虚拟班学习材料（THE LAST LESSON） 高考英语科普阅读的方法与实例
一、考点描述 科普类文章是高考英语的常考题材，每年高考都有所涉及，有时候在五篇阅读文 章中就有两篇是科普文章。 因此，同学们在平时的学习中一定要对此引起高度的 重视。 二、材料特点 这类文章的总体特点是：科技词汇多，句子结构复杂，理论性强，逻辑严谨。具 体说来它有以下几个特点： 1. 文章中
词汇的意义比较单一、稳定、简明，不带感情色彩，具有单一性和准 确性的特点。这类文章通常不会出现文学英语中采用的排比、比喻、夸张等修辞 手法，一词多义的现象也不多见。 2. 句子结构较复杂，语法分析较困难。为了描述一个客观事物，严密地表达自 己的思想，作者经常会使用集多种语法现象于一体的长句。 3. 常使用被动语态，尤其是一些惯用被动句式。 三、命题特点 科普类阅读的主要命题形式有事实细节题、词义猜测题、推理判断题以及主旨概 括题等，其中推理判断题居多。 四、应对策略 1. 要想做好科普英语阅读理解题，同学们就要注意平时多读科普知识类文章， 学习科普知识，积累常见的科普词汇，从根本上提高科普英语的阅读能力。 2. 要熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(Headlines)，导语 (Introductions)，背景( Background)，主体(Main body)和结尾(Ends)五部分构成。 标题是文章中心思想高度而又精辟的概括，但根据历年的高考真题情况来看，这 类阅读理解材料一般不给标题， 而要同学们选择标题。导语一般位于整篇文章的 首段。背景交待一个事实的起因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述。这一 部分命题往往最多，因此，阅读时，同学们要把这部分作为重点。结尾往往也是 中心思想的概括，并与导语相呼应，命题者常在此要设计一道推理判断题。 3. 在进行推理判断时，同学们一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据，同 时所得出的结论还应符合基本的科普常识。 五、真题赏析 A Animals can move from place to place, but plants cannot. When an animal is under attack, it can run away or fight back. Plants certainly cannot run away, and they lack teeth and claws. But plants can defend themselves by using both physical and chemical means. Some plants have their own ways to keep animals away. For example, the leaves of the holly plant have sharp spines that discourage grass-eating animals. Holly leaves on lower branches have more spines than leaves on upper branches. This is because the lower leaves are easier for most animals to reach.
Some plants, such as the oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat. Some grasses may contain a sandy material; eating such grasses wears down the animal’s teeth. Many plants also have chemical defenses. Some plants produce chemicals that taste bitter or cause an unpleasant reaction. Some plants may fight against an attack by increasing the production of these chemicals. When a caterpillar bites a tobacco leaf, the leaf produces a chemical messenger. This messenger sends to the roots the information to produce more nicotine. The higher levels of nicotine discourage the caterpillar. Many plants depend on both physical and chemical defenses. A certain plant in China, for instance, has prickly leaves, and each prickle contains poisonous venom. A single experience with this kind of plant will teach an animal to stay away from it in the future. 68. The holly plant has more spines on the lower leaves because most animals________. A. are not tall enough B. like the lower leaves only C. are not clever enough D. can get the lower leaves easily 69. To defend themselves, oak trees use________. A. chemical means B. physical means C. bitter chemicals D. sandy materials 70. How does tobacco protect itself against an attack from a caterpillar? A. Its leaves fight against the attack by physical means. B. Its roots send a messenger to discourage the caterpillar. C. Its roots increase the production of nicotine when it is attacked. D. Its leaves produce poisonous sand to drive the caterpillar away. 71. What would be the best title for this passage? A. Plants and Animals B. How Plants Defend Themselves C. Attacks and Defenses D. How Animals Eat Plant Leaves B Walk through the Amazon rainforest today and you will find it is steamy, warm, damp and thick. But if you had been around 15, 000 years ago, during the last ice age, would it have been the same? For more than 30 years, scientists have been arguing about how rainforests like the Amazon might have reacted to the cold, dry climates of the ice ages, but until now, no one has reached a satisfying answer. Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tons of CO2 each year: equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the UK each year. But how will the Amazon react to future climate change? If it gets drier, will it still survive and continue to draw down CO2? Scientists hope that they will be able to learn in advance how the rainforest will manage in the future by understanding how rainforests reacted to climate change in the past. Unfortunately, getting into the Amazon rainforest and collecting information are very
difficult. To study past climate, scientists need to look at fossilized pollen, kept in lake mud. Going back to the last ice age means drilling deep down into lake sediments which requires specialized equipment and heavy machinery. There are very few roads and paths, or places to land helicopters and aero planes. Rivers tend to be the easiest way to enter the forest, but this still leaves vast areas between the rivers completely unsampled . So far, only a handful of cores have been drilled that go back to the last ice age and none of them provide enough information to prove how the Amazon rainforest reacts to climate change. 1. The underlined phrase “mopping up” in the second paragraph means “______”. A. cleaning up B. taking in C. wiping out D. giving out 2. How will the Amazon rainforest react to future climate change? A. It’ll get drier and continue to remove CO2. B. It’ll remain steamy, warm, damp and thick. C. It’ll get warmer and then colder and drier. D. There is no exact answer up to present. 3. What’s the main idea of the last paragraph? A. It’s important to drill deep down into lake sediments to collect information. B. It’s impossible to prove how climate changes in the Amazon rainforest. C. It’s hard to collect information for studies of the past climate in the Amazon rainforest. D. It’s necessary to have specialized equipment and machinery to study the past climate. 4. The best title for this passage may probably be _____. A. Studies of the Amazon B. Climates of the Amazon C. Secrets of the Rainforests D. Changes of the Rainforests C Terrible weather, melting snow and gathering clouds may be signs of global warming. The average temperature on Earth for last year was the second warmest since written records began 140 years ago. The global average surface temperature in 2001 was 14.42 degrees centigrade, the World Meteorological Organization said. The record, set in 1998, was 14.58 degrees centigrade. “Temperatures are getting hotter, and they are getting hotter faster now than at any time in the past,” said Michel Jarraud, a WMO official. Carbon dioxide produced from burning fuels is the most common of the so-called greenhouse gases. The growing concentration in the atmosphere of these gases is thought to be warming the Earth. “Most of the causes of global warming are due to human action,” said Ken Davidson, director of WMO’s climate programme department. Every year, large amounts of gases produced by factories, cars and burning trees hold in too much heat and cause global warming. Many scientists believe the warming, if not stopped, will cause extreme climate changes this century.
Throughout the world, the spreading of particular diseases and other threats to human health depend largely on local climates. Extreme temperatures can directly cause loss of life. Warm temperatures can increase air and water pollution, which in turn can harm human health. In the Earth’s atmosphere there are tiny amounts of gases called greenhouse gases. These gases hold in the heat that comes up from the sun-warmed Earth. As cities have increased in size and population, factories and industries in the world have grown. People need more and more electricity, cars and other things. So more greenhouse gases have been added to the atmosphere. This causes more heat to be trapped than in the past. This is called the greenhouse effect. 1. The subject discussed in the passage is _______. A. the growing population of the world B. the global average surface temperature C. the increasing greenhouse effect D. the causes of air and water pollution 2. According to a WMO official, it is ________ that should be blamed for global warming. A. modern factories impressive B. mankind C. carbon dioxide D. burning fuels 3. The rising of the earth temperature will finally result in _______. A. the spreading of particular diseases B. air and water pollution C. extreme climate changes D. loss of life 4. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. Air and water pollution is caused by global warming. B. Greenhouse gases do no good to human beings C. With the air getting hotter, people need more and more electricity, cars and other things. D. The average temperature on Earth for 1998 was the warmest according to written records D Before the early 1960’s people interested in the differing roles of the left and right hemispheres of the brain depended almost entirely on facts drawn from animal research, from studies of patients with one-sided brain damage. But it was possible to find out which brain hemisphere was most involved in speech and other functions in normal people by having them listen to two different words coming to the two ears at the same time. This became known as the “dichotic listening” procedure. When several word pairs are given in a row, people are unable to report them all, and most right-handers prefer to report, and report more correctly, words given to their right ears. This seems to be related to the fact that signals from the right ear, although sent to both hemispheres, are better sent to the left hemisphere which controls speech. People who have speech represented in the right hemisphere, a very unusual occurrence even in left-handed people, more correctly report what their left ears hear. In contrast to the right-ear advantage for speech, there is generally a left-ear
advantage for another type of auditory signal: music. When right-handed people listen to melodic patterns they report them better from the left ear. 1. Which of the following would be the most proper title for the passage? A. An Introduction to Speech Damage in Patients with Brain Damage. B. An Investigation into the Role of the Brain’s Hemispheres. C. An Analysis of Left and Right-handed People. D. An Examination of “Dichotic Listening”. 2. The “dichotic listening” procedure could best be described as hearing _______. A. two different words in the same ear twice B. the same word twice in the same ear C. two different words in different ears D. two different words twice in two ears 3. according to the passage, right-handed people normally _______. A. have better hearing in their both ears B. have little difficulty in reporting words given to their right ears C. are unable to report word pairs given to their left ears D. correctly report word pairs given in a row 4. According to the passage, music is best appreciated when heard by _______. A. the left ear of right-handers B. people with a right-ear advantage C. left-handers in their right ears D. right-handed people who understand melodic patterns E Today just as technology changed the face of industry, farms have undergone an “agricultural revolution”. On the farm of today, machines provide almost all the power. One of the most important benefits will be the farm computer. A few forward-looking farmers are already using computers to help them run their farms more efficiently. The computers help them keep more accurate records so they can make better decisions on what crops to plant, how much livestock to buy, when to sell their products, and how much profit they can expect. Many computer companies have been developing special computer programs just for farmers. Programs are being written for hog producers, grain farmers, potato farmers, and dairy farmers. In the future, farmers will be able to purchase computer programs made to their needs. Because of the growing importance of computers on the farm, students at agricultural colleges are required to take computer classes in addition to their normal agricultural courses. There can be no doubt that farmers will rely on computers even more in the future. While the old-time farm depended on horse power, and modern farms depend on machine power, farms of the future will depend on computer power. Another technological advance which is still in the experimental stage is the robot, a real “mechanized hired hand” that will be able to move and, in some ways, think like a human being. Agricultural engineers believe that computer-aided robots will make
startling changes in farming before the end of the century. Unlike farmers of the present, farmers of the future will find that many day-to-day tasks will be done for them. Scientists are now developing robots that will be able to shear sheep, drive tractors, and harvest fruit. Even complex jobs will be done by robots. For example, in order to milk their cows, farmers must first drive them into the barn, then connect them to the milking machines, watch the machines, and disconnect them when they are finished. In the future, this will all be done by robots. In addition, when the milking is completed, the robots will automatically check to make sure that the milk is pure. The complete mobilization of the farm is far in the future, but engineers expect that some robots will be used before long. 1. Which sentence carried the main idea of the whole passage? A. The first sentence of the first paragraph. B. The first sentence of the second paragraph. C. The first sentence of the third paragraph. D. The last sentence of the second paragraph. 2. According to the passage, computers can not help farmers decide _______. A. how much money they can earn from their products B. whether to plant a certain kind of crop C. what livestock to raise D. when to sell their products 3. Which of the following statements is true? A. Farmers in the future will depend totally on computers. B. Both computers and robots have been in use on today’s farms. C. Farmers mainly use machines on their farms at present. D. Students at agricultural colleges must take computer classes because they can do nothing without the help of computers on today’s farms. 4. According to the engineers, _______will be done by robots in the near future. A. all farm work B. milking cows C. most of the farm work D. some farm work 5. What is the best title for the whole passage? A. Computer, Farmers’ Best Friend B. Farmers in The Future C. The Agricultural Revolution D. Computers and Robots
诗歌欣赏： 面朝大海 春暖花开
从明天起，做一个幸福的人 From tomorrow on, I will be a happy person; 喂马，劈柴，周游世界 Grooming, chopping, and traveling all over the world. 从明天起，关心粮食和蔬菜 From tomorrow on, I will care foodstuff and vegetables, 我有一所房子，面朝大海，春暖花开 I have a house, towards the sea, with spring flowers blossoming. 从明天起，和每一个亲人通信 From tomorrow on, I will write to each of my dear ones, 告诉他们我的幸福 Telling them of my happiness, 那幸福的闪电告诉我的 What the lightening of blessedness has told me, 我将告诉每一个人 I will spread it to each of them. 给每一条河每一座山取一个温暖的名字 And give a warm name for every river and every mountain. 陌生人，我也为你祝福 Strangers, I will also give you my well-wishing. 愿你有一个灿烂的前程 May you have a brilliant future! 愿你有情人终成眷属 May you lovers eventually become spouse!
愿你在尘世获得幸福 May you enjoy happiness in this earthly world! 我也愿面朝大海，春暖花开 I only wish to face the sea, with spring flowers blossoming. 三十三章 知人者智，自知者明；胜人者有力，自胜者强。知足者富，强行者有志。不 失其所者久，死而不亡者寿。 He who knows others is learned; He who knows himself is wise. He who conquers others has power of muscles; He who conquers himself is strong. He who is contented is rich. He who is determined has strength of will. He who does not lose his center endures. He who dies yet (his power) remains has long life. 二十五章 有物混成，先天地生。寂兮寥兮，独立而不改，周行而不殆，可以为天地母。 吾不知其名，字之曰道，强为之名曰大。大曰逝，逝曰远，远曰反。故道大，天 大，地大，人亦大。域中有四大，而人居其一焉。人法地，地法天，天法道，道 法自然。 Before the Heaven and Earth existed There was something nebulous: Silent, isolated, Standing alone, changing not, Eternally revolving without fail, Worthy to be the Mother of All Things. I do not know its name And address it as Tao. If forced to give it a name, I shall call it "Great." Being great implies reaching out in space, Reaching out in space implies far-reaching, Far-reaching implies reversion to the original point. Therefore: Tao is Great, The Heaven is great, The Earth is great, Man is also great. There are the Great Four in the universe, And Man is one of them. Man models himself after the Earth; The Earth models itself after Heaven; The Heaven models itself after Tao;
Tao models itself after nature.
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