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直接引语和间接引语及练习及答案


直接引语和间接引语
直接引语是直接引述别人的原话, 原话用引号, 而间接引语是引述别人的话, 不用引号。 间接引语在多数情况下构成宾语从句。 直接引语改为间接引语时, 如果直接引语的动词是现 在时,那么间接引语中的动词、时间、时态的形式都不变。例如: She says, “ I’ll never forget the moment.” 变为间接引语为: She says

that she’ll never forget the moment. 但是如果直接引语的动词为过去时,那么间接引语中的动词、时间状语、时态、地点状 语、人称等一般要作相应的变化。遵循下列规律: 一、三要素: 我们想要很好地掌握直接引语变间接引语这一语法项目的话,关键要掌握下 列“三要素” 。 要素一: 陈述句的直接引语变间接引语:连接词用 that,在口语中可省略。引述动词用 said, told 等。例如: He said: “I’ve left my book in my room.” He told me that he had left his book in his room. She said: “He will be busy.” She said that he would be busy. 要素二: 1、疑问句的直接引语变间接引语。一般疑问句后连接词用 if 或 whether,而引述选择疑问 句时只能用 whether,引述动词用 asked,没有间接宾语的可以加一个间接宾语 me, him 等, 例如: She said to Tom, “Can you help me?” She asked Tom if /whether he could help her. She asked, “Is this book yours or his?” She asked me whether that book was mine or his. 2、 特殊疑问句的直接引语变间接引语, 用原句中的疑问词作连接词, 改为陈述语序。 例如: The teacher asked, “how did you repair it?” The teacher asked me how I had repaired it. 要素三: 祈使句的直接引语变间接引语,要采用“动词+宾语+不定式”结构。 即 told /asked/ ordered/ warned +sb. (not) +to do sth. 注意:引语中的呼语可改成宾语,引语中的 please 去掉,动词改为 ask The teacher said to the students, “Don’t waste your time.” The teacher told the students not to waste their time. The mother said, “Tom, get up early, please.” The mother asked Tom to get up early. 二、 “五不变” 直接引语变间接引语时,还要注意以下五种不变的特殊情况。 1、直接引语如果表达的是客观真理,谚(习)语,变间接引语时时态不变。例如: The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.” The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun. My father said, “Practice makes perfect.”

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My father said practice makes perfect. 2、直接引语中被引述的部分是反复出现的,习惯性的动作或说话时情况仍然存在的,变间 接引语时,时态保持不变,例如: The boy said to us, “I usually get up at six every day.” The boy told us he usually gets up at six every day. He said, “We are still students.” He said they are still students. 3、直接引语如果有明确的表示过去的时间状语,时态不变。例如: He said to me, “I was born in 1978.” He told me that he was born in 1978. The engineer said, “I was at college in 1967.” The engineer said he was at college in 1967. 4、直接引语中凡有when,since,while 引导的从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句时态, 从句的时态不变。例如: He said, “I have studied English since I was a boy.” He said he had studied English since he was a boy. She said, “I read the book while I was waiting for a bus. She said she had read the book while she was waiting for a bus. Mr. Green said to them, “Joe told me all about his story when he asked for a job.” Mr. Green told them Joe had told him all about his story when he asked for a job. 5、如果直接引语中引述部分含有 insist, suggest, demand 等引导的虚拟宾语从句,变间接引 语时,引语中的主从句时态都不变。例如: He said, “We insisted that she start immediately. He said they (had) insisted that she start immediately. She said, “He demanded that the girl leave at once.” She said he demanded that the girl leave at once. 另外,如果说话人转述自己的话,人称则可不变. 例如: I said to him, “I have finished it.” I told him I had finished it. 如果就在当地转述, here 不必变为 there,come 不必改为 go,如果就在当天转述,则 today, yesterday, tomorrow 等状语也不必变化。例如: She said to us, I’ll come here tomorrow.” She told us she would come here tomorrow.

直接引语和间接引语练习 1
I. 请选出正确的答案: 1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ________. A. was Alice’s sister B. Alice’s sister was C. is Alice’s sister 2. What did he say? I don’t know what _________. A. did he say B. he says C. he has said 3. I don’t know ___________.

D. Alice’s sister is D. he said

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A. the reason why can be B. why the reason may be C. what the reason can be D. what the reason may be 4. I wonder ___________ .which of the following is not the right choice? A. whether she will be fit for the job or not B. whether or not she will be fit for the job C. if she will be fit for the job D. what she will be fit for the job 5. Is Mr. Wu from Beijing? I don’t know ________. A. where does he come from B. from where does he come C. which city he comes from D. what city he comes from 6. Can you make sure ___________? A. that he will come here today B. when he will come here today C. will he come here today D. whether will he come here today 7. Do you happen to know ________? A. where is her address B. in which place is her address C. what her address is D. the place her address is 8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________? A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library C. how can I get to the library D. how I can get to the library 9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him. A. how would I like B. if or not would I like C. whether I would like D. which I would like 10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese. A. when he began to learn B. when did he begin to learn C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn II. 将下列句子变为间接引语: 1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him. 2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children.” 3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary. 4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.” 5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.” 6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.” 7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.” 8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 1921.” 9. He said, “Are you a student?” 10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said. 11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked. 12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son. 13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?” the mother asked the naughty boy. 14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, Mr. Li?” 15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us. 16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her. 17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said. 18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher.

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19. “What a lovely day it is!” 20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said. III. 把下列句子变为直接引语: 1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it. 2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not. 3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the next day. 4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat. 5. The stranger asked me what my name was. 6. She said that she would finish her work the next day. 7. The teacher asked if we could do it. 8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn. 9. My teacher asked whether he was coming. 10. The scientist asked me what I was doing.

答案 I. 1~5 B D C D C 6~10 A C D C A II. 1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next time. 2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on business the next month. 3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days. 4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun. 5. She told him that it was time that he left there. 6. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948. 7. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term. 8. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 1921. 9. He asked me whether I was a student. 10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read. 11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not. 12. The father asked his son where he was going. 13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done. 14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours before. 15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first. 16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day. 17. He offered to pack the parcel for me. 18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class. 19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day. 20. He wished me a Happy New Year. III. 1. I said to him, “I have lost my money. I will find it.” 2. She asked, “You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?” 3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do tomorrow?”

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4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.” 5. The stranger asked, “What’s your name?” 6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said. 7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it?” 8. The commander ordered his men “Don’t cross the river before dawn.” 9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?” 10. The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?”

直接引语和间接引语练习 2
I. 请选出正确的答案: 1. “You’ve already got well, haven’t you?” she asked. She asked ________. A. if I have already got well, hadn’t you B. whether I had already got well C. have I already got well D. had I already got well. 2. He asked, “Are you a Party member or a League member?” He asked me _________. A. am I a Party member or a League member B. was I a Party member or a League member C. if I was a Party member or a League member D. whether was I a Party member or a League member. 3. He asked, “How are you getting along?” He asked _______. A. how am I getting along B. how are you getting along C. how I was getting along D. how was I getting along 4. He asked me ________ with me. A. what the matter is B. what the mater was C. what’s the matter D. what was the matter 5. He said, “Don’t do that again.” He ___me _____that again. A. said to me; not to do B. said to me; don’t do C. told me; don’t do D. told me; not to do 6. Can you make sure ___________? A. that he will come here today B. when he will come here today C. will he come here today D. whether will he come here today 7. Do you happen to know ________? A. where is her address B. in which place is her address C. what her address is D. the place her address is 8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________? A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library C. how can I get to the library D. how I can get to the library 9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him. A. how would I like B. if or not would I like C. whether I would like D. which I would like 10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese.

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A. when he began to learn B. when did he begin to learn C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn II. 将下列句子变为间接引语: 1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him. 2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children” 3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary. 4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.” 5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.” 6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.” 7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.” 8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party was founded on July first, 1921.” 9. He said, “Are you a student?” 10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said. 11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked. 12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son. 13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?” the mother asked the naughty boy. 14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, Mr. Li?” 15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us. 16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her. 17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said. 18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher. 19. “What a lovely day it is!” 20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said. III. 把下列句子变为直接引语: 1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it. 2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not. 3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the next day. 4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat. 5. The stranger asked me what my name was. 6. She said that she would finish her work the next day. 7. The teacher asked if we could do it. 8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn. 9. My teacher asked whether he was coming. 10. The scientist asked me what I was doing. 答案 I. 1---5 B C C D D 6----10 A C D C A II. 1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next time. 2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on business the next month. 3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days. 4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.

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5. 6. 7. 8.

She told him that it was time that he left there. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July first, 1921. 9. He asked whether I was a student. 10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read. 11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not. 12. The father asked his son where he was going. 13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done. 14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours before. 15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first. 16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day. 17. He offered to pack the parcel for me. 18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class. 19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day. 20. He wished me a Happy New Year. III. 1. I said to him, “I have lost my money. I will find it.” 2. She asked, “You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?” 3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do tomorrow?” 4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.” 5. The stranger asked, “What’s your name?” 6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said. 7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it?” 8. The commander ordered his men, “Don’t cross the river before dawn.” 9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?” 10. The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?”

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