here. Section C: Humour Section--A great selection of joke books, funny stories and wonderful real life adventures that are sure to

keep the reader laughing for days. Section D: Business & Finance--Students, business people or anyone interested in the world of commerce are certain to find the book they are after here. We have special subsection for international trade and e-commerce. Section E: Biography--Find out about the lives of your favourite sports stars, singers, actors and other famous people from today and the past. Learn what they had to go through to become successful and the effect it had on their lives. Section F: Education--Has a huge range of textbooks and supplementary material covering all the major high school and university subjects. Buyers showing their student cards receive a 15% discount on all purchases from this section. 阅读下列关于各书籍的信息,匹配书籍与其所应放置的书架: 1. The Delighted Eye--by Prof. John Nash--The 1994 Nobel Prize Winner for Economics, whose ideas have influenced a generation of the world's greatest economic minds, tells his life story: growing up in a small town in America, becoming one of America' s most influential mathematicians and his battles with mental illness. 2. Mother Tongue: The English Language -- by Bill Bryson-- Bryson ' s book is a journey through the history and different aspects of the English language, one that is both informative and hugely entertaining. As with most of Bryson's books, fun comes before facts and readers will be left with a smile on their faces. 3. Into Thin Air--by John Krakauer--is a riveting first-hand account of a disastrous race to the top of Mount Everest. In March 1996, "Outside" magazine sent veteran journalist and experienced climber John Krakauer to join the team led by the famous Everest guide Rob Hall. Despite the expertise of Hall and the other leaders, by the end of the race eight people were dead. 4. Ready Made: How to Make (Almost) Everything--by Shoshena Berger and Grace Hawthorne--beautifully written with great factual information. The theme behind this book is re-use, re-claim, re-cycle and there are many detailed easy-to-do projects for the reader to try such as making a photo frame from a book cover or a pot for your plants from plastic shopping bags. 5. The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron--by Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind--As the title suggests the authors cover the rise of the American electricity company to become one of the 10 richest companies in the world and its spectacular fall into dishonour and bankruptcy. A perfect guide on what not to do in business. 答案: 1. E "Biography" 对应 "tell his life story" "learn what they had to go through" 对应 "mathematicians and his battles with mental illness" 2. C "keep the reader laughing"对应"readers will be left with a smile on their faces" 3. B "favorite sporting teams and events"对应"a disastrous race to the top of Mount Everest" 4. A "on how to do everything"对应"the theme behind this book is reuse, reclaim..." 5. D "special subsection for international trade and e-commerce"对应"a perfect guide on what not to in business" 4.读写任务 阅读下面的短文,然后按照要求写一篇 150 词左右的英语短文: Hi, I am Mike! Personally, I prefer to study alone. I find studying alone more challenging and exciting. Each time I come up with an idea after long time thinking, I feel a great sense of achievement. Studying alone also allows me to develop independent thinking which is a very important skill I need as I grow older and must solve the problems myself without the help of parents and teachers. Our teachers often encourage us to study in groups. I enjoy my friends' company, but in-group study, I find we spend far less time studying and more time playing games and having fun. It is for these reasons that I believe the most effective way to learn new knowledge is by studying alone. [写作内容] 学校最近组织了一次中关学生交流活动,你参加其中的“合作学习”讨论:听完 Mike 的发言之后,你准备写一份 发言稿,题目是“My View on Our Study”,内容要点包括: 1、以约 30 个词概括短文的要点: 2、以约 120 个词谈谈你对同学间是否必要合作学习的看法,并包括下面要点: 1)你对 Mike 的观点的评价; 2)你赞成哪一种学习方式,合作学习还是单独学习? 3)你以前采取什么学习方式,比较你先后采取两种学习方式上的变化及不同结果。 [写作要求]

1.作文中可使用自己的亲身经历或虚构的故事,也可以参照阅读材料的内容,但不得直接引用原文中的句子;标 题自定。 2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称。 [评分标准]概括准确,语言规范,内容合适,篇章连贯。 [写作辅导] 1.写作有可能用到的主要短语和单词:热情 enthusiasm, 合作学习 study in groups,单独学习 study alone。 2.本文的概要必须包含以下要点:I prefer to study alone. I find studying alone more challenging and exciting. / I believe the most effective way to learn new knowledge is by Studying alone. 3.本文要注意,概要一定要根据文段的时态来写。同时,绝对不能抄袭原文的句子。文章是谈你对同学间是否必 要合作学习的看法,属于评论性文字,故多用一般现在时或一般将来时态。但你以前采取何种学习方式属于经历,必 须使用一般过去时态。 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 答案: The Best Way to Learn In Mike's speech, we know that he likes to study alone because studying alone is the most effective, more challenging and exciting way to learn new knowledge. Personally I like studying in groups. When studying in groups we can learn from each other, share our experiences in solving difficult problems and learn more in less time. In the past I seldom had the confidence to discuss study topics with my classmates. I also had little enthusiasm for studying as I found it very boring. But following my teachers' advice I joined a study group and to my surprise my performance in class was improved greatly. Studying became more enjoyable and something I looked forward to doing, as I was able to learn from as well as help others. So for me, studying in groups is by far the most effective way to learn.


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