Step 2 不定式的时态和语态 Step3：不定式的用法
非谓语动词（非限定动词） 一.非限定动词在句中不能单独作谓 语动词。不受主语的人称和数的限制。
二.非限定动词具有动词的特征.可以有自 己的宾语、状语。有语态和时态的变化。 另外还
有一些非动词的特征，相当于名词、 形容词等，在句子里可以作这些词类所能用 作的句子成分。
非 谓 语 动 词
分词 -ing 形式
分词分现在分词和过去分 词两类，具有形容词和副 词的语法功能，在句子中 可以充当表语、定语、状 语和宾语补足语
Step 1 不定式的形式 to do （基本形） not to do to be done
to be doing
to have done to have been done
(1)不定式的一般形式所表示的动作，通常与谓语的 动作（状态）同时发生. Eg. They invited us to go there this summer.
(2)如果谓语表示的动作（情况）发生时，不定式表示 的动作正在进行，这时不定式就要用进行式。 Eg. They seemed to be talking about something secret.
(3)如果不定式的动作发生在谓语动词之前，就要用完 成式。 Eg. I’m sorry to have done that .
? I’m very delighted to be invited to Mary’s birthday party. ? I’m pleased to have been given this chance.
如果不定式的逻辑主语是 不定式所表示的动作的承 受者，不定式要用被动形 式.
Step 3 不定式的用法 (1) 作主语
不定式短语作主语时，用it 作形式主语，真正的主语后置。 eg. 1) It is right to give up smoking. 2 )I think it would be a good idea to have comments from secretaries and typists who are already using it.
▲(构成"V.+ to do"的形式) agree, decide, expect, fail ,help, hope,manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, wish
eg. We have decided to give them a hand.
? I find it interesting to work with him. ? 如果还带有宾语补足语，往往把不定式宾语放在宾语 补足语之后，而用it 作形式宾语。类似的动词还有 (
feel, think, consider, make, believe
▲(构成 "主语+V.+ it +宾补+ to do sth." 的形式)
宾语常表示某个具体动作。 He likes swimming, but he doesn’t like to swim today. 只能跟 to do的动词 want、wish、hope、expect、decide、 agree、manage、promise、pretend
enjoy、finish、mind、miss、avoid、 risk、suggest、escape、practise、 insist on、give up 二者皆可无区别
begin、start、like、hate、prefer、 continue、intend 二者皆可但有区别 stop、remember、forget 、try、regret、 mean
"Let's have a break." "Not now. I don't want to stop ______ yet." A. study B. to study C. for studying D. studying
2. The little time we have together we try ______ wisely. A. spending it B. to spend it C. to spend D. spending that
3. Little Tom should love ______ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taken
allow, ask, advise, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, would like, order, permit, persuade, teach, tell, want, warn, wish (3) 作宾语补足语 ▲(构成“V.+ Sb.+ to do”的形式)
eg. What the teacher said encouraged us to try our best at our work.
注意 ①在feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, have, let, make 等词后的补足语中，不定式不带to。但 是这些句子如果变成被动结构时，就必须带to。
Eg. I often hear him sing the song. He is often heard to sing the song.
注意 ②不定式动词在介词but, except, besides 后面时，如果这些介 词之前有行为动词do 的各种形式，那么，这些介词后的不定 式不带to, 否则要带to。
Eg.1) She could do nothing but cry. 2) I have no choice but to go.
Eg.It has been proved that the way to produce the most food is to let farmers grow crops either to feed their family or to sell.
Eg.I was the first woman to travel alone at the North pole.
注意 ①作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词，不定式后面须有相 应的介词。
Eg. He is looking for a room to live in. There is nothing to worry about.
Please give me a knife to cut with.
He spoke loudly (so as / in order) to be heard. 目的状语.
They jumped with joy to hear the news.
原因状语. I’m too tired to walk any further tonight. 结果状语
动词不定式省略to 的情况归纳 *1 当动词不定式作宾语补足语时，如动词是 make, let , have 或 look at , see, watch, observe, hear, listen to, feel 、等，不定式不带to. *2. 在下列结构后 had better, would rather, would rather…than, cannot but（不得不 ，必然，不能不）, can’t help but 等 *3. why not … 表建议 *4. 在介词 but , except 之后，如果其前有实义动词do 的某种形式，不定式不带to, 反之须带to .
1. There are five pairs ___,but I'm at
a loss which to buy. A. to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing
2. Charles Babbage is generally
considered _____the first computer. A. to invent
B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
3. ----They are quiet, aren’t they? ----Yes. They are accustomed ____ at meals. A. to talk C. to talking B. to not talk D. to not talking
4. The director had her assistant ___ some hot dogs for the meeting.
A. picked up B. picks up C. pick up D. picking up 5. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good______. A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed
6. --Did the book give the information you needed? --Yes. But _____ it, I had to read the entire book.
A. to find B. find C. to finding D. finding
7. I feel greatly honored ____ into their society. A. to welcome B. welcoming C. to be welcomed D. welcomed
8. If there is a lot of work ______, I am happy to just to keep on until it is finished. A. to do C. done D. doing B. to be doing
语态 时态 一般时 to do to be done 主动语态 被动语态
to be doing
to have done
to have been done
练习 1. —The light in the office is still on. ---Oh, I forgot .
A. turning it off C.. having turned it off
B. turn it off D. to turn it off
2. She can’t help ______ the house because she’s busy making a cake. A. to clean C. Cleaned 3. Not everybody has the ability A. of speak C. spoken B. cleaning D. being c leaned in public. B. speaking D. to speak
4. Mary is always the first student teacher’s questions in class. A. rising C. rose
to answer the
B. to rise D. risen
5.— Mum ,why do you always ask me to eat an egg every day?
--- __enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up.
A. Get getting B. Getting C. To get D. To be
6.—Would you be so kind
us out? ---With pleasure.
B. in helping
D. as to help
7. Wet umbrellas are not allowed
according to the rule.
A. to be taken
A to have studied C to be studying
into this hotel D. taking
B. to take
B to study
8. Robert is said _______ abroad, but I didn ’t know what country he studied in.
D to have been studying
9. In Australia he made a lot of friends practical knowledge of English. A. get B. getting C. to get
____a very D. got
10. The patient was warmed _______ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not C. not to eat B. eating not D. not eating
11. We agreed ___ here, but so far she hasn ’t turned out yet.
A. having met
C. to meet
D. to have met
12. Paul doesn’t have to be made ________. He always works hard.
A. learn C. learned B. to learn D. learning
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