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动词不定式学案定稿


始于 1989

★★★★★ 个性化学科优化学案

五星级名校冲刺第一品牌

学员姓名 课 题

科目 高考--动词不定式 月 老师: 日

英语

年级

教师

何老师

教学组长签字 备课时间 学

生: 学员课堂表现 月 日

授课时间 签字确认 作业布置 学 习 目 标 重、难、

一.正确掌握并运用不定式的时态语态 二.掌握不定式的几种特殊形式 准确把握不定式的时态语态

考 点 教学过程

鹰击长空—基础不丢
完成句子: 71.I'm afraid I can't attend your birthday party at 5 P.M.next Monday.I (已乘飞机)to London long before then. (fly) 72.The technology is reported (应用到)architecture in other countries for a long time, but it was not introduced into China until two years ago. (apply) 73.He escaped (丧生) in the explosion because he had not gone to work. (kill) 74.So (天气好) that all of us want to go on an outing. (day) 75.It was only when the accident took place (他才意识到) the importance of careful driving. (realize) 76.Jenny has been criticized by the teacher for using the cellphone in class. I would rather you (没借) it to her. (lend) 77.One more step backward, _ ___ (你会掉进) the pool. (fall) 78.English, as well as all other subjects, _ __ (很重要) .So we must learn it well to be more competent. (importance) 79.I am proud of what I did.But I was just helping to do (他本 该做的)(do) . 80.Last week, only two people came to look at the house. (两个都不 想) to buy it. (want) 71.will/shall have flown

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始于 1989

★★★★★

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72.to have been applied to 73.being killed 74.fine/good/nice a day is it 75.that he realized 76.hadn’t lent 77.and you will fall into 78.is of great/vital importance 79.what he should/ought to have done 80.neither of whom wanted/ and neither of them wanted/ neither of them wanting

可以攻玉—经典例题

非谓语动词 I want to swim today.(不定式) It’s no good waiting here(动名词) The sleeping boy is my son.(现在分词) The glass is broken(过去分词) I 在句中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定 式、动名词和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词) 动词不定式(to do) 不定式、动名词和现在分词都有时态和语态的变化. 不定式 一般式 进行式 完成式 完成进行式 主动语态 To do To be doing To have done To have been doing To have been done 被动语态 To be done 与谓语动词的关系 动作发生在谓语动作之后 与谓语动作同时发生 动作发生在谓语动作之前 动作发生在谓语动作之前

To do that sort of thing is foolish。主语 I want to see you this evening. 宾语 All you have to do is to finish it quickly. 表语 We found a house to live in. 定语 She came here to study English. 状语 I warned the patient not to eat cold water after the operation. 宾补 不定式或不定式短语可起名词,形容词和副词的作用,在句中做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语和

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始于 1989

★★★★★

五星级名校冲刺第一品牌

宾语补足语。 一,不定式在句中的作用: 1、主语:不定式做主语时,可以直接放在谓语动词之前。 eg: To make a new dress takes her a lot of time. Not to get there in time is your fault. 注:常句型 1:It + 谓语 + to do eg: It takes us an hour to get there by bus. 句型 2:It’s + n. + to do eg: It’s our duty to help the poor. 句型 3:It is adj. for/of sb. to do sth. E.g. It is important for him to get up early. It is very honest of her to help the old people. 注:for/of sb to do sth 为不定式复合结构。 1) of 引起的复合结构只能做主语。 eg: It’s very kind of you to help me.用 it 做形式主语,将 to do 放在位于之后,使句子保持平衡。 2) for 引起的复合结构在句中可做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语等。 eg: Another method is for them to leave at once. (表语) We’d better find some work for the children to do. (定语) He put the paper on desk for you to read. (状语) What he told her made it impossible for him to go on her work. (宾语) It’s common for leaves to fall form the trees in autumn. (主语) 2、做表语:主语+系动词+不定式 1). 其主语多为抽象名词(wish, need) eg: My wish is to be a scientist. The main thing is to keep our room clean. 2). 不定式 to let, to blame, to seek 做表语,主动表被动. eg: The house is to let. 3). be to do 可构成将来时态,表 “准备/打算/计划/需要”; be 是助动词,无词义,其主语为具体名词(人/ 事物); eg: She is to return next week. It was about to leave when it started to rain. 3. 做定语: 不定式做定语总是放在它所修饰的名词之后,不定式表示的行为通常是未来的行为,它们 常和被修饰的词有动宾关系,主谓关系和修饰性关系. 1). 动宾关系: I have a lot of work to do. Give me a piece of paper to write on. 2). 主谓关系: She is the best person to finish the work. Women and children were the first to get into the lifeboat. 3). 修饰性关系(同位),它所修饰的词多为抽象名词. need, time, way, right, chance, courage, reason, wish, movement. eg: There is no need for him to come. He has no time to read the book. 4. 做状语: 1). 目的状语: 可放于句首,也可放于句末, 前面可加 in order/so as/so…as to 表强调.

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始于 1989

★★★★★

五星级名校冲刺第一品牌

eg: He went to see the artist himself. He stopped to have a look. He ran so fast as to get to school in time. 2). 结果状语:主要用在 enough to/too…to…/only to 结构中。 eg: The question is too difficult to answer. They worked hard enough to finish their work. I hurried to the supermarket, only to find it was closed. 3). 原因状语: 主语+系动词+adj.+ to do a). 表感情的 adj.有: happy, surprised, pleased, glad, sorry, anxious(忧虑), disappointed, careful, afraid, wrong. eg: I’m very sorry to see you. He was afraid to leave him home. b). 说明句中主语在哪个方面存在形容词所表示的情况时,即与句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,主 动表被动. interesting, difficult, easy, important, possible, expensive, dangerous, useful. eg: The question is easy to answer. He is difficult to teach. 5. 做宾语: 不定式做宾语的情况,一般表示将来的行为,这时谓语和不定式的动作都是主语发出的. 1). 下列动词只能按不定式做宾语. plan, choose, manage, learn, pretend, agree, decide, refuse. promise, prepare, offer, fail, hope, wish, expect, ask;demand, want, hesitate 2). 不定式做动词 tell, teach, know, show, find out, discover, see(understand)的宾语时,不定式前常加连 接代词 who, which, what 和连接副词 how, when, where 构成不定式短语做宾语. eg: I don't know how to get there. 注: why 不能与不定式连用. 3). begin, start, continue 后接不定式,动名词意思一样. 4). like, love, hate, prefer 动名词表经常性的动作,不定式表一次性动作. 5). remember, forget, regret 后动名词表已经做过的动作,不定式表没有做过或将要做的动作. 6). stop, try, go on, mean, propose 后两者都可, 但意义不同. propose to do 计划,打算做 propose doing 建议做 7). a). prefer doing to doing prefer to do rather than do b). be used to doing used to do c). it’s no use doing it’s useless to do d). be worth doing be worthy of being done be worthy to be done 6. 做宾补(与宾语之间的关系实际上是逻辑上的主谓关系) 1). 有些动词(短语)必须接 to 的不定式做宾补 ask, warn, want, allow, permit, order, advise, force, beg, cause, encourage, invite, persuade, get, require, prefer, call, leave, expect, use(allow/permit/advise doing sth) 2). 与表示说话或心理状态的动词 say, report, believe, suppose, think, understand, consider 等的被动语 态连用. eg: He is said to have written a new book about workers.

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★★★★★ 五星级名校冲刺第一品牌 3). 与表示希望, 期望, 意愿的动词 expect, hope, mean, intend, plan, think, want, wish 的过去时态连用, 表曾经打算设想做却没做的事. eg: They expected to have gone to the match, but the tickets were all sold. They had expected to go to the match. 二, 不定式的时态和语态 A. 不定式的一般式(to do) 不定式的一般式表示的动作通常与主要谓语的动作同时或几乎同时发生,或是在它之后发生。 He appears to be very happy. 他看起来好像很高兴。 (同时发生) To catch the train, we'd better hurry to the station by taxi. 为了赶上火车, 我们最好赶紧乘出租车去车 站。 (to catch the train 发生在 hurry to the station 之后)
始于 1989

B.不定式的进行式(to be doing) 不定式的进行式表示正在进行的或与谓语动词同时发生的动作。 It happened to be raining when I got there. 我到达那里的时候,天碰巧在下雨。 I'm glad to be traveling with you. 我很高兴和你一起旅游。 C. 不定式的完成式 (to have done) 不定式的完成式表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生。 I'm sorry to have lost your key. 我很抱歉把你的钥匙弄丢了。 I meant to have finished my work last night, but I didn't feel very well. 我本来想昨晚完成工作的,但 是我感觉身体不舒服。 It has been an honor for me to have been invited to your country. 对我来说, 被邀请来你们国家是一件 很荣幸的事情。 D. 不定式的完成进行式(to have been doing) 不定式的完成进行式表示的动作在谓语之前发生并且一直进行着。 He was said to have been living in London for twenty years. 据说他在伦敦一直住了 20 年。 I'm sorry to have been interrupting you. 很抱歉,我一直打扰你。 比较: 不定式的时态意义。 He is said to be studying abroad. 据说他正在国外读书。 (不定式的进行式表示动作正在进行) He is said to have studied abroad. 据说他在国外学习过。 (不定式的完成式表示动作已经结束) E. 不定式的被动形式 当不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。不定式 的被动形式根据其与谓语动作发生的先后关系,有一般式和完成时两种。 1.一般式 to be done (后发生) These are the books to be given out to the students. 这些是要发给学生的书。 He asked to be sent to the place where he was most needed. 他要求被派往最需要他的地方。 2.完成式 to have been done(早发生) The novel is said to have been translated into many languages. 据说这部小说已被译成多种语言。 He appeared to have been questioned for many times. 看起来他已经被询问过很多次了。

非谓语动词历来是高考中的重点,不定式结构在考点中常占很大比重。其中 TO 的用法很复杂,现

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★★★★★ 五星级名校冲刺第一品牌 就 TO 在一些结构中常被省略的情况作如下小结。 1.感官动词和使役动词在主动语态中不需要带 to,即我们常说的“一觉二听三让五看”:feel, listen to 、hear ,let、make、have, see、watch、notice、observe、look at. He noticed Tom take a branch of flowers in his hand. 他注意到汤姆手中拿着一束鲜花。 The teacher has us write a composition every week. 老师要我们每周写一篇文章。 注: 除 let 外其他在变成被动语态时要加上 to。 The person was seen to enter the shop by us . 我们看见那个人进了那家商店。 2 由 all, what 引导的主语从句或者主语被 only, first, one, least 或形容词最高级修饰时,而且从 句中含有 do 时,其表语如果是动词不定式,则往往省去 to。 All I did was empty the bottle.我所做的是倒空这个瓶子。What I wanted to do was drive all night.我想做 的是彻夜开车。 The only thing I could do was do it myself 。我惟一能做的是我自己解决。 3.常用的结构 may well do,may as well do (还是…好了) but 或 except 后接不定式时,如果它们前面有 do 便可省略 to,其结构为 can not do but(do)…, We might as well put up here for tonight.我们不妨今晚就在这儿过夜。 She can do nothing but/except sing.她除了唱歌什么也没做。 There is nothing he could do but play all day long。他除了整天玩,别无它事可做。
始于 1989

4.不定式做 help 后的宾语补足语或宾语时,可带 to 也可不带。 Can I help(to) carry it for you? 我可以帮你搬吗? I helped him(to) mend the bike. 我帮助他修理自行车。 5.在 had better,would rather,rather than 之后省略 to。 You'd better not tell him the news . 你最好不把这个消息告诉他。 Rather than wait anyone, I decided to go home by taxi. 我决定乘出租车回家而不愿等候任何人。 学习动词不定式时要特别注意以下几点:? 一、后接不定式的动词? 1. 后 接 不 定 式 做 宾 语 的 动 词 hope, agree, dare, decide, determine | | begin, start, refuse, prepare,offer||manage,try, aim, forget, remember ,choose||seem, pretend, learn, love, hate 等。? (可记:希望同意敢决定,开始拒绝备提供,设法瞄准忘记选,似乎假装学爱憎。)? 2. 后 接 不 定 式 作 宾 补 的 动 词 ? permit,request,allow,command,tell,invite,cause,encourage | | warn,adivse,persuade||force,order,remind,teach 等。? ( 可记首字母:practice wap fort 实践攻克堡 垒。)? 3.后接不定式既作宾语又可作宾补的动词? ask,beg,like,preter,help,promise,wish,want,expect 等。? (可记:请求、愿、助、诺、希望。 )? 二、不定式省略 to 的现象: 1.在 had better,would rather, why not…,do nothing but,would rather…than 以及情态动词后。 如: Tom would rather play tennis than swim. I could do nothing but wait for you. 2.在 see,hear,watch,notice,feel,observe,let,make,have 等感官动词和使役动词后接不带 to 的不定式作宾

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★★★★★ 五星级名校冲刺第一品牌 补,但当这些动词为被动时其后的不定式必须带 to. 如 He saw two men enter the room. I was made to do it 三, 不定式的否定式? 否定不定式时, 否定副词 not 或 never,seldom,hardly 等要置于 to 前。 如:She checked the names so as not to make mistakes. 四、注意不定式复合结构的用法? 句中不定式需要有逻辑主语时,常用 for+名词(或代词宾语)+不定式,构成不定式的复合结构。如: ? It is very important for us to learn English well. 但某些形容词如 kind, clever, foolish, wise, nice, generous, silly, stupid 等, 是表示不定式的逻辑主语 的性质或特征的,常用 of 引导不定式的逻辑主语。如:? It was wise of him to do that. 五、不定式的主动式与被动式:? 句子的主语是不定式的逻辑主语,不定式用主动式。如:? I need to buy a computer. 句子的主语是 不定式的逻辑宾语,不定式用被动式。如:? The fridge needs to be repaired.
始于 1989

六、区分不定式小品词 to 和介词 to :?
1.下列 to 为不定的小品词, 后接动词原形: be able to,be about to,have to,ought to,too…to,in order to,so ? as to,used to 等。? You ought to follow your father's advice. 2.下列 to 为介词,后接名词、代词或 V-ing 形式:? pay attention to,look forward to,be/get used to( 习 惯于),lead to,stick to,belong to,devote oneself to 等。如:? I' looking forward to seeing you again. m 七、不定式的位置及与所修饰词之间的关系? 1.不定式作定语放在被修饰词之后。如:? I want to have something to read. 2.不定式与被修饰词之间有逻辑上的动宾关系,所以当不定式的动词是不及物动词或不定式的动词 与其所修饰的词之间构不成动宾关系时,其后需加一个适当的介词。如:? I need a pen to write with. 八、疑问词 how,when,what,where,which 以及 whether 与不定式连用,在句中作主语、表语或宾语, 其功能相当于名词性从句。如:? Where to go has not been decided yet.? (Where we shall go has not been decided yet.) 九、 有些动词(stop,forget,remember,regret,like 等)后接不定式或动名词时, 意思差别很大。 如: I must remember to post the letter.我必须记着要发信。 (信还未寄出)? I rememberposting the letter.我记得发了 信了。(信已寄出)? I like swimming.( 喜欢游泳这项运动) I like to swim this Friday.(喜欢在星期五去游 泳这一具体动作)?

突飞猛进—考试连线

1. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier ________ it more difficult. (MET99) A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make 2. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ______ in my new job. (NMET2000) A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects 3. Charles Babbage is generally considered _____the first computer. (MET1998) A.to invent B. inventing C. to have invented C. having invented

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★★★★★ 五星级名校冲刺第一品牌 4. Allen had to call a taxi because the box was _______ to carry all the way home. (MET2003) A. much too heavy B. too much heavy C. heavy too much D. too heavy much 5. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. (NMET95) A.not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to 6. Little Jim should love _____ to the theatre this evening. (MET 97) A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 7.There are five pairs ___,but I’m at a loss which to buy.(1999 上海高考) A.to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing 8. ________late in the afternoon, Bob turned off the alarm. (2001 年北京春季高考) A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having sleep 9. With a lot of difficult problems ________,the newly-elected president is having a hard time. (2002 年上海春季高考) A.settled B. settling C.to settle D. being settled 10. She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role_____in making the earth a better place to live. (2003 上海春季高考) A.to have played B. to play C. to be played D. to be playing 11. In order to gain a bigger share in the international market, many state run companies are trying ______their products more competitive. ( 2002 上海春季高考) A. to make B. making C. to have made D.having made 12. The teacher asked us_______so much noise. (2003 北京春季高考) A.don't make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
始于 1989

挑战自己—拓展题
1.You had better ______ your hair cut. A. had B. have C to get D to have 2 We ______ put the meeting off for a week. A can as well B. will as well C. shall as well D . may as well 3 He ______ live in the country than in the city. A prefers B likes to C had better D. would rather 4 The boy told his father that he would rather ______ an astronaut. A. become B. to become C becoming D became 5 Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 6 --- I usually go there by train. ---- Why not ___ by boat for a change?

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始于 1989

A. to try going B. trying to go 7 He wants to do nothing but __out. A to go B go C going Dgoes 8 He wants to believe anything but___ the medicine. A to take B take C take D takes 9 Compared with women. men always prefer ____ at home rather than ____ so much time shopping . A to finish ,to spend B to finish ,spend C finish ,spend D finish ,to spend

★★★★★ C. to try and go

五星级名校冲刺第一品牌 D. try going

海边拾遗—补充讲解

再次提高—反思

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动词不定式学案

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动词不定式学案

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动词不定式学案

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不定式学案

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