状语从句在句中相当于副词作状语, 又叫副词性从句。在句子 中可修饰谓语（或其他动词）、形容词、副词或是整个句子，它可 以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、 让步等。状语从句通常由一个连词引导，也可以由一个起连词作用 的词组引导。状语从句是近几年高考试题中常见的一个重要考点。
用连接词 种 类 从属 连词 例句 说明
时 when When I came into the room, when指“某一具体的 he was writing a letter. 时间”； 间 WhenYou can eat food free in my whenever指“在任何一 状 ever restaurant whenever you like. 个不具体的时间”。 语 从 while While John was reading, I while指“在……期 句 was watching TV. 间”，引导的动作必须 是持续性的。 I stayed while he was away. as
They talked as they walked as（一边……一边）表 along the river. 示持续性动作，强调主 As time goes by, I like China 句和从句动作同时发生； 随着。 better.
Before I could get in a word, the tailor had measured me. (还没来得及就……) We hadn?t run a mile before he felt tired.(还没…… 就……) We had sailed 4 days before we saw land.( ……才……) Please write it down before you forget it. (趁还没…… 就……) It will be five years before he leaves there. His grandpa died in 1999. It was two years before he came back from America.
before引导从句 时，词义非常 灵活。
He arrived after the game started.
He remained there till/until she arrived. She won?t go to bed till/until he returns home. It is not until he returns home that she will go to bed. Not until he returns home will she go to bed. 若主句动作是持续性动作， 常用肯定式，表示“直 到……为止”；若主句动 作是瞬间动词，要用否定 式，表“直……才”， “在……以前不”；从句 放在句首时表示强调，一 般用until并引起部分倒装。
Great changes have taken place in China since 1978.
since在时间状语从句中，不论用 短暂动词、延续动词还是状态动 词的一般过去时，通常都表示从 动作或状态的完成或结束时算起， 主句时态多用现在完成时。
时 间 状 语 从 句
as soon as As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I?ll write to you. hardly...when I had hardly got home when it began to rain. no sooner...than =Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. the moment The moment I saw him I knew there was no hope. the instant Immediately he came I told him the news. the second We had no sooner reached the airport than the plane immediately took off. directly =No sooner had we reached the airport than the plane instantly took off.
这 些 结 构 都 表 示 “ 一 … … 就 … …”。
时 间 状 语 从 句
every/each time next/last time by the time the first time
Every/Each time I was in trouble, he would come to my help. I fell in love with her the first time I saw her. Where there is a will, there is a way. You can go wherever you like these days.
这类名词短语相当于 连词，引导时间状语 从句。
地 where 点 wherever 状 语 从 句
where与wherever意 义基本相同，但后者 语气较强，多用于书 面语。
原 因 状 语 从 句
I came back late because用来回答why 的问 yesterday because I was 题，语气最强，一般放在 on duty. 主句之后。
Since everyone is here, let?s begin our meeting.
since表示既然或已知的理 由，也可表示稍加分析就 可知的原因，多放句首。
as 并列连 词for
As you didn?t turn up at yesterday?s get-together, we missed you very much. It must have rained last night, for the ground is still wet.
as引导的原因状语从句常 放在句首，说明次要的原 因，主句说明结果，常用 于口语中； for连接的是并列句。
Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we can start our journey. Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor. This book is different from that book in that this one is about chemistry and that one about history. You must speak louder so that 目 so that 的 in order /in order that you can be heard by all. 状 that 语 lest = for He wrote the name down for 从 fear that fear that (lest) he should forget 句 it. Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 原 因 状 语 从 句
now that seeing that in that consideri ng that
considering that, seeing (that), now that, in that和since 意义相似，都有 “鉴于某个事实” 的意思。
目的状语从句中常用情 态动词放在动词之前， 从句往往放在主句之后， 主从句之间不用任何标 点符号。 注意：so that和in order that与so as to和in order to的转换。
so that so...that
结 果 状 语 从 句
We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard the news. The boy is so young that he can?t go to school.
so that前有逗号为 结果状语从句； so...that的so后面 紧跟形容词或副词。
such...that He is such a young boy that he can?t go to school.
such...that的such 后面跟名词，如果 名词是单数就要用 such a /an...that， 还可以转换用 so...that，语气较 强。
if If not= unless as/so long 条 as 件 in case 状 so/as far 语 as 从 句
We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains. =We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn?t rain. So long as you work hard, you will succeed. In case I forget, please remind me about it. So far as I know, the book will be published next month.
unless和if...not同义， unless是书面语，if...not是 口语，通常二者可以换用； unless从句的谓语只能用肯 定式； 条件状语从句中的谓语动 词的时态一般要用现在时 或过去时代替一般将来时 或过去将来时。
As water is to fish, so 方 as 式 as if/though air is to man. 状 Do as you are told to. 语 He acted as if (though) 从 nothing had happened. 句 让 though 步 although 状 语 从 句
此处as意为“按照或正 如”； as if或as though的意义 和用法基本一样； 从句中可以用现在时， 表示可能符合事实，也 可以用虚拟语气。 Although it?s raining, though、although等引 they are still working in 导的让步状语从句，不 the field. 能和but连用，但可以与 yet或still连用。 We were not tired though/although意义相 though (although) we 同，用法基本相同。 had worked all day.
even if even though 让 as 步 状 语 no matter 从 wh-? 句
We?ll make a trip even even if和even though意为 though the weather is “即使”“纵使”有退一 bad. 步设想的意味。 Child as/though he as引导的让步状语从句常 was, he knew what was 放在句首，并用部分倒装； the right thing to do. 此时，可与though换用。 No matter what happened, he would not mind no matter wh-与wh-+ever 引导的让步状语从句意义 基本一样，no matter wh引导的从句可以位于主句 前或主句后。
判断wh-ever引导的是状语从句 还是名词性从句的要点： 名词性从句，主句中一定有一个 成分要由从句担任，一般从句与 主句之间没有逗号。
Whatever happened, he would not mind.
as...as not so/as...as 比 the 较 same...as 状 such...as 语 than 从 句 the more... the more
Mary is as old as my sister. He doesn?t run so (as) fast as Jack (does). His book is the same as mine. Henry is not such a good worker as Peter. He runs less fast than me.
表示同程度级别的比 较，肯定句用as...as 否定句可用not as...as 或not so...as。
The more you read, the better you understand. The sooner, the better
表示不同程度的比较， 主句中用形容词或副 词的比较级。 the more...the more意为 “越……越……”，从句 在前主句在后，这两个 the都修饰表示程度的副 词，用在形容词或副词比 较级的前面；若句意明显， 句子的主语和动词都可省
. that 特 殊 形 式 状 语 从 句
I?m pretty sure （that） he?ll agree. I?m sorry (that) I didn?t have time to write you. I am afraid that I can?t go with you.
that 引导的从句，往往跟在一个作 表语的形容词后面，从概念上看是 宾语，所以有的语法家把它看作是 宾语从句，但结构上看，也可以把 它看作是一个特殊的原因状语从句， 用来修饰表语的形容词。这种从句 的连词常常被省略。
【考点一】考查while，when和as ①as, when引导的从句中用短暂性动词。 Just as/Just when/When I stopped my car, a man came up to me.
②当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前，只能用when 引导，不可用 as 或 while。 When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. ③从句表示“随时间推移”连词可用as，不用when 或while。 As the day went on, the weather got worse. ④when还含有“at that moment”的意思（= and then），引导的句 子不能放在句首，也不能用as, while来替换。这时when是并列连词。 如：They had just arrived home when it began to rain. He was about to go out when Tom came to visit him. He was going along the street when he saw a car hitting the pole. 【即学即练】 单项填空 She had just finished her homework _______her mother asked her to practice playing the piano yesterday. （2009· 福建） A. when B. while C. after D. since 解析：选A。的意思是“这时”。 【考点二】考查until和till (1)两个连词意义相同。用于肯定句中表示“做某事直至某时”，动
必须是延续性的；用于否定句中表示“直至某时才做某事”，通常 与短暂动词的否定式连用，这时，until和till也可用before代替。正 确使用这两个连词的关键在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。 He waited until/till we finished our meal. I didn?t leave until/till/before she came back. (2)until引导的从句可以放在主句之前或主句之后，但till从句一般 不放在句首。 Until he told me, I knew nothing about it. (3)否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 ①not until... 在句首时，主句用倒装。 Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. ②not until用在强调句中，构成“It is/was not until... that... ”强调句 型。 It was not until I began to work that I realized how much time I had wasted. 【考点三】考查because，since，as和for (1)because语气最强，用来回答why的提问，放在主句的前后均可。 下列情况下只能使用because：
①在回答why的问句时；②在用于强调句型时；③被not所否定时。 You want to know why I?m leaving. I?m leaving because I?m full. It was because I love the job that I accepted the offer. I didn?t like the job because I?m bad-paid. (2)表示已经知道的原因时用as或since，即某种原因在说话人看来已 经很明显，或已为听话人所熟悉，因此它是句中不很重要的部分。 since要比as正式一些。 Since you don?t understand, I will explain it again. (3)for的语气不及because, since, as强，为并列连词，引导的分句常 放在主句之后，从句前通常用逗号，表示说话者为所做的推断和预 测提供理由，或对前一分句进行补充和解释。 It?s morning now, for the birds are singing. 【考点四】考查“一……就……”结构 英语中有许多词和短语可用来引导时间状语从句，表示“一…… 就……”，它们虽不是连词，但具有连词的功能。这些词（短语） 归纳起来，主要有以下几类： ①名词类：主要有the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, the day 等。
The moment I saw him I knew there was no hope. The instant he opened the door he saw the thief. He is going to visit his aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. ②副词类：主要有immediately, directly, instantly, once 等。 Once he arrives, we can start. Immediately he came I told him the news. ③句型类：主要有no sooner...than, hardly/scarcely...when。若将 no sooner, hardly，scarcely置于句首，则其后要用倒装语序。 We had no sooner set out than it began to rain. =No sooner had we set out than it began to rain. She had hardly arrived when it began to snow. =Hardly had she arrived when it began to snow. 【考点五】考查though的用法 ①though conj. 虽然；尽管（不与but连用，但可以跟yet, still连 用）；也可用作副词（在句尾），表示“然而”。 Though we are poor, we are still happy. He promised to phone. I heard nothing, though.
②as/though引导的让步状语从句用部分倒装。可以把表语、状语、 谓语提前。若表语是名词时，名词前常省略冠词。 Child as/though he is, he knows a lot. Much as/though I like it, I don?t want to buy it. Try as/though he might, he wouldn?t succeed. ③as though= as if；even though= even if You sound as though/if you?ve caught a cold. Even though/if we achieve great successes in our work, we should not be conceited.
【难点一】几种特殊句型结构的区别 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整、正确。 ①The field research will take Joan and Paul about five months; it will be a long time ______ we meet them again.
②—Did Jack come back early last night? —Yes. It was not yet eight o?clock ______ he arrived home. ③It is almost five years ______ we saw each other last time. ④It was some time ______ we realized the truth. 解析：下列的It句型表示的含义各不相同： (1)“It is/was+时刻+when从句”表示“某事发生时是什么时候”。 (2)“It is/has been+时间段+since从句”表示“自从……以来有多长 时间了”。 (3)“It will/would be+时间段+before 从句”表示“还要过多长时 间……才……”。 (4)“It will/would not be+时间段+before 从句”表示“过不了多长时 间……就会……”。 (5)“It was+时间段+before从句”表示“过了多长时间才……”。 (6)“It was not+时间段+before从句”表示“没过多长时间就……”。 所以，第①题考查的是句型：It will/would be+时间段+before 从句。 第②题考查的是句型：It is/was+时刻+when从句。第③题考查的是 句型：It is/has been+时间段+since从句；第④考查的是句型：It was+时间段+before从句。
温馨提示：注意下面两句话的含义。 It is five years since I lived in Jinan. 自从我不住在济南以来已经5年了。 It is five years since I began to live in Jinan. 自从我住在济南以来已经5年了。 【难点二】状语从句中的时态 用括号内所给词的正确形式完成下列句子，使之完整、正确。 ①She will get married when she ______ (meet) the right man. ②We won?t climb up the mountain until rain ______(stop). 解析：时间、条件等状语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来时、用 现在完成时表示将来完成时。第①题从句用一般现在时表示一般 将来时，空白处填meets。第②题用现在完成时表示将来完成时， 空白处填has stopped。 【难点三】only if和if only 用only if或if only完成下列句子，使之完整、正确。 ① _______you study hard, you will pass the test. ②________ I had wings, I would be able to travel around the world easily.
解析：only if 引导的从句用陈述语气，意为“只要”；if only引导 的从句要用虚拟语气，意为“但愿……”，“要是……就好了”。 所以第①题填Only if，第②题If only。 2013高考真题 【2013北京】30. I took my driving license with me on holiday, I wanted to hire a car. A. in case B. even if C. ever since D. if only 1【答案】A 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意：假期时我带上我的驾照， 以防万一我想租一辆车。故选A。 【2013福建】32. Anyone, once _______ positive for H7N9 flu virus, will receive free medical treatment from our government. A. to be tested B. being tested C. tested D. to test 2【答案】C 【解析】考查非谓语动词和状语从句的省略。状语从句连词 once之后的非谓语动词与主句主语anyone之间为被动关系，故 选过去分词。
【2013湖南】23. You must learn to consult your feelings and your reason ________ you reach any decision. A. although B. before C. because D. unless 3【答案】B 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意，在你做任何决定之前，你得学会顾及到 你的感觉和你做此决定的原因，可知答案为B（在…之前）。 【2013江苏】28. In the global economy, a new drug for cancer, it is discovered, will create many economic possibilities around the world. A. whatever B. whoever C. wherever D. whichever 4【答案】C 【解析】考查状语从句。此处考查-ever引导的让步状语从句。通过分析从句， 可知句子不缺少主干成分，故排除代词ABD项，故答案选C。 【2013江西】28.She says that she?ll have to close the shop ________ business improves. A. if B. unless C. after D. when 5【答案】B 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意，如果生意没有好转，她就只得关店铺。 unless=if…not（如果不），故答案选B。
【2013江西】34. If _____ to look after luggage for someone else, inform the police at once. A. asked B. to ask C. asking D. having asked 6【答案】A 【解析】考查非谓语动词及状语从句的省略。状语从句连词if之后 省去了从句的主语，即主句的主语；而主句为祈使句，默认主语为you；主语 you与动词ask之间为被动关系，故使用过去分词。答案选A。 【2013浙江】19. There are some health problems that, when ______ in time, can become bigger ones later on. A. not treated B. not being treated C. not to be treated D. not have been treated 7【答案】A 【解析】考查非谓语动词及状语从句的省略。连词when之后为状语从句的省略， 非谓语动词treat的逻辑主语即为主句主语health problems，判断它们之间的 关系为被动关系，即用过去分词即可。而being done意为“正在被…”；to be done“将被…”。 【2013辽宁】24. One can always manage to do more things, no matter _______ full one?s schedule is in life. A. how B. what C. when D. where 8【答案】A 【解析】考查状语从句。此处考查no matter…引导的让步状语从句。副词how修 饰形容词或副词，横线后为形容词full，故选how。no matter how= however （无论如何）。
【2013山东】26. Mark needs to learn Chinese _______ his company is opening a branch in Beijing. A. unless B. until C. although D. since 9【答案】D 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意：Mark需要学习汉语是因为他的公司要在 北京开分公司。连词since表“由于，因为”符合语境。 【2013山东】28. _________I have to give a speech, I get extremely nervous before I start. A. Whatever B. Whenever C. Whoever D. However 10【答案】B 【解析】考查状语从句。句意为：每当我得做演讲的时候，开始之前我就会 变得极度的紧张。根据句意选B（每当，无论什么时候）。 【2013陕西】18. I have heard a lot of good things about you I came back from abroad. A. since B. until C. before D. when 11【答案】A 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意及主从句时态即可判断为A项，因为since从 句用一般过去时，主句用现在完成时。译为：自从我从国外回来，我已经听 说了关于你的许多好的事情。
【2013四川】7.He was so busy. He cannot afford enough time with his son _____ he wants to. A. even if B. as if C. because D. before 12【答案】A 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意“他如此繁忙。他不可能抽出足够的时间 来陪他的儿子——即便是他想那样做。”，可知答案选A。
【2013天津】5. small, the company has about 1,000 buyers in over 30 countries. A. As B. If C. Although D. Once 13【答案】C 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意即可判断：这个公司虽然小，但是它在30 多个国家有大约1000个采购商。此处状语从句连词后省略了句子的主语和be 动词，即although (it is) small…。
【2013重庆】25. we have enough evidence, we can't win the case. A. Once B As long as C. Unless D. Since 14【答案】C 【解析】考查状语从句。根据句意，除非我们有足够的证据，否则这个案子 我们不能取胜，可知选C。
【2013安徽】23.It?s much easier to make friends you have similar interests. A. unless B. when C. even though D. so that 15【答案】B 【解析】考查状语从句。句意：当你们兴趣相投时，（你们）交朋友更加容 易。故选B。 【2013新课标I卷】32.There?s no way of knowing why one man makes an important discovery ______another man, also intelligent, fails. A. since B: if C. as D. while 16【答案】D考查状语从句。while 引导让步状语从句，翻译为“然而”。 【解析】考查并列连词。根据句意，前后两句话为两种情况的对比“为什么 一个人会做出一个重要的发现，而另一个人，也很聪明，但是失败了。”并 列连词while表示对比。故选D。 【2013重庆】23. It's not easy to change habits, with awareness and selfcontrol, it is possible. A. for B. or C. but D. so 17【答案】C 【解析】考查并列连词。根据句意，改变习惯不易，但如果是有意识和有自 我控制能力的话，还是有可能的。故前后为转折关系，用并列连词but。
2010高考真题和模拟题 1. Mary made coffee _____her guests were finishing their meal. (2010· 全国Ⅰ) A. so that B. although C. while D. as if 解析：选C。句意为：当她的客人们将要结束用餐的时候，Mary 做了咖啡。so that以便，表示目的；although尽管，虽然，表让 步；as if好像，while当……的时候。 2. The little boy won?t go to sleep _______ his mother tells him a story. (2010· 全国Ⅰ) A. or B. unless C. but D. whether 解析：选B。句意为：这个小男孩儿不睡觉除非他的妈妈给他讲 故事。or或者，表示选择；unless除非，表示条件；but但是，表 示转折；whether是否。根据句意选择B。
3. _______ you may have, you should gather your courage to face the challenge. (2010· 上海) A. However a serious problem B. What a serious problem C. However serious a problem D. What serious a problem 解析：选C。句意为：无论你有多么严重的问题，你都应该鼓起勇 气面对挑战。however表示让步时其顺序应是：however+形容词+ 主语+谓语。however作连接副词，相当于no matter how,后接形容 词或副词，意为“无论、不管” ，引导让步状语从句。 4. _____ our manager objects to Tom?s joining the club, we shall accept him as a member. (2010· 上海) A. Until B. Unless C. If D. After 解析：选B。句意为：除非我们经理反对Tom加入俱乐部，不然我 们都应接受他成为其中一员。unless除非等于if not。 5. The engineers are so busy that they have zero time for outdoor sports actives, ______ they have the interest. (2010· 安徽) A. wherever B. whenever C. even if D. as if
解析：选C。句意为：工程师们非常繁忙，即使（even if）有户外 体育活动的兴趣也没有时间去做。 6. Just use this room for the time being, and we?ll offer you a larger one ______ it becomes available. (2010· 安徽) A. as soon as B. unless C. as far as D. until 解析：选A。句意为：暂时先用这间房子，我们一有大的就给你换。 as soon as一……就……，符合语境。 7. Tim is in good shape physically ______ he doesn?t get much exercise. (2010· 湖南) A. if B. even though C. unless D. as long as 解析：选B。考查连词。句意为：Tim身材很好，尽管他不怎么锻 炼。 8. The old man asked Lucy to move to another chair ______ he wanted to sit next to his wife. (2010· 辽宁) A. although B. unless C. because D. if 解析：选C。句意为：这位老人叫Lucy挪到另一把椅子上因为他想 跟他妻子挨着坐。空格前后两个句子在逻辑意义上存在因果关系， 所以用because引导原因状语从句。although引导让步状语从句，
unless和if引导条件状语从句。 9. The school rules state that no child shall be allowed out of the school during the day, _____ accompanied by an adult. (2010· 山东) A. once B. when C. if D. unless 解析：选D。句意为：学校规章规定：除非有成年人陪同，否则孩 子们在校期间不能出学校。该句式是“连词+过去分词”结构。 10. John thinks it won?t be long _____ he is ready for his new job. (2010· 陕西) A. when B. after C. before D. since 解析：选C。考查状语从句。“It（will）be+时间段+状语从句”是 固定句型，意思是：过多久才……。 11. —When shall we restart our business? —Not until we ______ our plan. (2010· 四川) A. will finish B. are finishing C. are to finish D. have finished 解析：选D。句意为：——我们的生意何时重新开张？——直到完 成我们的计划。在时间状语从句中，经常用一般现在时表示将来， 用现在完成时代替将来完成时。此处为until引导的时间状语从句， 故用现在完成时。
12. Because of the heavy traffic，it was already time for lunch break ______ she got to her office. (2010· 四川) A. since B. that C. when D. until 解析：选C。句意为：因为交通堵塞，当她到达办公室时已经是午 休的时间了。此处应为when引导的时间状语从句。 13. Today, we will begin ______ we stopped yesterday so that no point will be left out. (2010· 重庆) A. when B. where C. how D. what 解析：选B。句意为：今天，为了不遗漏要点，我们从昨天结束的 地方开始。where 引导地点状语从句。 14. How long do you think it will be ______ we finish this dictionary? (2010· 山东省5月高考模拟考试) A. after B. before C. when D. since 解析：选B。“It will (not) be/ was(not) +时间+before +从句”是固 定句型，表示“过多长时间或过不了多长时间就……”。 15. _______ the news, so far, has been good, there may be bad days ahead. (2010· 山东省济南市高三第二次模拟考试) A. When B. While C. If D. As
解析：选B。句意为：尽管到目前为止这个消息是好的，但前面可 能有糟糕的时候。while表示“虽然，尽管”引导让步状语从句。 16. How can you expect your children to be truthful ______ you yourself tell lies. (2010· 潍坊市5月高三适应性训练) A. when B. unless C. though D. while 解析：选A。句意为：既然你都撒谎，又怎么期待你的孩子们诚实 呢？when在这里表示让步，可意为“既然”或“在……情况下”。 17. _______ it comes to the increasing use of motor vehicles in the cities, some people think it should be limited. (2010· 临沂市5月高三 模拟考试) A. Because B. Once C. When D. While 解析：选C。句意为：当提到城市中的摩托车数量增加的时候，有 人认为应该限制。when表示“当……时候”。 18. The other day, I remember, ________ I bought the dress, I met my boss in the shopping mall. (2010· 淄博市高三模拟考试) A. when B. which C. that D. where 解析：选A。句意为：我记得前几天，我买这条裙子时在商场里遇 到了老板。此处when引导时间状语从句。
19. You could see the runners very well from ______ we stood. (2010· 合肥市高三第三次教学质量检测) A. which B. where C. that D. when 解析：选B。句意为：从我们站的那个地方你可以清楚地看到选手。 where引导地点状语从句。 20. —How long have Mr.White and his wife been married? —It?s 8 years _______ they got married.(2010·皖南八校联考) A. since B. when C. after D. before 解析：选A。“It is /has been＋时间段＋since (did)”表示“做某事 多长时间了”。
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