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定语从句的十大考点


定语从句的十大考点
修饰名词或者代词的从句叫做定语从句。被修饰的名词或者代词叫先行词; 定语从句的引导词叫关系词(关系代词&关系副词);定语从句分为限定性定语 从句和非限定性定语从句(前有逗号隔开) 引导定语从句的关系代词有:that which who whom whose as 关系副词有:when where why 定语从句的十大考点:

1. that 与 which 在指代物时的用法区别
that ① a. b. c. d. e. ② a. b. 和 which 都可以引导先行词为物的定语从句,但是用法有区别: 只能用 that 的五种情况 先行词为不定代词或先行词由不定代词修饰时 先行词前有最高级或序数词修饰时 先行词即有人又有物时 先行词前有 the very, the only 修饰时 主句为 which,或 who 引导的特殊疑问句时 只能用 which 的两种情况 非限定性定语从句中 介词之后引导定语从句时

2.which 与 as 的区别
as 和 which 都可以引导非限制性定语从句,三种情况下只能用 as,不能用 which a. as 置于句首引导定语从句时(As we know,…) b. as 含有“正如”之意(…as we expected) c. 先行词前有 such, the same 修饰时(…such an easy question as the little boy can answer.)

3. who、whom、that 的区别
a.先行词为 those 或 people 时,常用关系代词 who,不用 that b.介词之后用关系代词 whom 引导定语从句

4. whose 用法
whose+n. 引导定语从句的结构是定语从句的一个考查热点, 此结构可以换成 是 the+n.+of+which 引导定语从句或者可以换成是 of which +the+n. e.g.The man pulled out a gold watch, the hands of which were made of small diamonds. whose hands / of which the hands

5. 介词+关系代词引导定语从句的用法

a. 介词之后的关系代词只能用 which(先行词为物)或者是 whom(先行词 为人) b. 介词的选择方法有三个原则:一“先”二“动”三“意义” I lost my pen, with which I took notes. (先行词为 pen,使用钢笔用 with) This is the house in which he lives. (定语从句中谓语动词 live 为不及物动词) The gas is oxygen without which we can’t live. (根据句意决定)

6. 先行词为 way 时
先行词为 way,在定语从句中作状语时,用 that,in which 引导定语从句,也 可以省略关系词。 e.g. I don’t like the way(that/in which) he speaks to his parents.

7. 关系副词 when、where、when 引导定语从句的具体用法
① 先行词表示时间、地点、原因时,在定语从句中作状语,选择相应的关系 副词 when、where、why 引导定语从句。若其在定语从句中作主语或宾语,则选 择关系代词引导定语从句。区别三组例句: where he lives. a. This is the place that/which he visited last year. when my brother was a little boy. b. I still remember the time that/which we spent together. why he was late. c. This is the reason that/which he gave us.

②某些非地点时间名词有定语从句修饰,关系词在从句中作状语,由 where 引 导定语从句(stage, case, point, situation);同样用法的还有 occasion,由 when 引 导定语从句。 e.g. I can think of many cases where students know a lot of words but don’t write a good essay. There are many occasions when people don’t know what they want.

8. 定语从句中的谓语动词
关系代词在定语从句中作主语时, 定语从句中的谓语动词应该与先行词保持 一致。 e.g. Anyone who wants to have a holiday puts up your hand. Those who want to have a holiday put up your hand. This is one of the students who have passed the exam. This is the only one of the students who has passed the exam.

9. 区分定语从句和其他句型

①区别于简单句和并列句 , most of whom are boys. (定语从句) There are 70students in our class . Most of them are boys. , and most of them are boys. (并列句)

(简单句)

②区别于强调句型 It is in the factory that he works. (强调句型) It is the factory where he works. (定语从句) It is in the classroom (where we have classes) that the meeting will be held. (定语从句修饰先行词 the classroom)

(强调句型,强调部分为介词短句 in the classroom) ③区别于同位语从句 that she had passed the exam The news that he told us

(同位语从句:对名词解释说明)

excited us.
(定语从句:对名词修饰限定)

④区别于状语从句 Do you know the time when the class is over? (定语从句,有先行词) Let’s play games when the class is over.(时间状语从句,无先行词) Put the book where it belongs. (地点状语从句,无先行词)

10. 定语从句中关系词的省略
定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词可以省略,介词之后的关系代词不可省略。 This is the house which he lives in. (√) This is the house he lives in. (√) This is the house in which he lives. (√) This is the house in he lives. (×)


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