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南召一中外语组 陈果


一.shall 和should 1.Shall (1) 用在一、三人称的疑问句中, 表示征求对方 的意见或指示。 E g. Shall we go out for a walk ? —Has Mr. Wang arrived?

/>—Yes,already. Shall he wait outside or just
come in?

(2) 用于二、三人称陈述句中,表示命令、许诺、 威胁、决心、法律条文上的许可或要求等。
E g. You shall go to the front at once. Don’t worry. You shall get the answer this

very afternoon.
The school rules state that no child shall be allowed

out of the school unless accompanied by an adult.
You shall not get my support if you do such a thing.

2. should
(1) ( 表义务,责任) 应该 You should apologize to him.

(2) (表示预测可能性) 可能,(按道理说)应该……
It’s nearly 7 o’clock. Jack should be here at the moment.

(3) 竟然,居然
I am surprised that you should speak in such a way. I can never imagine an honest boy like him should cheat in the exam.

(4) 一 旦, 万一
Should you change your mind, let me know.

If it should rain tomorrow , we would stay at

二.can 和could
(1)(表示能力)能/会……(区别can, could和be able to) A computer can’t think itself. (2)(表示许可)

I could swim all the way across the lake, but I can’t now

You can go out when you finish your homework.
(3) (表示推测,常用在否定句和疑问句中) Who can it be at this time of day? There’s no light on----they can’t be at home . (4) (表示请求) 能不能……

Can you give me a lift to the station?


The experienced teacher can make mistakes sometimes.

1). cannot...too/enough 表示“无论??也不

You can’t be too careful while driving. You can’t be careful enough while driving.
2). can’t help doing sth.

3). can’t ( help /choose ) but do sth.

(1)表示意愿或决心(would 用于过去的情况) I will never do that again. I have told him again and again to stop smoking,but he won’t listen. (2008· 北京卷)John promised his doctor he would not smoke,and he never smoked ever since. (2)表示请求 Will you help me with the work?

Would you mind if I opened the window?

would可表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向,后面接表示动 作的动词,不能接表示状态的词; used to表示过去的习惯动作或状 态,强调现在已不存在。

Every morning he will have a walk along this river. Whenever he was in trouble, he would ask me for help.

Our company used to do business with theirs.

四.may 与might
You may not take photos in the museum .

—May I use your car? —No, I’m afraid you can’t.
注:could/might用来表示请求、许可时,语气比 can/may委婉,但在答语中不能用could/might. e g. Could I use your bike? —Yes, you can.
— Yes, you may.

Might I speak to you for a moment?




(2)表示祝愿 May you succeed! May God be with you! (3)句型: “may/might as well do sth……” 意为“最好……,倒不如……” You may as well do it at once. We may as well stay where we are.




(1)(表示义务/必要性)必须…… You must do as you are told. must 作“必须”讲时,其否定式是“needn’t”,表示“不 必”。

eg. —Must I work out the problem tonight?
—No,you needn’t. 注: mustn’t 表示“禁止,不准” You mustn’t play with the knife; you may hurt yourself. (2) (表示推测) 一定,准是…… There must be something wrong. (3)(表示固执,不满)偏要…… If you must smoke, please go out. Why must you be talking so loudly while others are studying?

1.(2010· 江苏卷 )—I haven’t got the reference

book yet,but I’ll have a test on the subject next —Don’t worry.You________have it by Friday. A.could B.shall






会有的。本题考查情态动词。 shall 用于第二人称表示允诺、


气,故答案为B。could 能,能够;must 必须;may 也许,
答案: B


2.(2011· 潍坊质量监测)When we worked in the same firm several years ago,we________often go to the cinema together.

C.shall 解析:




would 这里表示(过去)常常。
答案: A

3 . (2010· 福建毕业班检查 )For environmental reasons , we ________as well take these waste products and have them recycled.

C.might 解析:



“我们只好把这些废弃产品收起来并回收利用 ”,

固定表达may/might as well 意为“使??倒也无妨,
只好做”,由此我们不难判断这里选C项。 答案: C

4.(2010· 南通二模)—Will it take me long to get to the Sunshine Hotel? —No,it________take you long.It’s not the rush

hour now.
A.shouldn’t C.mustn’t 解析: 答案: B.shan’t D.needn’t

考查情态动词。根据应答句的后一分 A


1.must 表示推测时只能用于肯定句中,意为
“一定,必定”,表示十分肯定的(在疑问句中 或 否定句中要用can)。
(2009· 重庆)—Hi,Tom. Any idea where Jane is?

—She must be in the classroom. I saw

her there just now.
There’s no light on----they can’t be at home .



2.can 用于肯定句中有时可以用来表示推测, 意为“有时会”;用于疑问句中可以表示推测, 意为“可能”,有时表示一种惊讶的语气;用于 语气很强烈。
e g. Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How can it be
that he was late for the meeting? 布什先生做什么事情都很准时,他怎么可能迟到会议 呢? (2008· 福建卷)It is usually warm in my hometown

否定句中也可以表示推测,can’t 意为“不可能”,

in March,but it can be rather cold sometimes.

3 . May/might 用于肯定句中可以用来表示 推测,意为“可能”;用于否定句中也可以表 示推测,may not 意为“可能不”,表示一种不

(2009· 辽宁卷 )The traffic is heavy these days. I

might arrive a bit late,so could you save me a place?
最近这些天交通拥挤。我有可能迟到一会儿,因 此请你给我留个位子好吗? (2008· 全国卷Ⅱ)Liza may well not want to go on the trip—she hates traveling.


4 . should 用来表示推测时意为“应该”,
即含有“按道理来说应当如此”的意思。 (2010· 淄 博 检 测 )The public transport in Beijing is very convenient,so there shouldn’t be any difficulty in traveling around the city.


1.(2010· 浙 江 卷 )“You________have a wrong

number ,” she said ,“ There’s no one of that
name here.” A.need C.must B.can D.would


句意为: “ 你肯定打错电话了, ” 她

说, “这儿没有叫那个名字的人。 ”考查情态动词。

事情把握较大,所以用must(肯定,一定)。 答案: C

2.(2010· 烟台二模)—I think I’ll give Bob a ring. —You ________. You haven’t been in touch with him for ages. A.will C.have to 解析: B.may D.should


这里选择 should 的意思是 “ 应该 ” 。这句话的意思 是:你应该这样做(即给Bob打个电话),你们都多年 没有联系了。

答案: D

3. (2010· 济宁一模 )—When shall we hold the

—It________be better to put it off until next

A.must C.can 解析: B.could D.will 考查情态动词。此处could表示可能性、

推测:说不定会。如: It could be better to stay
here.说不定呆在这里比较好。 答案: B

1.can/could have done 表示本能够做……,疑问
或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为表示怀疑或不肯定, 其中 can’t have done 多用于语气强烈的否定,意为 “不可能做过”。
The accident could have been avoided. 这场事故本来是可以避免的。 (2008· 天津卷)She can’t have left school,for her bike is still here.


2.may/might have done 表示对过去行为的推测,意为 “可能做过”。might 所表示的可能性比较弱,语气较委婉。 此外might have done 可表示“本可能做而实际上未做”。

—I can’t find my purse anywhere.
—You may have lost it while shopping.

3.must have done 表示对过去行为的推测,意为“一

(2009· 上 海 卷 )It must have been Tom that parked the car here,as he is the only one with a car.

4.should/ought to have done 用于肯定句时,表示本该

反而做了。 I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I shouldn’t have eaten so much fried chicken just now. 我现在觉得肚子疼,我刚才不应该吃那么多的炸鸡。

You oughtn’t to have been late for yesterday’s
class meeting,as it was so important.

5.needn’t have done 表示本不需要 I actually needn’t have bought so much wine— only three people came.

1.(2010· 潍 坊 教 学 质 量 抽 样 监 测 )Her English

composition is much too perfect. She ________it
herself,I bet.

A.might have written
C.can’t write

B.can’t have written
D.must have written




去的动作,表示对过去事情的否定推测用 can’t +
have done。 答案: B

2 . (2010· 3 月浙江金华十校联考 )—Why didn’t

you come to Mike’s birthday party yesterday.
—Well , I________ , but I had something

important to do the moment.
A.should C.should have

B.must D.must have

考查情态动词和省略。should have 在这里相

当于should have come to Mike’s birthday party,即“我本 应该去参加Mike 的生日晚会的”。should have done 表“本 应该做某事(但实际上未做)”,其他选项不合题意。 答案: C

3 . (2010·安 徽 卷 )Jack described his father , who_____a brave boy many years ago , as a strongwilled man. A.would be C.must be B.would have been D.must have been

解析: 句意为:杰克的父亲很多年前一定非常勇敢,因此杰克说 他的父亲是一个意志坚定的人。本题考查情态动词表推测语气。 由句中的many years ago 可知是对过去的推测,故排除A、C; 而B项表示可能性很小,故被排除。 答案: D

4.(2010· 山东卷)I________ have watched that movie—it’ll give me horrible dreams. A.shouldn’t C.couldn’t B.needn’t D.mustn’t

解析: 句意为:我本不应该去看那部电影 — — 它会使我做噩梦的。考查情态动词。 shouldn’t have done本不该干,但是干了;needn’t have done 本没必要干,但是干了;couldn’t have done 不可能 干了某事。无mustn’t have done 结构。根据题干所 提供信息应选A项。 答案: A

情况 与现 在事 实相 反 与过 去事 实相 反 与将 来事 实相 反

从句 的动词
动词的过去式 (be动词一律用 were) had+过去 分词

主句 的动词


would/could/sho If I had time,I would attend your party. 如果我有时间,我就去参加你的宴会了。 uld/might +动 If I saw him now,I would be very happy. 词原形 如果我现在见到他,我会很高兴的。 would/could/sho You didn’t let me drive.If we had driven in uld/might+ turn,you wouldn’t have got so tired. have+过去分 你当时不让我开车。如果我们轮流开,你 词 就不会觉得那么累了。

动词的过去式; would/could/mig If it snowed/were to snow/should snow should+动词原 ht/should+动 tomorrow,we would take photos. 形;were to+ 词原形 如果明天下雪,我们就照相。 动词原形

注意: (1) 若条件句中有 were , had , should ,可把 if 省略,而把 were ,

had,should 放在主语前,形成倒装结构.
Had you taken my advice,you wouldn’t have failed in the examination. (2)有时主句和虚拟条件从句的动作发生的时间不一致,此时,主句和从 句的谓语动词要根据各自所指的不同时间选择适当的动词形式。 If you had worked hard,you would be very tired now.



Without electricity(=If there were no electricity),life would be quite different today. 如果没有电,今天的生活就会完全不同。 But for your help,it would have caused a serious loss.

I was busy that day.Otherwise I would have gone there with them.(If I hadn’t been busy that day,I would have gone there with them.) 我那天很忙,否则,我就和他们一起去那儿了。

1.(2010· 湖南卷)If he________my advice,he wouldn’t have lost his job.

C.had followed 解析:

B.should follow
D.would follow


作了。本题考查虚拟语气。因为 if条件句表示与过去事实相反,故采用 过去完成时。

答案: C

2.(2011· 厦门市质量检查)—Thank you for reminding me of the

time,or I ________late yesterday.
—Don’t mention it. A.should be C.will have been 解析: B.would be D.would have been


因此要使用情态动词 would+完成式。谢谢你提醒我时间,不然昨天我
就迟到了。 答案: D

3.(2011· 山东潍坊质检)________more careful,the mistake would

not have been made.
A.If he is C.Should he be 解析: B.Had he been D.If he has been

从主句中的would not have been made 可知,这是与过去

相反的虚拟语气,因此从句谓语动词用had been 的形式,又因助动词为

答案: B

后宾语从句和同位语从句中用虚拟语气,形式为: (should)+动词原形。 常 这 样 用 的 动 词 有 : advise 劝 告 , demand 要 求 , desire 渴 望 , command 命令, insist 坚持, prefer 宁愿, urge 主张,order 命令, recommend 推荐,request 要求,require 要求,suggest 建议,以及这些

Jane’s pale face suggested that she was ill , and her parents suggested that she (should)have a medical examination. 简苍白的脸色表明她生病了,她父母建议她做一下医学检查。


表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish+主语+had+过去分词 表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish+主语+would+动词原形 I wish she were here.她在这儿就好了。 I wish you would go with us tomorrow.

I wish she had taken my advice. 那时她要是听我的话就好了。

1.(2010· 福 建 卷 )Teachers



children under 12 to ride bicycles to school for safety.
A.not allow C.mustn’t allow 解析: B.do not allow D.couldn’t allow

句意为:为了安全起见,老师建议家长不要让 12岁以下


后接宾语从句时,宾语从句的谓语动词常用“ should +动词原形”, should 可以省略。 答案: A

2 . (2011· 山东潍坊质量抽样 )The order came that the medical
supplies ________to Beijing for the H1N1 flu soon. A.would be sent B.should send

C.be sent

D.must be sent


suggest , command 等 ) 后面接从句时,从句用虚拟语气。从句谓语用 should+do,should可以省略。order后的同位语从句也用虚拟语气,故 选C项。

答案: C

(1)would rather 句型中的虚拟语气表示愿望,意为“宁愿,但
愿”。 I’d rather we didn’t go to see a film this evening. 我倒希望我们今晚不去看电影。 (2)It is (high/ about) time (that)...句型中的虚拟语气

在句型“It is (high/about) time...”后面也可跟虚拟语气,从句中常
用过去式。有时也用“ should +动词原形”,意为“该是??的时候 了”。

It is time (that) we went home.我们该回家了。

(3)if only 引导的感叹句中的虚拟语气 在“if only”引导的感叹句中,要求用虚拟语气,表示愿望。用过 去时或“would/could+动词原形”表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望;

If only I had not been ill last week! 要是上周我没病该多好啊!

1.(2010· 合肥第三次教学检测)—Sorry,Daddy.I am not getting on well with my studies. —Well.________you hadn’t wasted so much time playing online

A.As if C.If only 解析: B.Even if D.Only if

考查虚拟语气。句意为: ——爸爸,对不起,我的学习

情况不太好。——哦,要是你不把那么多的时间浪费在网络游戏上就好 了。if only(但愿)接虚拟语气,表示对过去情况的假设。as if好像,even if即使,only if只有,都是状语从句的连词,不符合语意。 答案: C

2. (2011· 青岛一模)—My uncle suggests I________abroad.

—I would rather you________at home.
A.go;stay C.go;stayed 解析: B.went;stayed D.went;stay

suggest 当“建议 ” 讲时,从句中要用虚拟语气,结构是

“should+动词原形”,should可以省略。would rather后面跟从句时,

答案: C

1.(2010· 湖南卷)You________buy a gift,but you can if you want to. A.must C.have to B.mustn’t D.don’t have to



买。本题考查情态动词。根据句意可知此处须用否定形式,故排除 A、
C项;mustn’t 表示禁止;don’t have to 意为“不必??”。 答案: D

2.(2010· 新课标全国卷Ⅰ)Just be patient.You________expect the world to change so soon. A.can’t C.may not 解析: B.needn’t D.will not


本题考查情态动词。这里用 can’t 表示 “ 不能,不可以,不可能 ” 。

needn’t没有必要;may not 可能不;will not 将不,都不符合句意。
答案: A

3.(2010· 四川卷)—________I take the book out? —I’m afraid not. A.Will C.Must 解析: B.May D.Need 句意为: ——我可以把书带出去吗? —— 恐怕不能。本

题考查情态动词。请求对方的允许时常使用can 或may,故B为答案。

答案: B

4.(2010· 重庆卷)You________park here!It’s an emergency exit. A.wouldn’t C.couldn’t 解析: B.needn’t D.mustn’t


情态动词。mustn’t 表示“禁止”;wouldn’t 表示“不会”;needn’t 表 示“不必”;couldn’t 表示“不可能”。由语境得知,这里表示“禁止

答案: D

5.(2010· 辽宁卷)Doctors say that exercise is important for health, but it________be regular exercise. A.can C.must 解析: B.will D.may 句意为:医生说锻炼对健康很重要,但那必须是经常性


答案: C

6.(2010· 天津卷)Mark________have hurried.After driving at top speed,he arrived half an hour early. A.needn’t C.mustn’t 解析: B.wouldn’t D.couldn’t

句意为:Mark 本不必那么匆忙。他极速行驶,最后早到

了半个小时。本题考查情态动词。needn’t have done表示过去不必要做

的 事 情 却 做 了 。 couldn’t have done 表 示 过 去 不 可 能 做 了 ( 某 事 ) ;
wouldn’t have done 用在表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中;mustn’t 表禁

答案: A

7.(2010· 陕西卷)—May I take this book out of the reading room? —No,you________.You read it in here. A.mightn’t C.needn’t 解析: B.won’t D.mustn’t

句意为: ——我可以把这本书带出阅览室吗? —— 不行,


可能不;will表意愿或决心;needn’t 不必;mustn’t 用于说话者要某人
不做某事,绝对不可以。例如:You mustn’t leave the gate open.你不要

答案: D

8.(2010· 江西卷)I have told you the truth.________ I

keep repeating it?
A.Must B.Can





本题考查情态动词。 must 表示对方的行为使说话人不满或懊恼,意为

“偏要”。can,may 用在句首表请求或疑问。
答案: A

9 . (2010· 浙江卷 )Had I known about this computer

program,a huge amount of time and energy________.
A.would have been saved

B.had been saved
C.will be saved

D.was saved
解析: 句意为:如果我了解这种电脑程序的话,就可以节约大

量的时间和精力。本题考查虚拟语气。如果表示与过去事实相反的话, 条件句采用过去完成时态(如果省略if可采用部分倒装结构),主句谓语动 词应采用“would+have+过去分词”的结构,故答案为A项。 答案: A

10 . (2010· 陕 西 卷 )If we________the other road , we

might have arrived here in time for the meeting.
A.take B.had taken


D.have taken



了 。 本 题 考 查 的 是 虚 拟 语 气 。 根 据 句 意 及 后 边 主 句 谓 语 might have arrived 可知if 从句表示与过去事实相反,故if从句的谓语动词用过去完 成时。 答案: B



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