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否定句 英语


Negative Words & Negative Statements (否定词和否定句)

否定词或词组
1.no, not, never, neither, nor, nobody, nothing, none, little, few, hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, nowhere, etc 2

. no one,not…at all, no longer, no more, not any more, not any longer, no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when…, in no case, by no means, in no way, at no time, on no condition, under/in no circumstances, not until, can't help but do…, can’t help doing, can’t but do, cannot…too…, very few/little, not only, etc

Think?
它们是否定词吗?

1.without, unless, regardless of, against, fail, absent, free from,etc 2. impossible, unbelievable, discourage, unimportant, useless, abnormal, illegal, irregular, misunderstand, non-stop, too…to…, etc 3. in no time

归纳

否定词分两种:
1. 否定形式的否定词 2. 肯定形式表示否定意义的词
因此,否定句也分两类: 1. 含有否定词的否定句 2. 含有否定意义的词的否定句

判断下列句子属于哪一类否定句
1.There is not nearly enough time to learn all these words. 2.You can’t possibly take all that luggage with you. 3.Joe would rather die than see any harm come to pip. 4.How imperfect the rules and regulations are! 5.Pip can hardly wait to begin his new life. 6.The classics are far from disappearing. 将下列句子改成否定句(学案P11)

说出它们的否定结构
have have to be able to ought to used to haven’t/ don’t have don’t have to be not able to oughtn’t to

usedn’t to/didn’t use to
would rather not had better not needn’t/don’t need dare not/don’t dare

would rather
had better need dare

否定句的各种形式 双重否定表肯定
1. It’s not uncommon to find her reading
the newspaper.

2. Without your help, I can not succeed. 3.There is nobody who does not know the old man in the town. 4.It’s never too late to learn. 5.There is no success without hardships. 6.You can’t make something out of nothing.

否定转移 1. I don’t think he is suitable for the task. 2. The news didn’t seem to be true. 3. It doesn’t sound as if the girl knows what has happened to her in the accident. 4. 我相信他不会来了。 he will come. I don’t believe that … not…because…结构 He didn’t buy the house because it was cheap. I am not ready to believe anything because some famous person said it. The mountain is not valuable because it is high.

否定祈使句 由Don’t 或Never+ 动词原形构成。 Don’t give up trying even though it is difficult to learn English! Do not be late next time. Don’t trouble troubles until trouble troubles you. Never judge people by their appearance.

否定疑问句:
常表示反问、惊讶、建议、赞叹等语气

Don’t you know these traffic rules? Aren’t you supposed to be working? You look pale. Why don’t you have a rest? Isn’t it a lovely day?

★注意:在回答否定疑问句时,要根 据具体事实作答 ---Didn’t you see the film Titanic Did yesterday? --- _____. I would like to have seen it. A. Yes, I didn’t B. No, I didn’t C. Yes, I did D. No, I did

---You haven’t been to Beijing, have

you? --- ____. And I visited the Summer Palace. A. Yes, I have B. Yes, I haven’t C. No, I have D. No, I haven’t

not 常用在I think, I believe, I expect, I suppose, I guess, I’m afraid之后,构成省略句。

---Do you think it will be a fine day tomorrow? ---I’m afraid not. ---Do you believe that Rocket will win the game? ---I believe not. (=I don’t believe so.) (---I hope so./ I hope not.)

思考:
翻译下列句子

1.All of those people don’t obey these rules. 2. Both of us don’t understand these rules. 3. Every student can’t solve this difficult maths problem. 部分否定
否定词not、never 与all, both, everything, everywhere, always, often, entirely, necessarily等 连用时,不管位置如何,表部分否定“并非都…”

All that glitters is not gold. =Not all that glitters is gold. Both of them are not useful. =Not both of them are useful. Such a thing is not found everywhere. The rich are not always happy. His attention was not entirely paid to his research.

总结

部分否定句由all, both, every, each, everything, everybody, always, completely, entirely等加上not, never 等构成。 全部否定句由no, none, nobody, nowhere, no one, never, neither, nor 等 加上表示肯定意义的动词构成。

1.他们我不全认识。/ 他们我全不认识。 I don’t know all of them. I know none of them./I don’t know any of them.

2.这种花并不是随处可见。 This kind of flower is not seen everywhere. 3.这两本书我不都要。/ 这两本书我都不要。 I don’t want both of the books. I want neither of the books./ I don’t want either of the books.

否定与反意疑问句
He has few good reasons for staying, ______________? does he/has he
does she She hardly writes to you, ________? doesn’t he He dislikes his new job, __________?

It’s impossible to finish the work within isn’t it three days, ________?
is he I don’t think that he is clever, ________?

do you You don’t think that he is clever, _______?

否定与倒装
1. Never have I seen the couple quarrelling since I lived there.

2. No sooner had the thief seen the policeman than he ran away.
表示否定意义的never, hardly, not only, no sooner (…than), hardly(…when), scarcely(…when)等放在句首时,句子要 倒装(部分倒装,借助于助动词)。

Jim didn’t know her secret, neither/nor did Jack. By no means will china first use nuclear weapons. Not a mistake did he make in this exam.
我很少回家。

Seldom do I go home.
直到六点钟我才离开学校。

Not until 6 o’clock did I leave school.

形式肯定,意义否定
1. too…to 结构
2.用the last/least “最不…”构成否定句

3. 在“…since(自从) …”结构中,从句谓语是
延续性动词时表示否定意义

He is too young to carry so heavy a case. He is the last man I want to see. It is three years since he was a teacher. 比较: is three years since he became a teacher. It
译: I haven’t seen him since he was ill.

形式否定,意义肯定
1. too修饰only,ready, glad, anxious, eager等词时相当于“very” 2. can not / never ……too/enough… 再…也不为过; 越….越好 3. nothing but 相当于“only” anything but “一点都不” 4. 否定词与比较级连用,强调所修饰的词 的肯定意义, 相当于最高级。

I was only too glad to receive your e-mail. He is too ready to help others. You cannot be too careful to do your homework. There is nothing but sands left after the forest was destroyed. ---Mr. Li is a good teacher. ---I can’t agree more.
翻译:

1.尽管吃。

You cannot eat too much.

2. 你在过马路时再怎么小心也不为过。 You cannot be too careful while crossing the road . 3. 我感觉再好不过了。

I couldn’t feel better.
4. 我们对你感激不尽。

We can’t thank you enough.

Consolidation exercises
选择正确的译文
1、未经允许,任何人不得入内。
Anybody can not come in without permission. × Nobody can come in without permission. √ ?“任何……不”是汉语中常用的否定句式,而在英 语中与any构成的合成词或被any修饰的词语作主语 时,谓语动词不能用否定式,因此any ... not的 表达形式不符合英语的习惯。翻译这类句子时须用 “否定形式的主语+肯定形式的谓语”。但当any的 合成词或any所修饰的词带有后置定语时,谓语可以 用否定式, 如: 干那种事的人都是不诚实的。 Anyone who does that isn't honest.

Having heard the news, nobody did not feel excited. × Having heard the news, everybody felt excited. √ ? 汉语中常用“没有+主语+不+谓语”这一双重否定 的结构,而英语中否定形式的主语习惯上不能与否定形 式的谓语连用。因此nobody... not的结构不符合英语的 表达习惯. 翻译这类句子时, 1)可把主语和谓语都改成肯定形式; 2)也可用另一结构的双重否定式: There be +否定的主语 + 否定形式的定语从句 如: There was nobody who did not feel excited.

2、听到这个消息后,没有一个人不感 到兴奋。

3、这两本书都不是英国出版的。
Both of the books are not published in england. × Neither of the books is published in england. √

我不同意所有这些方案。
I don't agree to all these projects. × I agree to none of these projects. √ 或:I don't agree to any of these projects. ?英语中的概括词all, every, both,以及与every构成 的合成词,用语否定句式时,只表示部分否定,常译成“并 非……都”,因此两个错误译句的含义分别为:并非两本 书都是英国出版的,并非所有这些方案我都同意。要表达 全部否定意义时,英语须用全否定词语,如none, neither, no, nobody, nothing, not ... any, not ... either等。

4.这台机器不能再用了,那台也一样。
This machine can not be used any longer, and that one can't, too. × This machine can not be used any longer, and that one can't either. √ 或:This machine can not be used any longer, neither (nor) can that one. ?否定句中的“也”不能译成too,而须用either,或用

neither (nor)的倒装句型。

5、你不必为你的军衔和薪金担心。
You won't have to worry about rank and pay. × You won't have to worry about rank or pay. √ ? 在肯定句中用and来连接两个并列成分,表示 “和”,但在否定句中and应改为or, 这时否定词 对or的前后部分同时加以否定。

6、这些规章制度多不完善!
How not perfect the rules and regulations are! × How imperfect the rules and regulations are! √ ?汉语中的感叹句可用否定式,如:多不光彩呀! 多不容易呀!而英语中的感叹句不能用否定式,我 们可用反义词或带有否定词缀的词来表示。

7、我认为这不值得一试。
I think this is not worth trying. × I don't think this is worth trying. √ ?英语中表臆想、猜测的动词think, believe, expect, guess, imagine, suppose等,如果带有否定的宾语从句 ,宾语从句中的否定词通常提前,用来否定主句的谓 语动词。尤其是think, 按习惯用法,否定词只能置于 think前。

8、他来这儿不是为了求得我们的帮助。
He came here not to ask us for help. × He did not come here to ask us for help. √ ?否定状语时,英语中的否定词一般不直接置于被 否定词语前,通常置于谓语动词前。只有当两个部 分加以对比时,即“不是……而是”时,否定词才 可直接置于状语前。 ?如:他来这儿不是为了求得我们的帮助,而是来 给我们提供一些信息。 ?He came here not to ask us for help, but to give us some information. 即使在这一结构中,英语还是常把否定词置于 谓语动词前。

9、他的设计肯定还没完成。
He mustn't have completed his design. × He can't have completed his design. √ 对比较有把握的推测,肯定句中用must,而否定句 中用can't,对过去的推测,在must和can't后接完成 形式。

Practice 1.并非每个人都能如愿、事事成功。 Everyone in doing as he wishes to. 2.我从未看到他象今天这样开心过。 I him much happier like today. 3.梅维斯最不愿做此事。 This was thing Mavis .

4.我想她在八点前不会回来。 I that she will eight.

until

5.她似乎并不知道这家旅馆根本不便宜。 She to know that the hotel is cheap. 6.这个小女孩并不是因为负不起学费而辍 学的。 The little girl school because she tuition(学费).

巩固练习

1 I agreed with most of what he said, but not _____. A. anything B. everything C. something D. nothing
2 I had ___closed my eyes when I remembered I hadn’t done my maths homework. A. certainly B. merely C. hardly D. nearly

3 Bob ran 100 meters in 9.91 seconds, and I have not seen ____ this year. A. the best B. better C. the most D. more

4 --What he said sounds reasonable.

--Of course, _____.
A. I can’t agree with him most

B. I can’t agree with him more
C. I can’t agree with him less D. I can’t agree with him least

5 — Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away? — Thank you. _____ A. It couldn’t be better B. Of course you can

C. If you like
D. It’s up to you

6 --Which driver was to blame? --Why, ___! It was the child’s fault, clear and simple. He suddenly came out between two parked cars. A. both B. each C. either D. neither

7 They have a good knowledge of English but little ____they know about German. A. have B. did C. had D. do

8 We should ___ look down upon the people who are inferior to us. A by no means C at all B by any means D in any way

9 The students are ____ with these two famous scientists in the lab. A too pleased to work B too pleased that they cannot work C only too pleased to work D so pleased that they cannot work

10 Never before ___ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. A has this city been B this city has been C was this city D this city was

11 It won’t be long ______ war

comes to its end.
A when B after

C until

D before

12 The students cannot be ____ careful in performing the experiment as it is such a critical link in the whole project. A very B too C quite D so

Homework
1. Do Part C1 andC2 on page 102 of the workbook 2. Prepare for Task


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